Neuroinflammation after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is associated with alterations in the purinergic system: adenosine deaminase 1 isoenzyme is the most predominant after insult. Pimentel Victor Camera,Moretto Maria Beatriz,Oliveira Mariana Colino,Zanini Daniela,Sebastião Ana Maria,Schetinger Maria Rosa Chitolina Molecular and cellular biochemistry Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury perinatal brain is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality to infants and children. Adenosine may play a role in the pathophysiology of HI, since it modulates the inflammatory process and the release of several neurotransmitters. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the isoforms of adenosine deaminase (ADA) responsible for the enzymatic activity as well as the adenosine kinase (ADK) and A1 adenosine receptor (A1R) expression in the cerebral cortex eight days after HI. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) were assessed as inflammation markers. ADA activity was analyzed, in the presence or absence of a specific ADA1 inhibitor, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine. The ADA1 activity (92.6%) was significantly higher than ADA2 (7.4%) activity in the cerebral cortex eight days after HI. A1Rs and ADK protein expression showed decreased 8 days after insult. Interestingly, the ADA1, MPO, and NAG activities were correlated positively. In view of this, we conclude that the inhibitor of ADA1, in in vitro conditions, was effective in decreasing the ADA activity, and that mainly ADA1 isoform is responsible for the increase in the ADA activity 8 days after HI insult. Therefore, HI neonatal was able to alter the ADK and A1R expression. Thus, due to the importance of adenosine signaling in the regulation of inflammatory and immune process and the crucial role of ADA in the postischemic homeostase of adenosine as well as during inflammatory process, we suggest that ADA1 inhibitors may play an important role in the regulation of events that follow the HI insult, favoring the increase in the adenosine in the sites of tissue injury. Together, these results highlight a role of the purinergic signaling cascade in the pathophysiology of HI neonatal. 10.1007/s11010-015-2347-9
    Platelet-activating factor--key mediator in neuroinjury? Frerichs K U,Feuerstein G Z Cerebrovascular and brain metabolism reviews A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that platelet-activating factor (PAF) may be a key mediator in neuroinjury. PAF, originally isolated from stimulated basophils, can be produced by a variety of cells, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), platelets, monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells and has been suggested as a mediator of inflammation, platelet and neutrophil activation, plasma extravasation, and anaphylactic shock. Enhanced phospholipid metabolism in the ischemic penumbral zone has been reported and provides opportunity for production of PAF. A possible involvement of this lipid mediator in processes associated with cerebral ischemia and neurotrauma has been suggested by an increasing number of reports. PAF exerts cytotoxic effects on neuronal cells, causes vasoconstriction, and increases the blood-brain barrier permeability. Beneficial effects of PAF antagonists have been shown in various models of cerebral ischemia: pre- as well as postischemic application of the PAF antagonist resulted in reduction of edema and improved neurological outcome and improved cerebral microcirculation. These effects were correlated with improved neuronal survival and reduced accumulation of PMNLs, supporting a link and positive feedback between PAF and PMNLs in these processes. Since PAF appears to be uniquely involved in various pathophysiological events, it may function as a key mediator in ischemic and traumatic neuroinjury. The current review summarizes the current understanding of the function and biochemistry of PAF with respect to CNS physiology and pathology.
    Effect of cerebral ischemia on brain mast cells in rats. Hu Weiwei,Xu Lisha,Pan Jie,Zheng Xiaojuan,Chen Zhong Brain research The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transient cerebral ischemia on brain mast cells in rats. The mast cells decreased significantly at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 7 days after ischemia. At 1 day following ischemia, the increase of the number of mast cells in the middle aspect of the thalamus (bregma -2.80 to -3.16 mm) was twice as that of other regions in the thalamus. In addition, histamine contents increased significantly in the thalamus and striatum after ischemia. These results indicate that brain mast cells participate in the pathological process after ischemia. 10.1016/j.brainres.2004.05.109
    Mast cells in neuroinflammation and brain disorders. Hendriksen Erik,van Bergeijk Doris,Oosting Ronald S,Redegeld Frank A Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews It is well recognized that neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia and astrocytes are major pathogenic components within this process and known to respond to proinflammatory mediators released from immune cells such as mast cells. Mast cells reside in the brain and are an important source of inflammatory molecules. Mast cell interactions with glial cells and neurons result in the release of mediators such as cytokines, proteases and reactive oxygen species. During neuroinflammation, excessive levels of these mediators can influence neurogenesis, neurodegeneration and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Mast cells are considered first responders and are able to initiate and magnify immune responses in the brain. Their possible role in neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and autism has gained increasing interest. We discuss the possible involvement of mast cells and their mediators in neurogenesis, neurodegeneration and BBB permeability and their role in neuronal disorders such as cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, neuropathic pain, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, migraine, autism, and depression. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.05.001
    The crucial role of mast cells in blood-brain barrier alterations. Ribatti Domenico Experimental cell research Mast cells are critical regulators of the pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Here, we have summarized the literature data concerning the involvement of mast cells in blood-brain barrier alterations, and we have suggested a possible role of angiogenic mediators stored in mast cell granules in the vasoproliferative reactions occurring in these pathological conditions. It is conceivable to hypothesize that mast cells might be regarded in a future perspective as a new target for the adjuvant treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors through the selective inhibition of angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and tumor-promoting molecules, favoring the secretion of cytotoxic cytokines and preventing mast cell-mediated immune suppression. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2015.05.013
