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    NKX2.2 immunohistochemistry in the distinction of Ewing sarcoma from cytomorphologic mimics: Diagnostic utility and pitfalls. Russell-Goldman Eleanor,Hornick Jason L,Qian Xiaohua,Jo Vickie Y Cancer cytopathology BACKGROUND:Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a round cell sarcoma that can be challenging to diagnose on cytologic material given its significant overlap with numerous mesenchymal, epithelial, and lymphoid cytomorphologic mimics. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of a novel marker, NKX2.2, in the diagnosis of ES in cytologic material and its ability to distinguish ES from its mimics. METHODS:NKX2.2 immunohistochemistry was performed on cell blocks from 107 fine-needle aspirations, and nuclear expression was scored semiquantitatively for extent and intensity. The study cohort included ES (n = 10), well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (n = 20), melanoma (n = 11), Merkel cell carcinoma (n = 10), small cell carcinoma (n = 10), alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 2), spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 2), synovial sarcoma (n = 12), solitary fibrous tumor (n = 2), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 10), lymphoblastic lymphoma (n = 11), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 6), and CIC-rearranged sarcoma (n = 1). RESULTS:NKX2.2 had high sensitivity (100%) and moderate specificity (85%) for the diagnosis of ES in cytologic material. NKX2.2 expression also was present in a subset of mesenchymal and epithelial mimics, and staining was most commonly observed in small cell carcinoma (80%) and well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (45%). Among mesenchymal mimics, 42% exhibited NKX2.2 expression. NKX2.2 staining was absent in melanoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and lymphoproliferative neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS:NKX2.2 is a highly sensitive but only moderately specific marker for ES. Neuroendocrine neoplasms exhibit variable NKX2.2 expression and remain a significant potential diagnostic pitfall. Thus, NKX2.2 expression should be interpreted in the context of an appropriate immunohistochemical panel (and often with confirmatory molecular testing) for the accurate diagnosis of ES. 10.1002/cncy.22056
    Spindle cell lesions of the adult prostate. Hansel Donna E,Herawi Mehsati,Montgomery Elizabeth,Epstein Jonathan I Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Prostatic spindle cell lesions are diagnostically challenging and encompass a broad array of benign and malignant processes. A subset of these lesions arises only within the prostate and generally represents entities that originate from the prostate epithelium or stroma, such as sclerosing adenosis, sarcomatoid carcinoma, stromal tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), and stromal sarcoma. Another subset of spindle cell tumors that involve the prostate are also found at other sites and include solitary fibrous tumor, leiomyosarcoma, and neural lesions among others. Finally, tumors may secondarily involve the prostate yet present as primary prostatic processes, as is evident with several cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The utility of ancillary studies, including immunohistochemistry, is often limited and the main criteria for diagnosis are the morphologic findings by routine H&E stain. This review addresses the various entities that may present as spindle cell tumors within the adult prostate and discusses the functional aspects of the differential diagnosis of these lesions. 10.1038/modpathol.3800676
    Update on Myogenic Sarcomas. Agaram Narasimhan P Surgical pathology clinics Myogenic sarcomas include soft tissue sarcomas that show skeletal muscle differentiation (rhabdomyosarcoma) and those with smooth muscle differentiation (leiomyosarcoma). Rhabdomyosarcomas are more common in the pediatric age group and leiomyosarcomas occur more often in the adult population. Based on the clinico-pathologic features and genetic abnormalities identified, the rhabdomyosarcomas are classified into embryonal, alveolar, spindle cell/sclerosing, and pleomorphic subtypes. Each subtype shows distinctive morphology and has characteristic genetic abnormalities. In this update on myogenic sarcomas, each entity is discussed with special emphasis on recent updates in genetic findings and the diagnostic approach to these tumors. 10.1016/j.path.2018.10.003
    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma composed predominantly of rhabdoid/epithelioid cells: a frequently misdiagnosed highly aggressive variant. Agaimy Abbas,Michal Michael,Hadravsky Ladislav,Michal Michal Human pathology Dedifferentiated liposarcoma is one of the most common sarcoma types in adults with a predilection for the retroperitoneum. We have recently encountered 6 cases of DDL composed predominantly of rounded, rhabdoid or epithelioid cells mimicking rhabdoid melanoma, epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma or undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were 5 males and one female aged 64 to 81 years (median, 68). Tumors originated in the retroperitoneum (n=5; 3 in the psoas muscle) and deep soft tissue of the thigh (n=1). All 3 patients with follow-up died of metastatic disease within 4 to 8 months. Preoperative biopsy diagnoses never suggested dedifferentiated liposarcoma as a possibility; instead carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphoma were on top of suggestions. Five resected tumors were composed predominantly (70%-100%) of anaplastic rounded to oval rhabdoid cells with prominent central nucleoli and paranuclear rhabdoid inclusions. Bi- and multinucleation was a constant feature. The background stroma showed variable myxoid changes and minor mixed inflammatory cells. Two cases showed homologous dedifferentiation and another had sclerosing spindle cell nodule but a well-differentiated lipomatous component was not seen in any. One biopsied case showed solely monotonous small round blue cells with scattered rhabdoid cells. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of MDM2 (6/6), CDK4 (5/6), pancytokeratin AE/1AE3 (4/6) and diffusely desmin and myogenin (2/6). All cases showed high-level co-amplification of MDM2/CDK4 by in situ hybridization. The SWI/SNF complex components (SMARCB1, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, ARID1A and PBRM1) were intact in all cases. This highly aggressive liposarcoma variant needs to be distinguished from a variety of neoplasms including undifferentiated carcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and others. 10.1016/j.humpath.2017.12.025
