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    Untargeted foodomics strategy using high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals potential indicators for fish freshness. Chang William Chih-Wei,Wu Hsin-Yi,Yeh Yun,Liao Pao-Chi Analytica chimica acta Fish among other food can easily become spoilage. However, the existing literature endeavouring into a holistic investigation of fish metabolome during storage is scarce. There is a need for a powerful tool for more in-depth determinations. The present study is leveraging high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)-based untargeted foodomics in the exploration of potential indicators for fish freshness. Three batches of fish fillets were stored in the refrigerator (+4 °C) for 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Features were detected via UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS and hereby undergone selection, identification, and verification. Eight sensitive indicators with significant time-dependent responses were yielded. The loss of freshness in fish is manifested in the upregulation of uracil, hypoxanthine, and inosine (involved in nucleotide changes) and α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, and linoleic acid (involved in lipid hydrolysis) as well as in the downregulation of decanoylcarnitine (involved in fatty acid metabolism). Our work provides a promising approach to assess the quality of fish during storage and gain deeper insights into the metabolic reaction. 10.1016/j.aca.2020.06.016
    Preparation and Characterization of a Pectin Membrane-Based Optical pH Sensor for Fish Freshness Monitoring. Hasanah Uswatun,Setyowati Mita,Efendi Rustam,Muslem Muslem,Md Sani Nor Diyana,Safitri Eka,Yook Heng Lee,Idroes Rinaldi Biosensors In a simple and instant procedure for detecting fish freshness, a hydrogel and hydrophilic pectin matrix membrane was used successfully as an optical pH sensor by immobilizing the chromoionophore ETH 5294 (CI), which is very selective and sensitive for the membrane. The Pe/CI optical pH sensor exhibited excellent linearity between pH 5 and pH 9, with a sensor response time of 5 min and reproducibility of 1.49% relative standard deviation (RSD). The sensor showed response stability for 15 days and a response reduction of 8.6%. The sensor's capability was demonstrated by the detection of fish freshness for 17 days at 4 °C. 10.3390/bios9020060
    Mitochondrial activity as an indicator of fish freshness. Cléach Jérôme,Pasdois Philippe,Marchetti Philippe,Watier Denis,Duflos Guillaume,Goffier Emmanuelle,Lacoste Anne-Sophie,Slomianny Christian,Grard Thierry,Lencel Philippe Food chemistry The current methods used to routinely assess freshness in the fishing industry reflect more a state of spoilage than a state of freshness. Mitochondria, the seat of cellular respiration, undergo profound changes in post mortem tissues. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that mitochondrial activity constitutes a putative early fish freshness marker. The structure of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) muscle tissue was evaluated over time by transmission electron microscopy. Respiration was assessed in mitochondria isolated from sea bream fillets using oxygraphy. Membrane potential (ΔΨ) was determined by fluorescence (Rhodamine 123). Mitochondrial activity of fillets stored at +4 °C was studied for 6 days. Changes in mitochondrial cristae structure appeared from Day 3 highlighting the presence of dense granules. ΔΨ and mitochondrial activity were significantly disrupted in sea bream fillets after 96 h of storage at +4 °C. Mitochondrial activity constituted a reliable and early indicator of fish freshness. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.02.076
    Freshness Assessment and Shelf-Life Prediction for from Aquaculture Based on the Quality Index Method. Freitas Jorge,Vaz-Pires Paulo,Câmara José S Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Fish and fish-based products are easily perishable foods due to different factors, including fragile organization, abundant endo-enzymes, psychrophilic bacteria, and impact of pre-harvest operations, that contribute to reducing its value. Therefore, a timely effective method for fish freshness and shelf-life evaluation is important. In this context, this study aimed to develop a sensory scheme based on the Quality Index Method (QIM) (sensory table and point system) for freshness monitorization and shelf-life prediction for from aquaculture in Madeira Island. Evaluation of appearance, texture, eyes, and gills was performed during 20 days of storage on ice (0 ± 1 °C). The shelf-life prediction was supported by the analysis of microorganisms (total viable colonies, TVC, counts), texture (Torrymeter), and production of trimethylamine (TMA), evaluated by HS-SPME-GC-MS and validated according to Association of Official Analytical Chemists AOAC guidelines. The result is a QIM scheme with 25 demerit points, where zero indicates total freshness. From the integration of sensory analysis, microbial growth at the time of rejection (TVC, 10 cfu/cm and H2S producers, 10 cfu/cm), texture (Torrymeter value < 8), and TMA analyses (>12.5 mg/100 g), shelf-life was estimated as 12 days (±0.5 days). The obtained results show the high-throughput potential of the developed method for fish freshness assessment and shelf-life prediction. This QIM scheme is a secure way to measure quality and provide users with a reliable standardized fish freshness measure. 10.3390/molecules24193530
    Monitoring the freshness of fish: development of a qPCR method applied to MAP chilled whiting. Dehaut Alexandre,Krzewinski Frédéric,Grard Thierry,Chollet Marlène,Jacques Philippe,Brisabois Anne,Duflos Guillaume Journal of the science of food and agriculture BACKGROUND:Monitoring of early stages of freshness decay is a major issue for the fishery industry to guarantee the best quality for this highly perishable food matrix. Numerous techniques have been developed, but most of them have the disadvantage of being reliable only either in the last stages of fish freshness or for the analysis of whole fish. This study describes the development of a qPCR method targeting the torA gene harboured by fish spoilage microorganisms. torA encodes an enzyme that leads to the production of trimethylamine responsible for the characteristic spoiled-fish odour. RESULTS:A degenerate primer pair was designed. It amplified torA gene of both Vibrio and Photobacterium with good efficiencies on 7-log DNA dilutions. The primer pair was used during a shelf-life monitoring study achieved on modified atmosphere packed, chilled, whiting (Merlangius merlangus) fillets. The qPCR approach allows the detection of an increase of torA copies throughout the storage of fillets in correlation with the evolution of both total volatile basic nitrogen (-0.86) and trimethylamine concentrations (-0.81), known as spoilage markers. CONCLUSION:This study described a very promising, sensitive, reliable, time-effective, technique in the field of freshness characterisation of processed fish. 10.1002/jsfa.7322
