Unusual increase of psittacosis in southern Sweden linked to wild bird exposure, January to April 2013. Rehn M,Ringberg H,Runehagen A,Herrmann B,Olsen B,Petersson A C,Hjertqvist M,Kühlmann-Berenzon S,Wallensten A Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin Free-living wild birds worldwide act as reservoir for Chlamydia psittaci, but the risk of transmission to humans through contact with wild birds has not been widely documented. From 12 January to April 9 2013, a total of 25 cases of psittacosis were detected in southern Sweden, about a threefold increase compared with the mean of the previous 10 years. A matched case-control study investigating both domestic and wild bird exposure showed that cases were more likely than controls to have cleaned wild bird feeders or been exposed to wild bird droppings in other ways (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.1-47.9). We recommend precautionary measures such as wetting bird feeders before cleaning them, to reduce the risk of transmission of C. psittaci when in contact with bird droppings. Furthermore, C. psittaci should be considered for inclusion in laboratory diagnostic routines when analysing samples from patients with atypical pneumonia, since our findings suggest that psittacosis is underdiagnosed.
    An atypical case of typical pneumonia Taylor Kathryn,Durrheim David,Massey Peter D,Hughes Kristopher,Heller Jane,Jones Belinda Australian journal of general practice 10.31128/AFP-08-17-4296
    Multiple human-to-human transmission from a severe case of psittacosis, Sweden, January-February 2013. Wallensten A,Fredlund H,Runehagen A Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin Proven transmission of Chlamydia psittaci between humans has been described on only one occasion previously. We describe an outbreak which occurred in Sweden in early 2013, where the epidemiological and serological investigation suggests that one patient, severely ill with psittacosis after exposure to wild bird droppings, transmitted the disease to ten others: Two family members, one hospital roommate and seven hospital caregivers. Three cases also provided respiratory samples that could be analysed by PCR. All the obtained C. psittaci sequences were indistinguishable and clustered within genotype A. The finding has implications for the management of severely ill patients with atypical pneumonia, because these patients may be more contagious than was previously thought. In order to prevent nosocomial person-to-person transmission of C. psittaci, stricter hygiene measures may need to be applied. 10.2807/1560-7917.es2014.19.42.20937
    Next-generation sequencing diagnosis of severe pneumonia from fulminant psittacosis with multiple organ failure: a case report and literature review. Zhang Heng,Zhan Danting,Chen Dandan,Huang Weibin,Yu Min,Li Qiuwen,Marcos Pedro J,Tattevin Pierre,Wu Di,Wang Lingwei Annals of translational medicine This study includes a retrospective analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of a case of severe pneumonia from fulminant psittacosis with multiple organ failure. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the pathogen was conducted. The purpose of this study was to summarize the clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics of the case and to improve understanding of the value of NGS in the diagnosis of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Fulminant psittacosis can be manifested as severe pneumonia with rapid progression, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and multiple organ failure. Imaging shows unilateral lung consolidation, which is difficult to differentiate from CAP caused by common pathogens. The NGS technology can early detect rare pathogens, thus reducing unnecessary use of antibiotics and shortening the course of the disease. 10.21037/atm.2020.03.17
    Chlamydia psittaci: a relevant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in two Dutch hospitals. Spoorenberg S M C,Bos W J W,van Hannen E J,Dijkstra F,Heddema E R,van Velzen-Blad H,Heijligenberg R,Grutters J C,de Jongh B M, The Netherlands journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Of all hospitalised community-acquired pneumonias (CAPs) only a few are known to be caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Most likely the reported incidence, ranging from of 0% to 2.1%, is an underestimation of the real incidence, since detection of psittacosis is frequently not incorporated in the routine microbiological diagnostics in CAP or serological methods are used. METHODS:C. psittaci real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was routinely performed on the sputum of 147 patients hospitalised with CAP, who participated in a clinical trial conducted in two Dutch hospitals. In 119/147 patients the paired complement fixation test (CFT) was also performed for the presence of Chlamydia antibodies. Positive CFTs were investigated by micro- Immunofluorescence for psittacosis specificity. Case criteria for psittacosis were a positive PCR or a fourfold rise of antibody titre in CFT confirmed by micro- Immunofluorescence. Furthermore, we searched for parameters that could discriminate psittacosis from CAPs with other aetiology. RESULTS:7/147 (4.8%) patients were diagnosed with psittacosis: six with PCR and one patient with a negative PCR, but with CFT confirmed by micro- Immunofluorescence. Psittacosis patients had had a higher temperature (median 39.6 vs. 38.2 °C;) but lower white blood cell count (median 7.4 vs. 13.7 x 109/l) on admission compared with other CAP patients. CONCLUSION:In this study, C. psittaci as CAP-causing pathogen was much higher than previously reported. To detect psittacosis, PCR was performed on all CAP patients for whom a sputum sample was available. For clinical use, PCR is a fast method and sputum availability allows genotyping; additional serology can optimise epidemiological investigations.