    Advantage of FISH analysis using FKHR probes for an adjunct to diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcomas. Matsumura Tadaki,Yamaguchi Takehiko,Seki Kunihiko,Shimoda Tadakazu,Wada Takuro,Yamashita Toshihiko,Hasegawa Tadashi Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology Translocations can be detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, a commercially available FKHR (13q14) dual-color, break-apart rearrangement probe has been developed. However, the advantages of using this probe have not been reported. This study demonstrated the usefulness of this probe for the clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS). We studied 33 RMS (19 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas [ERMS], including three sclerosing-type RMS, and 14 alveloar rhabdomyosarcomas [ARMS]). Fluorescence signals were detected for 18 of the 19 (94.7%) ERMS and 13 of the 14 (92.8%) ARMS. A split-signal pattern was detected in 12 of 13 (92.3%) ARMS but was not detected in any of the ERMS, including the three sclerosing-type RMS. Amplification and polyploidy were present in both the ERMS and the ARMS. Our FISH study highlighted the excellent performance of the presently reported commercial break-apart probe for the detection of FKHR gene rearrangements in RMS. Because amplification and polyploidy were detected in both the ERMS and the ARMS, sufficient care should be taken when counting the nuclear signals. No rearrangements of the FKHR gene were found in any of the three sclerosing-type RMS when examined using a FISH assay, supporting the hypothesis that sclerosing RMS can be included as an ERMS. 10.1007/s00428-007-0554-9
    Rhabdomyosarcomas in adults and children: an update. Parham David M,Ellison Dale A Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine CONTEXT:Rhabdomyosarcomas comprise a relatively common diagnostic entity among childhood cancers and a relatively rare one among adult tumors. They may possess a variety of histologies that generally differ among age groups. These lesions appear to be separate biologic entities as well as morphologic categories, with embryonal tumors having genetic lesions related to loss of heterozygosity and aberrant parental imprinting, alveolar tumors containing genetic fusions between PAX and forkhead genes, and pleomorphic tumors showing an accumulation of genetic lesions similar to other adult high-grade sarcomas. OBJECTIVE:To present guidelines for diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma and recent finding concerning the biology and classification of these lesions. DATA SOURCES:Review of recent and older published literature and distillation of the authors' experience. CONCLUSIONS:Infants and young children tend to have embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, adolescents and young adults tend to have alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, and older adults tend to have pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas, although there is some overlap. Newer rare entities, including spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma, have been described in children and adults. Fusion-positive tumors have a distinct molecular signature with downstream activation of a number of myogenic and tumorigenic factors. Genetic testing may be successfully used for diagnosis and may guide therapy in future clinical trials. Differential diagnosis has become simpler than in previous years, because of use of myogenic factors in immunohistochemistry, but classification based solely on histologic features remains challenging. 10.1043/1543-2165(2006)130[1454:RIAACA]2.0.CO;2
    Recently characterized soft tissue tumors that bring biologic insight. Fletcher Christopher D M Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Previously unrecognized but clinicopathologically (and often molecularly) distinct types of soft tissue tumor continue to be characterized, allowing wider recognition, more consistent application of diagnostic criteria, more reliable prediction of tumor behavior and enhancement of existing classification schemes. Examples of such 'entities' that have become much better understood over the past decade or so include deep 'benign' fibrous histiocytoma, hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor, PEComa, spindle cell liposarcoma, myoepithelial tumors of soft tissue and spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. These tumor types, as well as the insights which they have engendered, are briefly reviewed here. 10.1038/modpathol.2013.172
    Spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma in adults. Nascimento Alessandra F,Fletcher Christopher D M The American journal of surgical pathology The spindle cell variant of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is uncommon and is most often encountered in the paratesticular region of children in whom it has a good prognosis. Only isolated cases in adulthood have been described. Sixteen cases of spindle cell RMS occurring in adults were retrieved from our files. Eleven patients were male and 5 were female. Patient age ranged from 18 to 79 years (median, 32 years). Tumor size varied from 1.5 to 35 cm (median, 6 cm). The head and neck region, including the oral cavity, parotid gland, nasopharynx, and nasal cavity, was the commonest affected area, accounting for >50% of the cases, followed by retroperitoneum, thigh, leg, subscapular area, hand, vulva, and paratesticular region (1 case each). Follow-up was