    Mast cells as early responders in the regulation of acute blood-brain barrier changes after cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage. Lindsberg Perttu Johannes,Strbian Daniel,Karjalainen-Lindsberg Marja-Liisa Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism The inflammatory response triggered by stroke has been viewed as harmful, focusing on the influx and migration of blood-borne leukocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages. This review hypothesizes that the brain and meninges have their own resident cells that are capable of fast host response, which are well known to mediate immediate reactions such as anaphylaxis, known as mast cells (MCs). We discuss novel research suggesting that by acting rapidly on the cerebral vessels, this cell type has a potentially deleterious role in the very early phase of acute cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage. Mast cells should be recognized as a potent inflammatory cell that, already at the outset of ischemia, is resident within the cerebral microvasculature. By releasing their cytoplasmic granules, which contain a host of vasoactive mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, histamine, heparin, and proteases, MCs act on the basal membrane, thus promoting blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, brain edema, prolonged extravasation, and hemorrhage. This makes them a candidate for a new pharmacological target in attempts to even out the inflammatory responses of the neurovascular unit, and to stabilize the BBB after acute stroke. 10.1038/jcbfm.2009.282
    PEA and luteolin synergistically reduce mast cell-mediated toxicity and elicit neuroprotection in cell-based models of brain ischemia. Parrella Edoardo,Porrini Vanessa,Iorio Rosa,Benarese Marina,Lanzillotta Annamaria,Mota Mariana,Fusco Mariella,Tonin Paolo,Spano PierFranco,Pizzi Marina Brain research The combination of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the family of the N-acylethanolamines, and the flavonoid luteolin has been found to exert neuroprotective activities in a variety of mouse models of neurological disorders, including brain ischemia. Indirect findings suggest that the two molecules can reduce the activation of mastocytes in brain ischemia, thus modulating crucial cells that trigger the inflammatory cascade. Though, no evidence exists about a direct effect of PEA and luteolin on mast cells in experimental models of brain ischemia, either used separately or in combination. In order to fill this gap, we developed a novel cell-based model of severe brain ischemia consisting of primary mouse cortical neurons and cloned mast cells derived from mouse fetal liver (MC/9 cells) subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD exposure promoted both mast cell degranulation and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a time-dependent fashion. MC/9 cells exacerbated neuronal damage in neuron-mast cells co-cultures exposed to OGD. Likewise, the conditioned medium derived from OGD-exposed MC/9 cells induced significant neurotoxicity in control primary neurons. PEA and luteolin pre-treatment synergistically prevented the OGD-induced degranulation of mast cells and reduced the neurotoxic potential of MC/9 cells conditioned medium. Finally, the association of the two drugs promoted a direct synergistic neuroprotection even in pure cortical neurons exposed to OGD. In summary, our results indicate that mast cells release neurotoxic factors upon OGD-induced activation. The association PEA-luteolin actively reduces mast cell-mediated neurotoxicity as well as pure neurons susceptibility to OGD. 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.07.014
    Mast cells promote blood brain barrier breakdown and neutrophil infiltration in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia. McKittrick Craig M,Lawrence Catherine E,Carswell Hilary V O Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuroinflammation are key events in ischemic stroke morbidity and mortality. The present study investigated the effects of mast cell deficiency and stabilization on BBB breakdown and neutrophil infiltration in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). Adult male C57BL6/J wild type (WT) and mast cell-deficient (C57BL6/J Kit(Wsh/Wsh) (Wsh)) mice underwent tMCAo and BBB breakdown, brain edema and neutrophil infiltration were examined after 4 hours of reperfusion. Blood brain barrier breakdown, brain edema, and neutrophil infiltration were significantly reduced in Wsh versus WT mice (P<0.05). These results were reproduced pharmacologically using mast cell stabilizer, cromoglycate. Wild-type mice administered cromoglycate intraventricularly exhibited reduced BBB breakdown, brain edema, and neutrophil infiltration versus vehicle (P<0.05). There was no effect of cromoglycate versus vehicle in Wsh mice, validating specificity of cromoglycate on brain mast cells. Proteomic analysis in Wsh versus WT indicated that effects may be via expression of endoglin, endothelin-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Using an in vivo model of mast cell deficiency, this is the first study showing that mast cells promote BBB breakdown in focal ischemia in mice, and opens up future opportunities for using mice to identify specific mechanisms of mast cell-related BBB injury. 10.1038/jcbfm.2014.239
    Dissecting functional phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in the rat brain after transient cerebral ischemia. Rajan Wenson D,Wojtas Bartosz,Gielniewski Bartlomiej,Gieryng Anna,Zawadzka Malgorzata,Kaminska Bozena Glia Ischemic brain injury causes local inflammation, which involves activation of resident microglia, leukocyte, and monocyte infiltration. Involvement of peripheral immune cells in ischemia-induced damage and repair is debatable. Using flow cytometry, gene expression profiling, and immunocytochemistry, we show that microglia predominate in the ischemic brain and express inflammation mediators at Day 1 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. At Day 3, both resident microglia and bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages are detected in the ischemic hemispheres and display unique transcriptomic profiles. Functional groups enriched in BM-macrophages are indicative of the pro-regenerative, immunosuppressive phenotype. Transient depletion of peripheral macrophages with clodronate-filled liposomes reduced the number of Arg1+ Iba1+ expressing cells in the ischemic brain. The analysis of microglia and macrophage signature genes shows that each cell type maintains the expression of their identity genes, even if gene expression is modified in a response to environmental clues. At Day 7, infiltrating BM-macrophages exhibit the reduced expression of Arg1, the elevated expression of iNos and many inflammatory genes, as shown by RNA sequencing. This is consistent with their switch toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype. We propose that BM-macrophages recruited to the injured brain early after ischemia could contribute to functional recovery after stroke, but they switch toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype in the ischemic parenchyma. Our results point to the detrimental role of microglia in an ischemic brain and the primarily pro-regenerative role of infiltrating BM-macrophages. 10.1002/glia.23536
