The role of Nrf2 in neural stem/progenitors cells: From maintaining stemness and self-renewal to promoting differentiation capability and facilitating therapeutic application in neurodegenerative disease.
Kahroba Houman,Ramezani Bahman,Maadi Hamid,Sadeghi Mohammad Reza,Jaberie Hajar,Ramezani Fatemeh
Ageing research reviews
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) cause progressive loss of neurons in nervous system. NDs are categorized as acute NDs such as stroke and head injury, besides chronic NDs including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases, Friedreich's Ataxia, Multiple Sclerosis. The exact etiology of NDs is not understood but oxidative stress, inflammation and synaptic dysfunction are main hallmarks. Oxidative stress leads to free radical attack on neural cells which contributes to protein misfolding, glia cell activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of DNA repair system and subsequently cellular death. Neural stem cells (NSCs) support adult neurogenesis in nervous system during injuries which is limited to certain regions in brain. NSCs can differentiate into the neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Impaired neurogenesis and inadequate induction of neurogenesis are the main obstacles in treatment of NDs. Protection of neural cells from oxidative damages and supporting neurogenesis are promising strategies to treat NDs. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional master regulator that maintains the redox homeostasis in cells by provoking expression of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective genes. Nrf2 can strongly influence the NSCs function and fate determination by reducing levels of reactive oxygen species in benefit of NSC survival and neurogenesis. In this review we will summarize the role of Nrf2 in NSC function, and exogenous and endogenous therapeutic strategies in treatment of NDs.
Role of pyroptosis in spinal cord injury and its therapeutic implications.
Al Mamun Abdullah,Wu Yanqing,Monalisa Ilma,Jia Chang,Zhou Kailiang,Munir Fahad,Xiao Jian
Journal of advanced research
Background:Currently, spinal cord injury (SCI) is a pathological incident that triggers several neuropathological conditions, leading to the initiation of neuronal damage with several pro-inflammatory mediators' release. However, pyroptosis is recognized as a new programmed cell death mechanism regulated by the stimulation of caspase-1 and/or caspase-11/-4/-5 signaling pathways with a series of inflammatory responses. Aim:Our current review concisely summarizes the potential role of pyroptosis-regulated programmed cell death in SCI, according to several molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. This review also highlights the targeting of pyroptosis signaling pathways and inflammasome components and its therapeutic implications for the treatment of SCI. Key scientific concepts:Multiple pieces of evidence have illustrated that pyroptosis plays significant roles in cell swelling, plasma membrane lysis, chromatin fragmentation and intracellular pro-inflammatory factors including IL-18 and IL-1β release. In addition, pyroptosis is directly mediated by the recently discovered family of pore-forming protein known as GSDMD. Current investigations have documented that pyroptosis-regulated cell death plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological disorders as well as SCI. Our narrative article suggests that inhibiting the pyroptosis-regulated cell death and inflammasome components could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of SCI in the near future.
Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Renal and Cardiovascular Complications of Diabetes.
Charlton Amelia,Garzarella Jessica,Jandeleit-Dahm Karin A M,Jha Jay C
Oxidative stress and inflammation are considered major drivers in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, including renal and cardiovascular disease. A symbiotic relationship also appears to exist between oxidative stress and inflammation. Several emerging therapies target these crucial pathways, to alleviate the burden of the aforementioned diseases. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defenses, a pathological state which not only leads to direct cellular damage but also an inflammatory cascade that further perpetuates tissue injury. Emerging therapeutic strategies tackle these pathways in a variety of ways, from increasing antioxidant defenses (antioxidants and Nrf2 activators) to reducing ROS production (NADPH oxidase inhibitors and XO inhibitors) or inhibiting the associated inflammatory pathways (NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors, lipoxins, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and AT-1 receptor antagonists). This review summarizes the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to and perpetuate diabetes associated renal and cardiovascular disease along with the therapeutic strategies which target these pathways to provide reno and cardiovascular protection in the setting of diabetes.
Increasing Nrf2 Activity as a Treatment Approach in Neuropsychiatry.