available in 12 cases, ranging from 1 to 102 months (median, 16.5 months). Treatment modalities included surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Two patients died of uncontrolled local disease 13 and 27 months after diagnosis; 4 were alive without disease at 12, 17, 24, and 102 months, including 1 patient with metastasis to 10 of 50 pelvic lymph nodes at presentation; 3 are alive with localized disease at 16, 17, and 19 months; and 1 was followed for 6 months and showed persistent local disease. One patient is alive at 10 months after diagnosis with evidence of metastatic disease to bone, lungs, and breast. All the tumors showed long fascicles of spindle cells with elongated, vesicular nuclei and pale indistinct cytoplasm. Scattered spindled or polygonal rhabdomyoblasts with abundant brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm were present in all cases. In 3 cases, focal areas showed pseudovascular, sclerosing features. There were no round cell or pleomorphic areas. Positive immunohistochemical results were as follows: desmin (15 of 15 cases), myf-4 (12 of 12), fast myosin (7 of 9), myoglobin (2 of 3), HHF-35 (9 of 9), and SMA (11 of 14). One tumor was focally positive for keratins and EMA. All tumors were negative for caldesmon, S-100 protein, and GFAP. Spindle cell RMS is a rare neoplasm in adults and appears to have distinct clinicopathologic features when compared with cases occurring in the pediatric population. Specifically, it appears to be most common in the head and neck region, and although only limited follow-up is available so far, these lesions appear to have a more aggressive clinical course in adults.
    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase status in rhabdomyosarcomas. Yoshida Akihiko,Shibata Tatsuhiro,Wakai Susumu,Ushiku Tetsuo,Tsuta Koji,Fukayama Masashi,Makimoto Atsushi,Furuta Koh,Tsuda Hitoshi Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma that typically affects children, adolescents, and young adults. Despite treatment via a multidisciplinary approach, the prognosis of advance-stage rhabdomyosarcomas remains poor, and a new treatment strategy is needed. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is a potential target for specific inhibitors. In this study, we investigated 116 rhabdomyosarcomas using a polymer-based ALK immunostaining method and correlated the results with clinicopathological parameters. In addition, we examined ALK status using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR, and sequencing. In immunohistochemical analysis, ALK was detected in 2 (6%) of 33 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, 42 (69%) of 61 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, and 0 (0%) of 22 other subtypes, including pleomorphic, adult-spindle-cell/sclerosing, and epithelioid variants. Compared with ALK-negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, ALK-positive ones are presented with metastatic spread more frequently and showed a greater extent of myogenin reactivity. Overall survival was not associated with ALK expression. FOXO1 rearrangement was significantly associated with ALK immunoreactivity. The median ALK copy number was greater in ALK-positive tumors than in ALK-negative tumors. Most (93%) cases tested showed no selective increase in the ALK gene dosage. ALK selective amplification and low-level selective gain were noted in one and three cases, respectively. Further, a high-polysomy pattern (≥4 ALK copies in ≥40% of cells) was observed in seven cases. A significant increase in the ALK copy number was exclusive to the ALK-immunopositive cohort, but it was uncommon, accounting for only 30% of the 37 ALK-positive rhabdomyosarcomas. ALK gene rearrangement was not observed in either cohort, while an ALK somatic mutation (I1277T) was found in one ALK-negative embryonal case. Although it remains controversial whether ALK expression without gene rearrangement is therapeutically relevant, this comprehensive analysis may help future studies on the utility of ALK-targeted therapy for patients with rhabdomyosarcoma. 10.1038/modpathol.2012.222
    Sclerosing, pseudovascular rhabdomyosarcoma in adults. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of three cases. Mentzel T,Katenkamp D Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology Rhabdomyosarcoma in adults represents a rare soft tissue neoplasm which is seen most frequently in its pleomorphic subtype in this age group. Very rarely, clear cell and spindle-cell variants have been reported. In this study we describe three cases of rhabdomyosarcoma in adult patients, characterised by prominent hyaline sclerosis and a pseudovascular growth pattern. All cases were identified in the consultation files of one of the authors and routinely processed. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin sections with the alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase method. The patients, two women and one man, were 40, 41, and 56 years old. One developed a deep-seated soft tissue mass in the left lower leg, and one, a tumour of the left upper jaw. In one patient a bone tumour in the proximal body of the sacrum without extension into soft tissues was seen. The patients were treated by wide excision, piecemeal excision and incomplete excision in one case each; additional radiotherapy was performed in all three cases, and chemotherapy in two patients. In one patient multiple pulmonary metastases were noted, which showed progression despite systemic chemotherapy. Histologically, the neoplasms were composed of round/polygonal and spindle-shaped tumour cells including typical rhabdomyoblasts. In all cases a pseudovascular pattern and prominent hyaline sclerosis of the intercellular matrix was seen. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells stained positively for desmin and muscle actin (HHF35) and also for markers of striated muscle differentiation (myogenin, MyoD1, fast myosin). In this paper an unusual morphological variant of rhabdomyosarcoma arising in adult patients is described, which should be added to the morphological spectrum of these neoplasms.
    Spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma in adults: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of seven new cases. Mentzel Thomas,Kuhnen Cornelius Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is currently classified into embryonal RMS, including its botryoid and spindle cell variants, alveolar RMS, including a solid variant, and pleomorphic RMS. In children and adolescents embryonal RMS occurs in a younger age group than alveolar RMS, and pleomorphic RMS is almost always seen in older adults. Most recently rare spindle cell and sclerosing, pseudovascular RMS have been reported in adults as well. We analysed the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of seven new cases of spindle cell RMS arising in adult patients. Five patients were male and two were female and the age of the patients ranged from 38 to 76 years. Four neoplasms arose on the lower extremities and one case each on the forearm, the lateral aspect of the neck and the penis. Five neoplasms were completely excised, in one incompletely excised neoplasm additional chemotherapy was given, and in one patient a biopsy was done only so far. All neoplasms arose in subcutaneous and deep soft tissues with dermal involvement in one case, and the size of the neoplasms ranged from 4 to 19 cm in largest diameter. Histologically, a plump or diffuse infiltration was seen, and all neoplasms were mainly composed of cellular bands and fascicles of atypical spindle-shaped tumour cells containing enlarged and atypical nuclei associated with a variable number of rhabdomyoblasts. In addition, focal areas reminiscent of sclerosing, pseudovascular RMS were noted in three cases, and in two cases each small solid areas with pleomorphic tumour cells as well as scattered round tumour cells were present. Proliferative activity ranged from 1 to 60 mitoses in 10 high-power fields and tumour necrosis was evident in four cases. Immunohistochemically, all neoplasms tested stained variably positive for desmin, myf-4, WT1 and CD 99, whereas fast myosin was positive in only two out of seven cases. In addition, five out of seven cases tested stained focally positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin. The remaining antibodies (h-caldesmon, S-100 protein, CD 34, pancytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen) were all negative. Follow-up information was available in five patients (range from 10 to 48 months) and revealed lung metastases in two patients who died of disease within a short period. In summary, spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma represents a rare neoplasm in adulthood characterized clinically by a rather poor prognosis, and shows a broad morphological spectrum including most likely the sclerosing, pseudovascular variant. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells in RMS stain positively for CD 99 and WT1 as well, which is of importance in the differential diagnosis to other mesenchymal neoplasms, whereas fast myosin does not represent a reliable marker for RMS in adults. 10.1007/s00428-006-0284-4
    Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas showing immunohistochemical evidence of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall. Folpe Andrew L,Graham Rondell P,Martinez Anthony,Schembri-Wismayer David,Boland Jennifer,Fritchie Karen J Human pathology The diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a distinctive biphasic malignant neoplasm harboring the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion and consisting of primitive round to spindled cells admixed with foci of relatively mature hyaline cartilage, is usually straightforward by morphologic evaluation alone. However, in the setting of a limited biopsy, specimens lacking cartilage generate a broad differential diagnosis, encompassing a variety of other primitive sarcomas, including spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. Although a small number of cases of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with aberrant skeletal muscle marker expression have been reported, pathologists are largely unaware of this potential diagnostic pitfall. We report 6 additional cases of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma showing expression of multiple skeletal muscle markers, including one case initially misdiagnosed as "spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma" on needle biopsy. Awareness of this phenomenon and judicious application of molecular diagnostic testing for the HEY1-NCOA2 fusion are critical to avoid misclassification of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma as rhabdomyosarcoma, with potentially adverse patient impact. 10.1016/j.humpath.2018.03.012
    Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma in adults: report of four cases of a hyalinizing, matrix-rich variant of rhabdomyosarcoma that may be confused with osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, or angiosarcoma. Folpe Andrew L,McKenney Jesse K,Bridge Julia A,Weiss Sharon W The American journal of surgical pathology Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) are classified into embryonal (ERMS), alveolar (ARMS), and pleomorphic (PRMS) subtypes. ERMS, including botryoid variants, typically occurs in young children, ARMS typically occurs in older children and young adults, and PRMS occurs in older adults. Although ARMSs show thin fibrous bands separating nests of cells, abundant extracellular matrix production is rare in RMS. In the course of reviewing hyalinizing sarcomas we discovered a distinctive RMS in adults that closely mimicked osteosarcoma or chondrosarcoma because of the extensive matrix production. Four RMSs with hyalinized matrix were retrieved from our files. These cases were evaluated with respect to patient age and sex, tumor site and size, growth pattern, nuclear grade, cellularity, mitotic figures/20 high power fields, vascular invasion, necrosis, the presence of rhabdomyoblasts, multinucleated cells, and alveolar growth pattern. Immunohistochemistry for desmin, myogenin, MyoD1, actin, cytokeratin, S-100 protein, collagen II, and CD99 was performed. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the ARMS-associated PAX3/FKHR and PAX7/PKHF was also performed on three cases. The cases involved the forearm, hand, orbit, and nasopharynx of a 40-year-old woman, a 50-year-old man, an 18-year-old man, and a 21-year-old man, respectively. The tumors ranged from 3.7 to 8 cm and consisted of lobules and infiltrating cords of small round malignant cells embedded in a densely hyalinized matrix having both a chondroid and osteoid-like appearance. No definite lacunae or matrix calcification was present. An alveolar pattern was only present focally, and tumor giant cells were not present. One case had a single focus of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation with strap cells. Mitotic activity was >20 mitotic figures/20 high power fields in three of four cases. Immunohistochemically, one case strongly expressed desmin, whereas three cases expressed it focally, with a dot-like pattern. Myogenin was only focally positive, but MyoD1 was present in nearly every cell of each case. Two cases expressed actin and one expressed CD99. No case expressed cytokeratin, S-100 protein, or collagen II. Only one case contained adequate RNA for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and this case was negative for the ARMS-associated gene fusions. Follow-up showed one patient to be dead of metastatic disease at 60 months despite intensive therapy, another patient to be disease free at 26 months, and the third patient to be disease free at 5 months. The fourth case is recent. These cases are a distinctive-appearing rhabdomyosarcoma easily mistaken for variants of chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, or even sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma because of their hyalinizing appearance compounded by their typically focal and dot-like desmin expression. These four cases are essentially identical to the three unusual RMSs recently reported by Mentzel and Katenkamp as "sclerosing, pseudovascular rhabdomyosarcoma in adults." Although the focal alveolar architecture and the primitive cytologic appearance of these hyalinizing RMS suggest a relationship with ARMS, the presence of abundant strap cells in one case, the predominant expression of MyoD1 rather than myogenin, and the absence of ARMS-associated fusions genes point more strongly toward a variant of ERMS. However, the late adult age in two cases is unusual for both EMRS and ARMS, suggesting that sclerosing RMS may prove to be a distinct subtype of RMS. Study of additional cases will be necessary to more fully elucidate its place among RMS and its prognostic significance.
    Targeting hedgehog signalling by arsenic trioxide reduces cell growth and induces apoptosis in rhabdomyosarcoma. Boehme Karen A,Zaborski Julian J,Riester Rosa,Schweiss Sabrina K,Hopp Ulrike,Traub Frank,Kluba Torsten,Handgretinger Rupert,Schleicher Sabine B International journal of oncology Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are soft tissue tumours treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. However, mortality rates remain high in case of recurrences and metastatic disease due to drug resistance and failure to undergo apoptosis. Therefore, innovative approaches targeting specific signalling pathways are urgently needed. We analysed the impact of different hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitors on growth and survival of six RMS cell lines using MTS assay, colony formation assay, 3D spheroid cultures, flow cytometry and western blotting. Especially the glioma-associated oncogene family (GLI) inhibitor arsenic trioxide (ATO) effectively reduced viability as well as clonal growth and induced cell death in RMS cell lines of embryonal, alveolar and sclerosing, spindle cell subtype, whereas normal skeletal muscle cells were hardly compromised by ATO. Combination of ATO with itraconazole potentiated the reduction of colony formation and spheroid size. These results show that ATO is a promising substance for treatment of relapsed and refractory RMS by directly targeting GLI transcription factors. The combination with itraconazole or other chemotherapeutic drugs has the opportunity to enforce the treatment efficiency of resistant and recurrent RMS. 10.3892/ijo.2015.3293
    Recurrent NCOA2 gene rearrangements in congenital/infantile spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. Mosquera Juan Miguel,Sboner Andrea,Zhang Lei,Kitabayashi Naoki,Chen Chun-Liang,Sung Yun Shao,Wexler Leonard H,LaQuaglia Michael P,Edelman Morris,Sreekantaiah Chandrika,Rubin Mark A,Antonescu Cristina R Genes, chromosomes & cancer Spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare form of RMS with different clinical characteristics between children and adult patients. Its genetic hallmark remains unknown and it remains debatable if there is pathogenetic relationship between the spindle cell and the so-called sclerosing RMS. We studied two pediatric and one adult spindle cell RMS by next generation RNA sequencing and FusionSeq data analysis to detect novel fusions. An SRF-NCOA2 fusion was detected in a spindle cell RMS from the posterior neck in a 7-month-old child. The fusion matched the tumor karyotype and was confirmed by FISH and RT-PCR, which showed fusion of SRF exon 6 to NCOA2 exon 12. Additional 14 spindle cell (from 8 children and 6 adults) and 4 sclerosing (from 2 children and 2 adults) RMS were tested by FISH for the presence of abnormalities in NCOA2, SRF, as well as for PAX3 and NCOA1. NCOA2 rearrangements were found in two additional spindle cell RMS from a 3-month-old and a 4-week-old child. In the latter tumor, TEAD1 was identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to be the NCOA2 gene fusion partner. None of the adult tumors were positive for NCOA2 rearrangement. Despite similar histomorphology in adults and young children, these results suggest that spindle cell RMS is a heterogeneous disease genetically as well as clinically. Our findings also support a relationship between NCOA2-rearranged spindle cell RMS occurring in young childhood and the so-called congenital RMS, which often displays rearrangements at 8q13 locus (NCOA2). 10.1002/gcc.22050