    An immunological approach to cerebral ischemia (I). Immune cells and adhesion molecules. Tănăsescu R,Nicolau Adriana,Ticmeanu Marina,Luca Dimela,Caraiola Simona,Cojocaru Inimioara Mihaela,Frăsineanu A,Ionescu R,Hristea Adriana,Ene Amalia,Tănăsescu Ruxandra,Baicuş C Romanian journal of internal medicine = Revue roumaine de medecine interne Ischemic stoke is a major cause of death and an important source of disability in industrialized countries. Since there is no ideal treatment for cerebral ischemia, any approach aiming to limit the devastating consequences of the ischemic process is justified. Concerning immune responses, it has become clear in the latest years that actors of the immune system are involved in multiple and various neurobiological processes such as cerebral ischemia, neurodegeneration, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. An immunological approach to cerebral ischemia can distinguish, besides the implication of inflammation in the developing of atherothrombosis thus leading to stroke, the clear involvement of immune cells and mediators in processes continuing the initial stage of ischemia, having consequences on recovery or lesion extent. Cerebral infarctions develop within minutes to hours of cessation of the cerebral blood flow, but may expand over subsequent days. There is increasing evidence that leukocytes, cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and other immune mediators contribute to secondary infarction growth, but inflammatory cytokines are also involved in signaling pathways leading to neuroprotection related to ischemic pre-conditioning. The aim of this review is to show some aspects concerning the complex and diverse functions of immune modifications occurring in cerebral ischemia. This first part will focus on the involvement of immune cells, adhesion molecules and immunological transcription factors in the development of ischemic lesion.
    Neutrophil granulocytes in cerebral ischemia - Evolution from killers to key players. Strecker Jan-Kolja,Schmidt Antje,Schäbitz Wolf-Rüdiger,Minnerup Jens Neurochemistry international Neutrophil granulocytes (or polymorphonuclear cells, PMNs) have long been considered as crude killing machines, particularly trained to attack bacterial or fungal pathogens in wounds or infected tissues. That perspective has fundamentally changed over the last decades, as PMNs have been shown to exert a livery exchange between other cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMNs do provide major immunomodulatory contribution during acute inflammation and subsequent clearance. Following sterile inflammation like cerebral ischemia, PMNs are among the first hematogenous cells attracted to the ischemic tissue. As inflammation is a crucial component within stroke pathophysiology, several studies regarding the role of PMNs following cerebral ischemia have been carried out. And indeed, recent research suggests a direct connection between PMNs' influx and brain damage severity. This review highlights the latest research regarding the close interconnection between PMNs and co-working cells following cerebral ischemia. We describe how PMNs are attracted to the site of injury and their tasks within the inflamed brain tissue and the periphery. We further report of new findings regarding the interaction of PMNs with resident microglia, immigrating macrophages and T cells after stroke. Finally, we discuss recent research results from experimental studies in the context with current clinical trials and point out potential new therapeutic applications that could emerge from this new knowledge on the action and interaction of PMNs following cerebral ischemia. 10.1016/j.neuint.2016.11.006
    Toll-like receptors in cerebral ischemic inflammatory injury. Wang Yan-Chun,Lin Sen,Yang Qing-Wu Journal of neuroinflammation Cerebral ischemia triggers acute inflammation, which has been associated with an increase in brain damage. The mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia are multifaceted. An important component of this response is the activation of the innate immune system. However, details of the role of the innate immune system within the complex array of mechanisms in cerebral ischemia remain unclear. There have been recent great strides in our understanding of the innate immune system, particularly in regard to the signaling mechanisms of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), whose primary role is the initial activation of immune cell responses. So far, few studies have examined the role of TLRs in cerebral ischemia. However, work with experimental models of ischemia suggests that TLRs are involved in the enhancement of cell damage following ischemia, and their absence is associated with lower infarct volumes. It may be possible that therapeutic targets could be designed to modulate activities of the innate immune system that would attenuate cerebral brain damage. Ischemic tolerance is a protective mechanism induced by a variety of preconditioning stimuli. Interpreting the molecular mechanism of ischemic tolerance will open investigative avenues into the treatment of cerebral ischemia. In this review, we discuss the critical role of TLRs in mediating cerebral ischemic injury. We also summarize evidence demonstrating that cerebral preconditioning downregulates pro-inflammatory TLR signaling, thus reducing the inflammation that exacerbates ischemic brain injury. 10.1186/1742-2094-8-134
    Inflammatory and neuroimmunomodulatory changes in acute cerebral ischemia. Brea David,Sobrino Tomás,Ramos-Cabrer Pedro,Castillo José Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland) Neuronal death produced by cerebral ischemia activates innate immunity by Toll-like receptors and triggers inflammatory response. This response is necessary to remove cell debris and to start regenerative process. However, inflammatory response could exacerbate cerebral damage and it is involved in secondary brain damage. Therefore, organisms have developed different mechanisms to regulate inflammatory response. An accurate balance between inflammation and anti-inflammation is necessary to assure the removal of cell debris and to avoid secondary cell damage. New therapeutic targets could be designed to obtain a correct modulation of the immune system and to reduce cerebral brain damage after cerebral ischemia. In this paper, we review the function of the immune system in cerebral ischemia, particularly inflammation and immunomodulation. 10.1159/000200441