    Recent advances in methods and techniques for freshness quality determination and evaluation of fish and fish fillets: a review. Cheng Jun-Hu,Sun Da-Wen,Zeng Xin-An,Liu Dan Critical reviews in food science and nutrition The freshness quality of fish plays an important role in human health and the acceptance of consumers as well as in international fishery trade. Recently, with food safety becoming a critical issue of great concern in the world, determination and evaluation of fish freshness is much more significant in research and development. This review renovates and concentrates recent advances of evaluating methods for fish freshness as affected by preharvest and postharvest factors and highlights the determination methods for fish freshness including sensory evaluation, microbial inspection, chemical measurements of moisture content, volatile compounds, protein changes, lipid oxidation, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) decomposition (K value), physical measurements, and foreign material contamination detection. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and techniques are compared and discussed and some viewpoints about the current work and future trends are also presented. 10.1080/10408398.2013.769934
    The importance of ATP-related compounds for the freshness and flavor of post-mortem fish and shellfish muscle: A review. Hong Hui,Regenstein Joe M,Luo Yongkang Critical reviews in food science and nutrition ATP degradation is one of the most important biochemical changes in the post-mortem muscle of fish and shellfish. This process has long been recognized as an accurate way to evaluate freshness of fish and shellfish product. This review updates and condenses the overall history and recent advances in understanding the role of ATP-related compounds in post-mortem fish and shellfish muscle including a discussion of key analytical methods, their use as a freshness indicator, their roles in flavor enhancement, the factors affecting their transitions, and the possible mechanisms responsible for their impact on flavor and freshness. Moreover, some challenges and future directions for research regarding ATP-related compounds in fish and shellfish flavor and freshness are presented. With increasing consumer demands for fresh products with extended shelf life, understanding the relationships between ATP-related compounds and their involvement in the freshness and umami taste is a prerequisite for assuring the high quality of fish and shellfish. 10.1080/10408398.2014.1001489
    A comprehensive review on freshness of fish and assessment: Analytical methods and recent innovations. Prabhakar Pramod K,Vatsa Siddhartha,Srivastav Prem P,Pathak Sant S Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) Fish, a highly nutritious, containing a good amount of protein and fatty acids, has TMA and TVB-N present as major factors responsible for quality deterioration during storage and maintaining of fish freshness. Freshness is one of the most important parameters in the fish market. There are many methods of estimating fish freshness, out of which some are very costly while others are not user-friendly. However, with more technological innovations, there have been efforts to make a more reliable method of calculating and analyzing freshness. Parameters chosen for assessing the freshness are sensory, physical, chemical and microbiological including the recent trends such as SDS-PAGE, fast protein liquid chromatography, hyper Spectral Imaging Technique, etc. focused on reducing time, destruction and labor. Traditional and recent methods of evaluation of freshness along with their comparison based on several parameters are needed to link them and making it convenient for upcoming researchers to have a detailed study for having a universal indicator for assessing the freshness of fish. Information in the present article has all the methods of assessing the fish freshness been discussed in detail. There has also been focus on bringing the readers knowledge about the comprehensive information related to recent developments. The recommended limit for different indicators signifies the time period for which the particular fish can be stored and it depends upon several factors like species, surrounding environment and enzymatic and non-enzymatic actions. Based on these demands, this paper is uniquely worked upon to review the different literature which brought all the discussions from the past including the recent innovations in assessing the freshness of different fishes with the help of various indicators as well as a complete study of spoilage and toxicity mechanism leading to deterioration in quality, making it easy for the reader and researchers to have quick glance over the trends and innovations. 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109157
    Onsite fish quality monitoring using ultra-sensitive patch electrode capacitive sensor at room temperature. Senapati Mukut,Sahu Partha P Biosensors & bioelectronics Fish freshness plays a vital role in the fish industry and also affects human health from a nutrition point of view. Here, an Au metal patch electrode capacitive sensor is introduced for rapid and accurate detection of volatile gases generated from raw fish to determine its freshness status. The MIS structured sensor was fabricated on a silicon substrate using Ag-SnO as sensing material over SiO layer and Au as a metal electrode. The calibration of the sensor was carried out with known composition of volatile gases (NH, TMA, DMA and HS) in the ppb-ppm regime. Our sensor using the proposed technique delivers sensor response to raw fish within 4 min, reflecting its freshness status in comparison to the TVB-N and TVC method which takes many hours to complete involving many sophisticated steps. The sensor response to volatile gases from Rohu (Labeo Rohita), Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) and Illish (Tenualosa Ilisha) obtained by using our developed sensor system at 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C, shows high correlation with TVB-N and TVC results. The acceptance limit for safe consumption of Tilapia, Rohu, and Illish at 30 °C was found to be 11 h, 12.5 h, and 10 h of storage time respectively. The result in this work assures a portable low-cost sensor for onsite monitoring of fish freshness at room temperature. 10.1016/j.bios.2020.112570