    MUC4 is expressed in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Forgó Erna,Hornick Jason L,Charville Gregory W Histopathology AIMS:MUC4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein normally expressed by several human epithelial surfaces, including those of the colon, vagina, and respiratory tract. Although MUC4 overexpression is seen in various carcinomas, its expression among mesenchymal neoplasms is fairly specific to low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. Having observed unanticipated anti-MUC4 immunoreactivity in rhabdomyosarcoma, we aimed to further characterize its expression. METHODS/RESULTS:Expression of MUC4 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a total of 97 rhabdomyosarcomas using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. MUC4 was expressed by 21 of 26 PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion-positive cases, wherein immunoreactivity, varying from weak to strong, was present in 20-100% of neoplastic cells. With the exception of one sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma showing immunoreactivity in 20% of cells, MUC4 was not expressed by embryonal (n=28), sclerosing (n=20), or pleomorphic (n=23) rhabdomyosarcomas. Analyzing published gene expression microarray data from a separate cohort of 33 fusion-positive and 25 fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcomas, we found on average 11.4-fold increased expression in fusion-positive tumors (P=0.0004). CONCLUSIONS:MUC4 is expressed to a variable extent in the majority of PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion-positive (alveolar) rhabdomyosarcomas, while expression in other rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes is rare. 10.1111/his.14321
    Genetic heterogeneity in rhabdomyosarcoma revealed by SNP array analysis. Walther Charles,Mayrhofer Markus,Nilsson Jenny,Hofvander Jakob,Jonson Tord,Mandahl Nils,Øra Ingrid,Gisselsson David,Mertens Fredrik Genes, chromosomes & cancer Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents. Alveolar (ARMS) and embryonal (ERMS) histologies predominate, but rare cases are classified as spindle cell/sclerosing (SRMS). For treatment stratification, RMS is further subclassified as fusion-positive (FP-RMS) or fusion-negative (FN-RMS), depending on whether a gene fusion involving PAX3 or PAX7 is present or not. We investigated 19 cases of pediatric RMS using high resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. FP-ARMS displayed, on average, more structural rearrangements than ERMS; the single FN-ARMS had a genomic profile similar to ERMS. Apart from previously known amplification (e.g., MYCN, CDK4, and MIR17HG) and deletion (e.g., NF1, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B) targets, amplification of ERBB2 and homozygous loss of ASCC3 or ODZ3 were seen. Combining SNP array with cytogenetic data revealed that most cases were polyploid, with at least one case having started as a near-haploid tumor. Further bioinformatic analysis of the SNP array data disclosed genetic heterogeneity, in the form of subclonal chromosomal imbalances, in five tumors. The outcome was worse for patients with FP-ARMS than ERMS or FN-ARMS (6/8 vs. 1/9 dead of disease), and the only children with ERMS showing intratumor diversity or with MYOD1 mutation-positive SRMS also died of disease. High resolution SNP array can be useful in evaluating genomic imbalances in pediatric RMS. 10.1002/gcc.22285
    Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: a rare variant with predilection for the head and neck. Knipe Thomas A,Chandra Rakesh K,Bugg M Frederick The Laryngoscope OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS:Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma is a newly described variant of rhabdomyosarcoma with a predilection for the head and neck. Little has been written on the topic, because of the scarcity of the disease and its recent recognition as a distinct entity. The present report describes the fifth confirmed case of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma and is the first report in the otolaryngology literature. STUDY DESIGN:Case report. METHODS:The authors have reported the case of a 66-year-old woman with a 35-year history of heavy cigarette smoking and daily alcohol consumption and a 2-month history of progressive dysphagia and dysarthria secondary to an enlarging tongue mass. Urgent tracheotomy was performed for impending respiratory embarrassment. Direct laryngoscopy revealed a bulky, exophytic mass involving the base of tongue. Specimens were obtained and submitted for analysis. RESULTS:Initial frozen-section analysis of the specimens favored carcinoma, although subsequent immunohistochemical analysis disproved this. The diagnosis of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma was based on microscopic appearance and patterns of gene expression, including the expression of desmin and myogenin. A search of the literature revealed only four confirmed cases of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. With the inclusion of the oropharyngeal tumor in the present report, three of the five confirmed cases have occurred in the head and neck. CONCLUSION:Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare variant of rhabdomyosarcoma that has a predilection for the head and neck. The clinical presentation may mimic carcinoma. The otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon must be familiar with this disease entity. 10.1097/01.mlg.0000150676.75978.3c
    A complete remission of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma with multiple lung and bone metastases treated with multi-agent chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT): a case report. Sakayama Kenshi,Tauchi Hisamichi,Sugawara Yoshifumi,Kidani Teruki,Tokuda Kiriko,Miyazaki Tatsuhiko,Watanabe Yuji,Yamamoto Haruyasu Anticancer research A case of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in a young adult with multiple lung and skip bone metastases is reported. Complete remission was achieved with this patient by treatment with multi-agent chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) based on the pathological diagnosis of RMS using a specimen obtained during an open biopsy at the first consultation. He is still alive and has been continuously disease free for 12 years after surgery. This is a very rare case with successful treatment using PBSCT for a sclerosing RMS that presented with multiple distant metastases at the first consultation.
