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    Targeting the renin-angiotensin system as novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary diseases. Tan Wan Shun Daniel,Liao Wupeng,Zhou Shuo,Mei Dan,Wong Wai-Shiu Fred Current opinion in pharmacology The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure. RAS has also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current therapeutics suffer from some drawbacks like steroid resistance, limited efficacies and side effects. Novel intervention is definitely needed to offer optimal therapeutic strategy and clinical outcome. This review compiles and analyses recent investigations targeting RAS for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. Inhibition of the upstream angiotensin (Ang) I/Ang II/angiotensin receptor type 1 (ATR) pathway and activation of the downstream angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor pathway are two feasible strategies demonstrating efficacies in various pulmonary disease models. More recent studies favor the development of targeting the downstream ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor pathway, in which diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, GSK2586881, a recombinant ACE2, and AV0991, a Mas receptor agonist, showed much potential for further development. As the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases is so complex that RAS modulation may be used alone or in combination with existing drugs like corticosteroids, pirfenidone/nintedanib or endothelin receptor antagonists for different pulmonary diseases. Personalized medicine through genetic screening and phenotyping for angiotensinogen or ACE would aid treatment especially for non-responsive patients. This review serves to provide an update on the latest development in the field of RAS targeting for pulmonary diseases, and offer some insights into future direction. 10.1016/j.coph.2017.12.002
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation protects against pulmonary arterial hypertension through improving early endothelial function and mediating cytokines levels. Li Gang,Xu Yu-lin,Ling Feng,Liu Ai-jun,Wang Dong,Wang Qiang,Liu Ying-long Chinese medical journal BACKGROUND:Increasing evidences indicate that an activated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) causes an imbalance between the vasoconstrictive and vasodilator mechanisms involving the pulmonary circulation leading to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a primary component of the vasoprotective axis in RAS, is recently identified that it has regulatory actions in lung pathophysiology, but the mechanism in these processes is uncertain yet. METHODS:Severe PAH was induced by monocrotaline injection one week following pneumonectomy in rats. The activation of ACE2 by continuous injection of resorcinolnaphthalein was studied by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and fluorogenic peptide assay. Endothelial functions were evaluated by the response to acetylcholine and cytokines were measured by RT-PCR seven days after monocrotaline injection. The PAH-related hemodynamics and pathological changes were examined at day 21 when severe PAH was completely established. RESULTS:Resorcinolnaphthalein caused significant activation of ACE2 in both normal and diseased rats in 7 days after treatment. The pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) started to increase at least 7 days after monocrotaline injection, and the rats developed severe PAH in 21 days with high PAP, right ventricular hypertrophy and neointimal formation. Treatment with resorcinolnaphthalein prevented these features. Resorcinolnaphthalein caused an improved endothelia-dependent vasorelaxation and decrease in proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-6) and increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the early stage of the pathogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrated that activation of ACE2 by continuous injection of resorcinolnaphthalein prevented the development of PAH through improving early endothelial dysfunction and mediating the level of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
    Evidence for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a therapeutic target for the prevention of pulmonary hypertension. Ferreira Anderson J,Shenoy Vinayak,Yamazato Yoriko,Sriramula Srinivas,Francis Joseph,Yuan Lihui,Castellano Ronald K,Ostrov David A,Oh Suk Paul,Katovich Michael J,Raizada Mohan K American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:It has been proposed that an activated renin angiotensin system (RAS) causes an imbalance between the vasoconstrictive and vasodilator mechanisms involving the pulmonary circulation leading to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recent studies have indicated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a member of the vasoprotective axis of the RAS, plays a regulatory role in lung pathophysiology, including pulmonary fibrosis and acute lung disease. Based on these observations, we propose the hypothesis that activation of endogenous ACE2 can shift the balance from the vasoconstrictive, proliferative axis (ACE-Ang II-AT1R) to the vasoprotective axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] of the RAS, resulting in the prevention of PH. OBJECTIVES:We have taken advantage of a recently discovered synthetic activator of ACE2, XNT (1-[(2-dimethylamino) ethylamino]-4-(hydroxymethyl)-7-[(4-methylphenyl) sulfonyl oxy]-9H-xanthene-9-one), to study its effects on monocrotaline-induced PH in rats to support this hypothesis. METHODS:The cardiopulmonary effects of XNT were evaluated in monocrotaline-induced PH rat model. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:A single subcutaneous treatment of monocrotaline in rats resulted in elevated right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased pulmonary vessel wall thickness, and interstitial fibrosis. These changes were associated with increases in the mRNA levels of renin, ACE, angiotensinogen, AT1 receptors, and proinflammatory cytokines. All these features of PH were prevented in these monocrotaline-treated rats by chronic treatment with XNT. In addition, XNT caused an increase in the antiinflammatory cytokine, IL-10. CONCLUSIONS:These observations provide conceptual support that activation of ACE2 by a small molecule can be a therapeutically relevant approach for treating and controlling PH. 10.1164/rccm.200811-1678OC
    ACE2, a promising therapeutic target for pulmonary hypertension. Shenoy Vinayak,Qi Yanfei,Katovich Michael J,Raizada Mohan K Current opinion in pharmacology Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic lung disease with poor diagnosis and limited therapeutic options. The currently available therapies are ineffective in improving the quality of life and reducing mortality rates. There exists a clear unmet medical need to treat this disease, which necessitates the discovery of novel therapeutic targets/agents for safe and successful therapy. An altered renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated as a causative factor in the pathogenesis of PAH. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key effector peptide of the RAS, can exert deleterious effects on the pulmonary vasculature resulting in vasoconstriction, proliferation, and inflammation, all of which contribute to PAH development. Recently, a new member of the RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), was discovered. This enzyme functions as a negative regulator of the angiotensin system by metabolizing Ang II to a putative protective peptide, angiotensin-(1-7). ACE2 is abundantly expressed in the lung tissue and emerging evidence suggests a beneficial role for this enzyme against lung diseases. In this review, we focus on ACE2 in relation to pulmonary hypertension and provide proof of principle for its therapeutic role in PAH. 10.1016/j.coph.2010.12.002
    Augmented Pulmonary Vasoconstrictor Reactivity after Chronic Hypoxia Requires Src Kinase and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling. Norton Charles E,Sheak Joshua R,Yan Simin,Weise-Cross Laura,Jernigan Nikki L,Walker Benjimen R,Resta Thomas C American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology Chronic hypoxia augments pressure- and agonist-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction through myofilament calcium sensitization. NADPH oxidases contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension, and both epidermal growth factor receptor and Src kinases can regulate NADPH oxidase. We tested the hypothesis that Src-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling mediates enhanced vasoconstrictor sensitivity after chronic hypoxia through NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide generation. Protocols employed pharmacological inhibitors in isolated, pressurized rat pulmonary arteries to examine the contribution of a variety of signaling moieties to enhanced vascular tone after chronic hypoxia. Superoxide generation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells was assessed using the fluorescent indicator dihydroethidium. Indices of pulmonary hypertension were measured in rats treated with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase, Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1), and EGFR abolished pressure-induced pulmonary arterial tone and endothelin-1 (ET-1)-dependent calcium sensitization and vasoconstriction after chronic hypoxia. Consistently, chronic hypoxia augmented ET-1-induced superoxide production through EGFR signaling, and rats treated chronically with gefitinib displayed reduced right ventricular pressure and diminished arterial remodeling. Src kinases were also activated by ET-1 after chronic hypoxia and contributed to enhanced basal arterial tone and vasoconstriction in response to ET-1. A role for matrix metalloproteinase 2 to mediate Src-dependent EGFR activation is further supported by our findings. Our studies support a novel role for an Src kinase-EGFR-NADPH oxidase signaling axis to mediate enhanced pulmonary vascular smooth muscle Ca sensitization, vasoconstriction, and pulmonary hypertension after chronic hypoxia. 10.1165/rcmb.2018-0106OC