    Importance of T lymphocytes in brain injury, immunodeficiency, and recovery after cerebral ischemia. Brait Vanessa H,Arumugam Thiruma V,Drummond Grant R,Sobey Christopher G Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Following an ischemic stroke, T lymphocytes become activated, infiltrate the brain, and appear to release cytokines and reactive oxygen species to contribute to early inflammation and brain injury. However, some subsets of T lymphocytes may be beneficial even in the early stages after a stroke, and recent evidence suggests that T lymphocytes can also contribute to the repair and regeneration of the brain at later stages. In the hours to days after stroke, T-lymphocyte numbers are then reduced in the blood and in secondary lymphoid organs as part of a 'stroke-induced immunodeficiency syndrome,' which is mediated by hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in increased risk of infectious complications. Whether or not poststroke T-lymphocyte activation occurs via an antigen-independent process, as opposed to a classical antigen-dependent process, is still controversial. Although considerable recent progress has been made, a better understanding of the roles of the different T-lymphocyte subpopulations and their temporal profile of damage versus repair will help to clarify whether T-lymphocyte targeting may be a viable poststroke therapy for clinical use. 10.1038/jcbfm.2012.6
    Connexins and Pannexins in cerebral ischemia. Kim Yeri,Davidson Joanne O,Green Colin R,Nicholson Louise F B,O'Carroll Simon J,Zhang Jie Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes A common cause of mortality and long-term adult disability, cerebral ischemia or brain ischemia imposes a significant health and financial burden on communities worldwide. Cerebral ischemia is a condition that arises from a sudden loss of blood flow and consequent failure to meet the high metabolic demands of the brain. The lack of blood flow initiates a sequelae of cell death mechanisms, including the activation of the inflammatory pathway, which can ultimately result in irreversible brain tissue damage. In particular, Connexins and Pannexins are non-selective channels with a large pore that have shown to play time-dependent roles in the perpetuation of ischaemic injury. This review highlights the roles of Connexin and Pannexin channels in cell death mechanisms as a promising therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia, and in particular connexin hemichannels which may contribute most of the ATP release as a result of ischemia as well as during reperfusion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Gap Junction Proteins edited by Jean Claude Herve. 10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.03.018
    Repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy provides better effects on brain inflammation and oxidative damage in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. Chen Li-Fan,Tian Yu-Feng,Lin Cheng-Hsien,Huang Lian-Yu,Niu Ko-Chi,Lin Mao-Tsun Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:Repetitive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy may cause excessive generation of reactive oxygen species. This study assessed whether repetitive or 2-4-day trials of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments daily for 2-4 consecutive days) provides better effects in reducing brain inflammation and oxidative stress caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats than did a 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments for 1 day). METHODS:Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; MCAO without HBO2 treatment; MCAO treated with 1-day trial of HBO2; and MCAO treated with 2-4-day trials of HBO2. One treatment of HBO2 (100% O2 at 253 kPa) lasted for 1 hour in a hyperbaric chamber. RESULTS:Therapy with the 2-4-day trials of HBO2 significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the MCAO-induced cerebral infarction and neurological deficits more than the 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy. The beneficial effects of repetitive HBO2 therapy were associated with: (1) reduced inflammatory status in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase activity); (2) decreased oxidative damage in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic pro-oxidants, but increased levels of enzymatic antioxidant defenses); and (3) increased production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10. CONCLUSION:The results provide the apparently contradictory finding that heightened oxygen tension reduced oxidative stress (and inflammation), which was reflected by increased antioxidant and decreased oxidant contents under focal cerebral ischemia. 10.1016/j.jfma.2014.03.012
    Hypoxia induces microglia autophagy and neural inflammation injury in focal cerebral ischemia model. Yang Zhao,Zhong Lina,Zhong Shanchuan,Xian Ronghua,Yuan Bangqing Experimental and molecular pathology Much evidence demonstrated that autophagy played an important role in neural inflammation response after ischemia stroke. However, the specific effect of microglia autophagy in cerebral ischemia is still unknown. In the current study, we constructed focal cerebral ischemia model by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice. We detected microglia autophagy and inflammation response in vivo, and observed infarct brain areas, edema formation, and neurological deficits of mice. We found that pMCAO induced microglia autophagy and inflammatory response. The suppression of autophagy using either pharmacologic inhibitor (3-MA) not only decreased the microglia autophagy and inflammatory response, but also significantly decreased infarct size, edema formation and neurological deficits in vivo. Taken together, these results suggested that cerebral ischemia induced microglia autophagy contributed to ischemic neural inflammation and injury. In addition, our findings also provided novel therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. 10.1016/j.yexmp.2015.02.003