    Sclerosing pseudovascular rhabdomyosarcoma-immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and genetic findings indicating a distinct subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma. Kuhnen Cornelius,Herter Peter,Leuschner Ivo,Mentzel Thomas,Druecke Daniel,Jaworska Malgorzata,Johnen Georg Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology Sclerosing (pseudovascular) rhabdomyosarcoma in adults has been described as a rare variant of rhabdomyosarcoma characterized by extensive hyaline fibrosis and pseudovascular growth patterns. We describe another case of this rhabdomyosarcoma subtype including ultrastructural and genetic findings-the lesion presented in a 62-year-old male patient in the left lower leg. The tumor was located within the deep soft tissue with maximum diameter of 11.8 cm and skin ulceration. Ultrastructural analysis revealed irregularly distributed disorganized filaments without clear evidence of Z-bands and a richly collagenized matrix. Using comparative genomic hybridization, a sharply delineated loss of chromosomal region 10q22, loss of chromosome Y, and a gain of chromosome 18 (trisomy) were detected. Reciprocal translocations t(1;13) and t(2;13)(q35;q14) which are characteristic of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma could be excluded. These findings, while showing a relation to other rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes, represent a relatively circumscribed genetic defect pattern in sclerosing (pseudovascular) rhabdomyosarcoma that is somewhat different from patterns described in most other rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes. Six months after tumor resection, the patient presented with metastatic disease. Further studies should concentrate on the identification of genes especially on chromosomal region 10q22 to elucidate more aspects in the pathogenesis of this rhabdomyosarcoma subtype. 10.1007/s00428-006-0282-6
    The World Health Organization Classification of Skeletal Muscle Tumors in Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group. Rudzinski Erin R,Anderson James R,Hawkins Douglas S,Skapek Stephen X,Parham David M,Teot Lisa A Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine CONTEXT:The World Health Organization Classification Since 1995, the International Classification of Rhabdomyosarcoma has provided prognostically relevant classification for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and allowed risk stratification for children with RMS. The International Classification of Rhabdomyosarcoma includes botryoid and spindle cell RMS as superior-risk groups, embryonal RMS as an intermediate-risk group, and alveolar RMS as an unfavorable-risk group. The 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of skeletal muscle tumors modified the histologic classification of RMS to include sclerosing RMS as a type of spindle cell RMS separate from embryonal RMS. The current WHO classification includes embryonal, alveolar, spindle cell/sclerosing, and pleomorphic subtypes of RMS and does not separate the botryoid subtype. OBJECTIVE:To determine if the WHO classification applies to pediatric RMS. DESIGN:To accomplish this goal, we reviewed 9 consecutive Children's Oncology Group clinical trials to compare the WHO and International Classification of Rhabdomyosarcoma classifications with outcome and site of disease. RESULTS:Except for a subset of low-risk RMS, the outcome for botryoid was not significantly different from typical embryonal RMS when analyzed by primary site. Similarly, pediatric spindle cell and sclerosing patterns of RMS did not appear significantly different from typical embryonal RMS, with one exception: spindle cell RMS in the parameningeal region had an inferior outcome with 28% event-free survival. CONCLUSION:Our data support use of the WHO RMS classification in the pediatric population, with the caveat that histologic diagnosis does not necessarily confer the same prognostic information in children as in adults. 10.5858/arpa.2014-0475-OA