Morris G,Walker A J,Walder K,Berk M,Marx W,Carvalho A F,Maes M,Puri B K
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor encoded by NFE2L2. Under oxidative stress, Nrf2 does not undergo its normal cytoplasmic degradation but instead travels to the nucleus, where it binds to a DNA promoter and initiates transcription of anti-oxidative genes. Nrf2 upregulation is associated with increased cellular levels of glutathione disulfide, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferases, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Given its key role in governing the cellular antioxidant response, upregulation of Nrf2 has been suggested as a common therapeutic target in neuropsychiatric illnesses such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are associated with chronic oxidative and nitrosative stress, characterised by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. These processes lead to extensive lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and carbonylation, and oxidative damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Intake of N-acetylcysteine, coenzyme Q and melatonin is accompanied by increased Nrf2 activity. N-acetylcysteine intake is associated with improved cerebral mitochondrial function, decreased central oxidative and nitrosative stress, reduced neuroinflammation, alleviation of endoplasmic reticular stress and suppression of the unfolded protein response. Coenzyme Q, which acts as a superoxide scavenger in neuroglial mitochondria, instigates mitohormesis, ameliorates lipid peroxidation in the inner mitochondrial membrane, activates uncoupling proteins, promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and has positive effects on the plasma membrane redox system. Melatonin, which scavenges mitochondrial free radicals, inhibits mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase, restores mitochondrial calcium homeostasis, deacetylates and activates mitochondrial SIRT3, ameliorates increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier and intestine and counters neuroinflammation and glutamate excitotoxicity.
The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition: Nexus of Aging, Disease and Longevity.
Rottenberg Hagai,Hoek Jan B
The activity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, mPTP, a highly regulated multi-component mega-channel, is enhanced in aging and in aging-driven degenerative diseases. mPTP activity accelerates aging by releasing large amounts of cell-damaging reactive oxygen species, Ca and NAD. The various pathways that control the channel activity, directly or indirectly, can therefore either inhibit or accelerate aging or retard or enhance the progression of aging-driven degenerative diseases and determine lifespan and healthspan. Autophagy, a catabolic process that removes and digests damaged proteins and organelles, protects the cell against aging and disease. However, the protective effect of autophagy depends on mTORC2/SKG1 inhibition of mPTP. Autophagy is inhibited in aging cells. Mitophagy, a specialized form of autophagy, which retards aging by removing mitochondrial fragments with activated mPTP, is also inhibited in aging cells, and this inhibition leads to increased mPTP activation, which is a major contributor to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The increased activity of mPTP in aging turns autophagy/mitophagy into a destructive process leading to cell aging and death. Several drugs and lifestyle modifications that enhance healthspan and lifespan enhance autophagy and inhibit the activation of mPTP. Therefore, elucidating the intricate connections between pathways that activate and inhibit mPTP, in the context of aging and degenerative diseases, could enhance the discovery of new drugs and lifestyle modifications that slow aging and degenerative disease.
Sepsis and Cerebral Dysfunction: BBB Damage, Neuroinflammation, Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Autophagy as Key Mediators and the Potential Therapeutic Approaches.
Gu Ming,Mei Xiang-Lin,Zhao Ya-Nan
Sepsis-associated cerebral dysfunction is complex pathophysiology, generated from primary infections that are developed elsewhere in the body. The neonates, elderly population and chronically ill and long-term hospitalized patients are predominantly vulnerable to sepsis and related cerebral damage. Generally, electrophysiological recordings, severity and sedation scales, computerized imaging and spectroscopy techniques are used for its detection and diagnosis. About the underlying mechanisms, enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability and metalloprotease activity, tight junction protein loss and endothelial cell degeneration promote the influx of inflammatory and toxic mediators into the brain, triggering cerebrovascular damage. An altered neutrophil count and phenotype further dysregulate the normal neuroimmune responses and neuroendocrine stability via modulated activation of protein kinase C-delta, nuclear factor kappa-B and sphingolipid signaling. Glial activation, together with pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the Toll-like receptor, destabilize the immune system. Moreover, superoxides and hydroperoxides generate oxidative stress and perturb mitochondrial dynamics and ATP synthesis, propagating neuronal injury cycle. Activated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, characterized by increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavage and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in the hippocampal and cortical neurons, stimulate neurocognitive impairments. Additionally, altered LC3-II/I and P62/SQSTM1, p-mTOR, p-AMPK1 and p-ULK1 levels and dysregulated autophagosome-lysosome fusion decrease neuronal and glial energy homeostasis. The therapies and procedures for attenuating sepsis-induced brain damage include early resuscitation, cerebral blood flow autoregulation, implantable electric vagus nerve stimulation, antioxidants, statins, glucocorticoids, neuroimmune axis modulators and PKCδ inhibitors. The current review enumerates the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced brain damage, its diagnosis, the role of critical inducers and mediators and, ultimately, therapeutic measures attenuating cerebrovascular degeneration.
Environmental and Nutritional "Stressors" and Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction: Role of Mitochondrial and Endoplasmatic Reticulum Impairment.