    [Psittacosis - a forgotten diagnosis in Sweden?] Marking Ulrika,Hammas Berit,Grabbe Malin,Giske Christian Lakartidningen Psittacosis, parrot fever, is an infectious disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a common pathogen among birds. The clinical course ranges from a mild flu-like illness to severe disease that requires intensive care in humans. We report three cases of severe pneumonia where C. psittaci was unexpectedly detected during routine validation of a new C. psittaci PCR assay. Psittacosis is a notifiable disease in Sweden and national statistics show that 96% of Swedish psittacosis cases were identified in five of the 24 microbiological laboratories available in the country. These five laboratories perform PCR for C. psittaci routinely in panels with other atypical pneumonia agents and/or Legionella, suggesting that psittacosis is an underdiagnosed infection in Sweden.
    Human psittacosis: a review with emphasis on surveillance in Belgium. Rybarczyk Joanna,Versteele Charlot,Lernout Tinne,Vanrompay Daisy Acta clinica Belgica causes psittacosis in humans, mainly in persons in contact with birds in either the setting of occupational or companion bird exposure. Infection is associated with a range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic infection to severe atypical pneumonia and systemic disease. This paper reviews new knowledge on psittacosis, its legal and regulatory aspects and presents epidemiological data on psittacosis in Belgium. In Belgium, the number of reported positive laboratory results increased slowly since 2010, and in 2017, the number almost doubled compared to the two previous years. The number of psittacosis cases in Belgium, as in other countries, is probably highly underestimated, because of underdiagnoses and underreporting. Over the 3-year period, the mandatory notification system registered 24% only of all reported positive laboratory result. Therefore, increased awareness among general and occupational physicians, clinicians and the public is needed. Policies aimed at reducing psittacosis disease burden are justified, nevertheless national health authorities should provide more legal and financial support to implement more adequate diagnostic tools. 10.1080/17843286.2019.1590889
    [Human Psittacosis: A Case Report]. Cipriano Ana,Machado Ana,Santos Fábio Videira,Abreu Miguel Araújo,Castro Rui Sarmento Acta medica portuguesa Psittacosis is a rare disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, an intracellular bacteria transmitted by contaminated birds. The clinical and radiological presentations are nonspecific. We describe a case of a 42-year-old woman, with known exposure to birds, who presented to the emergency department with one-week evolution of myalgia, polyarthritis, and respiratory symptoms. At admission, she had fever, respiratory failure, raised inflammatory markers and bilateral interstitial infiltrates at chest radiography. Considering the clinical findings and epidemiological background, we raised the hypothesis of a Chlamydophila psittaci atypical pneumonia that was serologically confirmed. Tetracyclines are the mainstay of treatment and the macrolides are an effective alternative. We highlight the importance of the epidemiological context in the early diagnosis and treatment of this infection. 10.20344/amp.10079
    Zoonotic atypical pneumonia due to Chlamydophila psittaci: first reported psittacosis case in Taiwan. Cheng Yu-Jen,Lin Kun-Yen,Chen Chun-Chen,Huang Yen-Lin,Liu Chun-Eng,Li Shu-Ying Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi Human psittacosis caused by Chlamydophila psittaci is one of the most common zoonotic atypical pneumonias featuring pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary infections. Most of the cases involve avian contact history especially with psittacine birds. Herein we report a 44-year-old male patient displaying atypical pneumonia symptoms of intermittent fever, dry cough, chest pain, dyspnea, headache, hepatitis, and hyponatremia. He had two sick cockatiels, one of which had died a month previously. A microimmunofluorescence test was performed to check the serum antibody levels against Chlamydophila psittaci. The serum IgM titer showed positive titer of 1:256, 1:256, and 1:128 on Days 11, 23, and 43 after disease onset, respectively. His fever subsided soon and clinical symptoms improved after minocycline was administrated on Day 12. The psittacosis case was confirmed by history of psittacine bird contact, clinical symptoms, treatment response, and positive IgM titer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a psittacosis case in Taiwan. 10.1016/j.jfma.2012.08.017