    Genetic neutrophil deficiency ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Frieler Ryan A,Chung Yutein,Ahlers Carolyn G,Gheordunescu George,Song Jianrui,Vigil Thomas M,Shah Yatrik M,Mortensen Richard M Experimental neurology Neutrophils respond rapidly to cerebral ischemia and are thought to contribute to inflammation-mediated injury during stroke. Using myeloid Mcl1 knockout mice as a model of genetic neutrophil deficiency, we investigated the contribution of neutrophils to stroke pathophysiology. Myeloid Mcl1 knockout mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and infarct size was assessed by MRI after 24h reperfusion. Immune cell mobilization and infiltration was assessed by flow cytometry. We found that myeloid Mcl1 knockout mice had significantly reduced infarct size when compared to heterozygous and wild type control mice (MyMcl1: 78.0mm; MyMcl1: 83.4mm; MyMcl1: 55.1mm). This was accompanied by a nearly complete absence of neutrophils in the ischemic hemisphere of myeloid Mcl1 knockout mice. Although myeloid Mcl1 knockout mice were protected from cerebral infarction, no significant differences in neurological deficit or the mRNA expression of inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP1) were detected. Inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis using CXCR2 pepducin treatment partially reduced neutrophil mobilization and recruitment to the brain after stroke, but did not reduce infarct size 24h after transient MCA occlusion. These data confirm that neutrophils have an important role in infarct development during stroke pathophysiology, and suggest that complete deficiency, but not partial inhibition, is necessary to prevent neutrophil-mediated injury during stroke. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.08.016
    In vivo PET imaging of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as a marker for brain inflammation after cerebral ischemia. Martín Abraham,Szczupak Boguslaw,Gómez-Vallejo Vanessa,Domercq Maria,Cano Ainhoa,Padro Daniel,Muñoz Clara,Higuchi Makoto,Matute Carlos,Llop Jordi The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience PET imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) could become an effective tool for the diagnosis and therapy evaluation of neurologic diseases. Despite this, the role of nAChRs α4β2 receptors after brain diseases such as cerebral ischemia and its involvement in inflammatory reaction is still largely unknown. To investigate this, we performed in parallel in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) with 2[(18)F]-fluoro-A85380 and [(11)C]PK11195 at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. In the ischemic territory, PET with 2[(18)F]-fluoro-A85380 and [(11)C]PK11195 showed a progressive binding increase from days 3-7, followed by a progressive decrease from days 14-28 after cerebral ischemia onset. Ex vivo immunohistochemistry for the nicotinic α4β2 receptor and the mitochondrial translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) confirmed the PET findings and demonstrated the overexpression of α4β2 receptors in both microglia/macrophages and astrocytes from days 7-28 after experimental ischemic stroke. Likewise, the role played by α4β2 receptors on neuroinflammation was supported by the increase of [(11)C]PK11195 binding in ischemic rats treated with the α4β2 antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide (DHBE) at day 7 after MCAO. Finally, both functional and behavioral testing showed major impaired outcome at day 1 after ischemia onset, followed by a recovery of the sensorimotor function and dexterity from days 21-28 after experimental stroke. Together, these results suggest that the nicotinic α4β2 receptor could have a key role in the inflammatory reaction underlying cerebral ischemia in rats. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3670-14.2015
    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein mediates neuroinflammation in cerebral ischemia. Zhou Mian,Yang Weng-Lang,Ji Youxin,Qiang Xiaoling,Wang Ping Biochimica et biophysica acta BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation is a key cascade after cerebral ischemia. Excessive production of proinflammatory mediators in ischemia exacerbates brain injury. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a newly discovered proinflammatory mediator that can be released into the circulation during hemorrhage or septic shock. Here, we examine the involvement of CIRP in brain injury during ischemic stroke. METHODS:Stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In vitro hypoxia was conducted in a hypoxia chamber containing 1% oxygen. CIRP and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. RESULTS:CIRP is elevated along with an upregulation of TNF-α expression in mouse brain after MCAO. In CIRP-deficient mice, the brain infarct volume, induction of TNF-α, and activation of microglia are markedly reduced after MCAO. Using microglial BV2 cells, we demonstrate that hypoxia induces the expression, translocation, and release of CIRP, which is associated with an increase of TNF-α levels. Addition of recombinant murine (rm) CIRP directly induces TNF-α release from BV2 cells and such induction is inhibited by neutralizing antisera to CIRP. Moreover, rmCIRP activates the NF-κB signaling pathway in BV2 cells. The conditioned medium from BV2 cells exposed to hypoxia triggers the apoptotic cascade by increasing caspase activity and decreasing Bcl-2 expression in neural SH-SY5Y cells, which is inhibited by antisera to CIRP. CONCLUSION:Extracellular CIRP is a detrimental factor in stimulating inflammation to cause neuronal damage in cerebral ischemia. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:Development of an anti-CIRP therapy may benefit patients with brain ischemia. 10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.02.027
    Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 is a Novel Pathogenetic Factor in Focal Cerebral Ischemia. Han Jeong Eun,Lee Eun-Jung,Moon Eunjung,Ryu Jong Hoon,Choi Ji Woong,Kim Hee-Sun Molecular neurobiology The neutrophil collagenase matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP8) is a recently identified member of MMPs that have important roles in various inflammation-related disorders. Previously, we identified MMP8 as a new neuroinflammatory mediator in activated microglia by regulating TNF-α productivity. Here, we present evidence that MMP8 is a critical factor for brain damage in transient focal cerebral ischemia by modulating neuroinflammation likely microglial activation and TNF-α production. Biochemical analyses showed upregulation of MMP8 expression at mRNA and protein levels in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R)-challenged brains. Furthermore, double immunolabeling showed that MMP8 expression was upregulated in the activated microglia of M/R-challenged brains. Assessment of infarct volume, neurological score, and survival/death of neural cells revealed that administration of an MMP8 inhibitor (M8I) immediately after reperfusion reduced brain damage. Histological analyses showed that microglial activation and TNF-α expression in ischemic conditions was abrogated by exposure to M8I, as demonstrated in our previous study using cultured microglia. These outcomes from a pharmacological approach were reaffirmed by a genetic approach using a lentiviral system. Intracerebroventricular microinjection of MMP8-specific shRNA lentivirus reduced the extent of ischemia-induced brain damage, as assessed by infarct volume, neurological score, microglial activation, and TNF-α expression. These results suggest a novel pathogenetic role of MMP8 and implicate modulation of its activity as a tractable strategy for therapies against cerebral ischemia. 10.1007/s12035-014-8996-y