Maiuolo Jessica,Gliozzi Micaela,Musolino Vincenzo,Carresi Cristina,Nucera Saverio,Scicchitano Miriam,Scarano Federica,Bosco Francesca,Oppedisano Francesca,Macrì Roberta,Mollace Vincenzo
Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system which are generated by progenitor oligodendrocytes as a result of maturation processes. The main function of mature oligodendrocytes is to produce myelin, a lipid-rich multi-lamellar membrane that wraps tightly around neuronal axons, insulating them and facilitating nerve conduction through saltatory propagation. The myelination process requires the consumption a large amount of energy and a high metabolic turnover. Mitochondria are essential organelles which regulate many cellular functions, including energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Any mitochondrial dysfunction impacts cellular metabolism and negatively affects the health of the organism. If the functioning of the mitochondria is unbalanced, the myelination process is impaired. When myelination has finished, oligodendrocyte will have synthesized about 40% of the total lipids present in the brain. Since lipid synthesis occurs in the cellular endoplasmic reticulum, the dysfunction of this organelle can lead to partial or deficient myelination, triggering numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, the induced malfunction of oligodendrocytes by harmful exogenous stimuli has been outlined. In particular, the effects of alcohol consumption and heavy metal intake are discussed. Furthermore, the response of the oligodendrocyte to excessive mitochondrial oxidative stress and to the altered regulation of the functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum will be explored.
Invited Review: Epigenetics in neurodevelopment.
Salinas R D,Connolly D R,Song H
Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
Neural development requires the orchestration of dynamic changes in gene expression to regulate cell fate decisions. This regulation is heavily influenced by epigenetics, heritable changes in gene expression not directly explained by genomic information alone. An understanding of the complexity of epigenetic regulation is rapidly emerging through the development of novel technologies that can assay various features of epigenetics and gene regulation. Here, we provide a broad overview of several commonly investigated modes of epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, noncoding RNAs, as well as epitranscriptomics that describe modifications of RNA, in neurodevelopment and diseases. Rather than functioning in isolation, it is being increasingly appreciated that these various modes of gene regulation are dynamically interactive and coordinate the complex nature of neurodevelopment along multiple axes. Future work investigating these interactions will likely utilize 'multi-omic' strategies that assay cell fate dynamics in a high-dimensional and high-throughput fashion. Novel human neurodevelopmental models including iPSC and cerebral organoid systems may provide further insight into human-specific features of neurodevelopment and diseases.
ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for Alzheimer's disease.
Kim Hyeon-Joong,Jung Seok-Won,Kim Seog-Young,Cho Ik-Hyun,Kim Hyoung-Chun,Rhim Hyewhon,Kim Manho,Nah Seung-Yeol
Journal of ginseng research
Longevity in medicine can be defined as a long life without mental or physical deficits. This can be prevented by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current conventional AD treatments only alleviate the symptoms without reversing AD progression. Recent studies demonstrated that ginseng extract improves AD symptoms in patients with AD, and the two main components of ginseng might contribute to AD amelioration. Ginsenosides show various AD-related neuroprotective effects. Gintonin is a newly identified ginseng constituent that contains lysophosphatidic acids and attenuates AD-related brain neuropathies. Ginsenosides decrease amyloid β-protein (Aβ) formation by inhibiting β- and γ-secretase activity or by activating the nonamyloidogenic pathway, inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity and Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, and decrease Aβ-induced production of reactive oxygen species and neuroinflammatory reactions. Oral administration of ginsenosides increases the expression levels of enzymes involved in acetylcholine synthesis in the brain and alleviates Aβ-induced cholinergic deficits in AD models. Similarly, gintonin inhibits Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and activates the nonamyloidogenic pathway to reduce Aβ formation and to increase acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase expression in the brain through lysophosphatidic acid receptors. Oral administration of gintonin attenuates brain amyloid plaque deposits, boosting hippocampal cholinergic systems and neurogenesis, thereby ameliorating learning and memory impairments. It also improves cognitive functions in patients with AD. Ginsenosides and gintonin attenuate AD-related neuropathology through multiple routes. This review focuses research demonstrating that ginseng constituents could be a candidate as an adjuvant for AD treatment. However, clinical investigations including efficacy and tolerability analyses may be necessary for the clinical acceptance of ginseng components in combination with conventional AD drugs.
Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-ins in mammalian cells.
Journal of biotechnology
Since its inception, the CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been widely utilized for the targeted insertion of donor DNAs into mammalian genomes. A shortcoming with the earlier knock-in (KI) approaches, however, has been the low efficiency of targeted integrations-especially in primary cells and mouse embryos. Since, a variety of novel strategies have been developed towards improving the KI efficiencies in select target cells. In this review, the current applications of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated KIs in mammalian cells are described. Furthermore, the recent strategies which have been developed in order to augment the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated KI efficiencies are summarized.