    Astrocytic N-Myc Downstream-regulated Gene-2 Is Involved in Nuclear Transcription Factor κB-mediated Inflammation Induced by Global Cerebral Ischemia. Deng You-Liang,Ma Yu-Long,Zhang Zeng-Li,Zhang Li-Xia,Guo Hang,Qin Pei,Hou Yu-Shu,Gao Zi-Jun,Hou Wu-Gang Anesthesiology BACKGROUND:Inflammation is a key element in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. This study investigated the role of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 in nuclear transcription factor κB-mediated inflammation in ischemia models. METHODS:Mice (n = 6 to 12) with or without nuclear transcription factor κB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate pretreatment were subjected to global cerebral ischemia for 20 min. Pure astrocyte cultures or astrocyte-neuron cocultures (n = 6) with or without pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate pretreatment were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 4 h or 2 h. Astrocytic nuclear transcription factor κB and N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 expression, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, neuronal apoptosis and survival, and memory function were analyzed at different time points after reperfusion or reoxygenation. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion was also studied in lentivirus-transfected astrocyte lines after reoxygenation. RESULTS:Astrocytic nuclear transcription factor κB and N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 expression and proinflammatory cytokine secretion increased after reperfusion or reoxygenation. Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate pretreatment significantly reduced N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 expression and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in vivo and in vitro, reduced neuronal apoptosis induced by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (from 65 ± 4% to 47 ± 4%, P = 0.0375) and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (from 45.6 ± 0.2% to 22.0 ± 4.0%, P < 0.001), and improved memory function in comparison to vehicle-treated control animals subjected to global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 lentiviral knockdown reduced the oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSIONS:Astrocytic N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 is up-regulated after cerebral ischemia and is involved in nuclear transcription factor κB-mediated inflammation. Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate alleviates ischemia-induced neuronal injury and hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairment by inhibiting increases in N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 expression and N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2-mediated inflammation. 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002044
    A novel IL-1RA-PEP fusion protein with enhanced brain penetration ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibition of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Zhang Dong-Dong,Zou Min-Ji,Zhang Ya-Tao,Fu Wen-Liang,Xu Tao,Wang Jia-Xi,Xia Wen-Rong,Huang Zhi-Guang,Gan Xiang-Dong,Zhu Xiao-Ming,Xu Dong-Gang Experimental neurology Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are involved in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, in which Interleukin 1 (IL-1), as an effective intervention target, is implicated. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) is the natural inhibitor of IL-1, but blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the brain penetration of intravenously administered IL-1RA, thereby restricting its therapeutic effect against neuroinflammation. In this study, we evaluated the potential effects of anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress of a novel protein IL-1RA-PEP, which fused IL-1RA with a cell penetrating peptide (CPP). Studies were carried out in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats and oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in primary cortical neurons. In MCAO rat model, IL-1RA-PEP (50mg/kg) injected i.v., penetrated BBB effectively, and alleviated brain infarction, cerebral edema, neurological deficit score and motor performance as well as inhibited the inflammatory cytokines expression. Furthermore, our results firstly showed that IL-1RA-PEP also regulated the oxidases expression, decreased the levels of NO, MDA and ROS. In addition, the inhibitory effects of IL-1RA-PEP on oxidative stress and inflammation were confirmed in rat cortical neurons induced by OGD/R, it reduced ROS, IL-6 and TNF-α. Further study showed that the effects of IL-1RA-PEP were closely associated with the NF-κB and p38 pathways which were proved respectively by their inhibitors JSH-23 and SB203580. Our results indicated that IL-1RA-PEP could effectively penetrate the brain of MCAO rats, alleviated the cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by inhibiting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, showing a great clinical potential for stroke. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.06.012
    Inhibiting HMGB1 Reduces Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Mice. Wang Chong,Jiang Jie,Zhang Xiuping,Song Linjie,Sun Kai,Xu Ruxiang Inflammation High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) promotes inflammatory injury, and accumulating evidence suggests that it plays a key role in brain ischemia reperfusion (I/R), as well as the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether HMGB1 plays a role in brain I/R in a DM mouse model. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a high-calorie diet and streptozotocin treatment, and cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. We examined HMGB1 levels following cerebral I/R injury in DM and non-DM mice and evaluated the influence of altered HMGB1 levels on the severity of cerebral injury. Serum HMGB1 levels and the inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, and inflammation-related enzyme iNOS were significantly elevated in DM mice with brain I/R compared with non-DM mice with brain I/R. Blocking HMGB1 function by intraperitoneal injection of anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibodies reversed the inflammatory response and the extent of brain damage, suggesting that HMGB1 plays an important role in cerebral ischemic stroke in diabetic mice. 10.1007/s10753-016-0418-z
    Propofol reduces inflammatory reaction and ischemic brain damage in cerebral ischemia in rats. Shi Song-sheng,Yang Wei-zhong,Chen Ye,Chen Jian-ping,Tu Xian-kun Neurochemical research Our previous studies demonstrated that inflammatory reaction and neuronal apoptosis are the most important pathological mechanisms in ischemia-induced brain damage. Propofol has been shown to attenuate ischemic brain damage via inhibiting neuronal apoptosis. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of propofol on brain damage and inflammatory reaction in rats of focal cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, then received treatment with propofol (10 or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle after 2 h of ischemia. Neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct size and morphological characteristic were measured 24 h after cerebral ischemia. The enzymatic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was assessed 24 h after cerebral ischemia. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 expression in ischemic rat brain was detected by western blot. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in ischemic rat brain was determined by immunohistochemistry. ELISA was performed to detect the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct size and MPO activity were significantly reduced by propofol administration. Furthermore, expression of NF-κB, COX-2 and TNF-α were attenuated by propofol administration. Our results demonstrated that propofol (10 and 50 mg/kg) reduces inflammatory reaction and brain damage in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Propofol exerts neuroprotection against ischemic brain damage, which might be associated with the attenuation of inflammatory reaction and the inhibition of inflammatory genes. 10.1007/s11064-014-1272-8
    Loss of neuronal CD200 contributed to microglial activation after acute cerebral ischemia in mice. Yang Yang,Zhang Xiang-Jian,Zhang Cong,Chen Rong,Li Li,He Junna,Xie Yanzhao,Chen Yanxia Neuroscience letters CD200 has been proved to play a role in immuno-inflammatory reaction. However, little information is available on CD200 in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. We investigated the association between neuronal death and expression of CD200, and explored the relationship between CD200 and microglia in cerebral ischemic mice. Firstly, localization of CD200 expression in the normal brain tissue was detected by immunofluorescent assay. Then, focal cerebral ischemia was induced in mice by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and then cortical tissues were collected at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after surgery. Changes of CD200 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) after pMCAO were assessed by western blotting. Meanwhile flow cytometry analysis was implemented to analyze the death of cortical cells. Results of these two parts were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. To further study, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of recombinant CD200 (rCD200) protein was carried out immediately after pMCAO. Iba-1 was measured by western blotting to evaluate activation of microglia, and inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 were tested by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CD200 was expressed in neurons and was not observed on mircroglia in cortex of normal mice. Expression of CD200 was decreased within 48 h after pMCAO, with a concomitant decrease of NSE expression. The rate of neuronal cell death was approximately around 30% and statistical analysis revealed a negative correlation between level of CD200 and the rate of neuronal death. Compared with control, exogenous rCD200 reduced expressions of Iba-1, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10. Taking together, our results demonstrated that loss of CD200 was caused by neuronal death and was one of contributing factors in microglial activation after cerebral ischemia. ICV injection of rCD200 protein could suppress activation of microglia in vivo. 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.05.004
    TOM7 silencing exacerbates focal cerebral ischemia injury in rat by targeting PINK1/Beclin1-mediated autophagy. Ning Jiang,Junyi Tan,Chang Meng,Yueting Wang,Jingyan Zhang,Jin Zhu,Jing Zhao,Yong Zhao Behavioural brain research Activated autophagy has been intensively observed in cerebrovascular diseases, including focal cerebral ischemia injury, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. TOM7, which is a component of the protein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex, may modulate assembly of the TOM complex. However, an understanding of how TOM7 affects cerebral ischemia injury is limited. In this study, we demonstrate that the expression of TOM7 is up-regulated after a photothrombotic cerebral ischemic model in rats, peaking at 3 days. In addition, TOM7 knockdown may aggravate cerebral ischemic injury and inhibit autophagy after ischemic stroke. Mechanically, TOM7 may regulate autophagy through the PINK1/Beclin1 pathway after cerebral ischemia injury. These results demonstrate that TOM7 silencing may aggravate cerebral ischemia injury through inhibiting PINK1/Beclin1 pathway- mediated autophagy. 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.11.031
    Role of Neutrophils in Exacerbation of Brain Injury After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Hyperlipidemic Mice. Herz Josephine,Sabellek Pascal,Lane Thomas E,Gunzer Matthias,Hermann Dirk M,Doeppner Thorsten R Stroke BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Inflammation-related comorbidities contribute to stroke-induced immune responses and brain damage. We previously showed that hyperlipidemia exacerbates ischemic brain injury, which is associated with elevated peripheral and cerebral granulocyte numbers. Herein, we evaluate the contribution of neutrophils to the exacerbation of ischemic brain injury. METHODS:Wild-type mice fed with a normal chow and ApoE knockout mice fed with a high cholesterol diet were exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion. CXCR2 was blocked using the selective antagonist SB225002 (2 mg/kg) or neutralizing CXCR2 antiserum. Neutrophils were depleted using an anti-Ly6G antibody. At 72 hours post ischemia, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to determine cerebral tissue injury and immunologic changes in the blood, bone marrow, and brain. Functional outcome was assessed by accelerated rota rod and tight rope tests at 4, 7, and 14 days post ischemia. RESULTS:CXCR2 antagonization reduced neurological deficits and infarct volumes that were exacerbated in hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice. This effect was mimicked by neutrophil depletion. Cerebral neutrophil infiltration and peripheral neutrophilia, which were increased on ischemia in hyperlipidemia, were attenuated by CXCR2 antagonization. This downscaling of neutrophil responses was associated with increased neutrophil apoptosis and reduced levels of CXCR2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and NADPH oxidase 2 expression on bone marrow neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrate a role of neutrophils in the exacerbation of ischemic brain injury induced by hyperlipidemia. Accordingly, CXCR2 blockade, which prevents neutrophil recruitment into the brain, might be an effective option for stroke treatment in patients with hyperlipidemia. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010620
    TREM2 protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Wu Rong,Li Xiangpen,Xu Pengfei,Huang Likui,Cheng Jinping,Huang Xiaolong,Jiang Jingru,Wu Long-Jun,Tang Yamei Molecular brain Although post-ischemic inflammation induced by the innate immune response is considered an essential step in the progression of cerebral ischemia injury, the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke remains to be elucidated. Here, we found that the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels of TREM2 were increased in cultured primary microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation and in the ischemic penumbra of the cerebral cortex after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion in mice. TREM2 was mainly expressed in microglia, but not in astrocytes, neurons, or oligodendrocytes in mice subjected to MCAO. Manipulating TREM2 expression levels in vitro and in vivo significantly regulated the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators after ischemic stroke. TREM2 overexpression markedly suppressed the inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis. By contrast, TREM2 gene silencing intensified the inflammatory response, increased neuronal apoptosis and infarct volume, and further exacerbated neurological dysfunction. Our study demonstrated that TREM2 protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through the aspect of post-ischemic inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis. Pharmacological targeting of TREM2 to suppress the inflammatory response may provide a new approach for developing therapeutic strategies in the treatment of ischemic stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases. 10.1186/s13041-017-0296-9
    NK cells in cerebral ischemia. Chen Chen,Ai Qi-Di,Chu Shi-Feng,Zhang Zhao,Chen Nai-Hong Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie As a vital cell type in immune system and infiltrating cells in ischemic brain, NK cells can bridge the crosstalk between immune system and nervous system in stroke setting. The mechanism of action of NK cells is complicated, involving direct and indirect actions. NK cells are closely associated with poststroke inflammation, immunodepression and infections. The excessive inflammatory response in ischemic brain is one of the important causes for aggravating cerebral ischemic injury. Besides the inflammation induced by ischemia itself, thrombolytic drug tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration could also induce deteriorative inflammation, which is unfavorable for stroke control and recovery. Regulating NK cells may has the potential to modulate the immune response, limiting the development of ischemic damage and getting better outcome. In addition, post-stroke immunosuppression may lead to infections which contribute to higher severity and mortality of ischemic stroke (IS). Targeting NK cells may help to find novel pathways for IS therapy, which can both ameliorate the infarction itself, but also reduce the infectious complications. NK cells may also link IS and related diseases, suggesting NK cells can be used as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker for IS prevention and treatment. 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.103
    Increased Peripheral CD137 Expression in a Mouse Model of Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia. Li Xiao-Qing,Wang Yang-Yang,Yang Ting-Ting,Qian Yi-Ning,Yin He,Zhong Shan-Shan,A Rong,He Yang,Xu Bao-Lei,Liu Guang-Zhi Cellular and molecular neurobiology Various studies demonstrate that CD137 (TNFRSF9, 4-1BB) promotes atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in experimental models via interactions with the CD137 ligand (CD137L). However, the exact role of CD137 in ischemic stroke remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed dynamic changes of peripheral CD137 expression on T cells in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), as well as alternation of neurological function, infarct size and cerebral inflammatory status after inhibition of the CD137/CD137L pathway using an anti-CD137L monoclonal antibody. MCAO mice showed elevated surface expression of CD137 on T cells in both peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues during early cerebral ischemia. Remarkably, blockade of the CD137/CD137L pathway reduced the post-ischemic brain damage. Our findings indicate that enhanced CD137 costimulation occurs in early cerebral ischemia and promotes T cell activation, which in turn upregulates inflammatory immune response and possibly exerting deleterious effects on cerebral ischemia. 10.1007/s10571-019-00661-z
    Brain ischemic preconditioning protects against ischemic injury and preserves the blood-brain barrier via oxidative signaling and Nrf2 activation. Yang Tuo,Sun Yang,Mao Leilei,Zhang Meijuan,Li Qianqian,Zhang Lili,Shi Yejie,Leak Rehana K,Chen Jun,Zhang Feng Redox biology Brain ischemic preconditioning (IPC) with mild ischemic episodes is well known to protect the brain against subsequent ischemic challenges. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate the critical role of the master redox transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), in IPC-mediated neuroprotection and blood-brain barrier (BBB) preservation. We report that IPC causes generation of endogenous lipid electrophiles, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), which release Nrf2 from inhibition by Keap1 (via Keap1-C288) and inhibition by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (via GSK3β-C199). Nrf2 then induces expression of its target genes, including a new target, cadherin 5, a key component of adherens junctions of the BBB. These effects culminate in mitigation of BBB leakage and of neurological deficits after stroke. Collectively, these studies are the first to demonstrate that IPC protects the BBB against ischemic injury by generation of endogenous electrophiles and activation of the Nrf2 pathway through inhibition of Keap1- and GSK3β-dependent Nrf2 degradation. 10.1016/j.redox.2018.05.001