    Recurrent MYOD1 mutations in pediatric and adult sclerosing and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcomas: evidence for a common pathogenesis. Agaram Narasimhan P,Chen Chun-Liang,Zhang Lei,LaQuaglia Michael P,Wexler Leonard,Antonescu Cristina R Genes, chromosomes & cancer Sclerosing and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are rare types of RMS recently reclassified as a stand-alone pathologic entity, separate from embryonal RMS (ERMS). Although sclerosing and spindle cell RMS share clinical and morphologic features, a pathogenetic link based on shared molecular alterations has not been established. Spindle cell RMS in children have been associated with a less aggressive clinical course compared to adults. Recently, recurrent MYOD1 mutations were described in 44% of adult spindle cell RMS, but no pediatric tumors or sclerosing RMS were studied for comparison. Thus, we investigated 16 RMS (5 sclerosing and 11 spindle cell) in children and adults for the presence of MYOD1 mutations by targeted Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Remarkably, all 5 sclerosing RMS and 4 of 11 spindle cell RMS showed the MYOD1 p.L122R hot-spot mutation. Of the five pediatric tumors, 2/2 sclerosing RMS and 2/3 spindle cell RMS showed MYOD1 mutations. Three of nine MYOD1-mutant RMS showed coexistent PIK3CA mutations, while no MDM2 amplifications were identified. All four pediatric MYOD1-mutated RMS patients died of the disease at 12-35 months following diagnosis. In conclusion, spindle cell and sclerosing RMS show recurrent MYOD1 mutations, in keeping with a single pathologic entity, regardless of age at presentation. This group however, is distinct from the infantile RMS associated with NCOA2 fusions. Although our study suggests that pediatric MYOD1-mutant RMS follow an aggressive behavior with high mortality, further studies are required to confirm this finding. 10.1002/gcc.22187
    A clinicopathologic study of head and neck rhabdomyosarcomas showing FOXO1 fusion-positive alveolar and MYOD1-mutant sclerosing are associated with unfavorable outcome. Owosho Adepitan A,Huang Shih-Chiang,Chen Sonja,Kashikar Shruti,Estilo Cherry L,Wolden Suzanne L,Wexler Leonard H,Huryn Joseph M,Antonescu Cristina R Oral oncology BACKGROUND:Based on their distinctive histologic and genetic features, the latest WHO classification of soft tissue tumors includes four pathologic variants of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS): embryonal (ERMS), alveolar (ARMS), spindle cell-sclerosing (SRMS-ScRMS) and pleomorphic RMS. The aim of this study focused on a detailed clinicopathologic and survival analysis of head and neck RMS (HNRMS) using the latest pathologic and molecular criteria reflecting this new subclassification in a large cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients managed for HNRMS in our institution (1996-2015) were analyzed. The presence of a FOXO1 fusion was required for the classification of ARMS. MYOD1 mutations in SRMS-ScRMS were tested when material available. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate variables related to overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Ninety-nine HNRMS patients (52 males and 47 females, mean of 16years) were included in the study after pathologic re-review. The most common location was parameningeal (PM) (n=64), followed by non-orbital/non-PM (n=25) and orbital (n=10). There were 53 ERMS, 33 fusion-positive ARMS and 13 SRMS-ScRMS [SRMS (8); ScRMS (5)]. The 5-year OS rate for ERMS patients was significantly higher (82%) compared to ARMS (53%) and SRMS-ScRMS (50%) [SRMS (75%); ScRMS (30%)]. Univariate analysis showed that survival was dependent on histology (P=0.012), tumor size >5cm (P<0.001), regional lymph node involvement (P=0.002), metastasis at initial presentation (P<0.001), stage (P<0.001), and recurrence (P=0.002). Multivariate analysis confirmed histologic subtype to be significant (P=0.043). CONCLUSION:Our findings reinforce that HNRMS is a heterogenous disease with ARMS and SRMS-ScRMS having an equally unfavorable outcome. 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2016.08.017
    The expanding morphological and genetic spectrum of MYOD1-mutant spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcomas: a clinicopathological and molecular comparison of mutated and non-mutated cases. Tsai Jen-Wei,ChangChien Yi-Che,Lee Jen-Chieh,Kao Yu-Chien,Li Wan-Shan,Liang Cher-Wei,Liao I-Chuang,Chang Yi-Ming,Wang Jui-Chu,Tsao Cheng-Feng,Yu Shih-Chen,Huang Hsuan-Ying Histopathology AIMS:Spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcomas (SC/SRMS) feature spindled and/or rounded rhabdomyosarcomatous cells within variably hyalinised stroma. Only 30-67% of SC/SRMSs harbour neomorphic MYOD1 p.L122R mutations, indicating heterogeneity in this RMS type. We compared MYOD1-mutant and non-mutant cases to characterise the histological and genetic spectrum of mutated SC/SRMS. METHODS AND RESULTS:Seventeen RMSs with spindled, sclerosing or hybrid histology were sequenced to identify MYOD1 and PIK3CA mutations and reappraised to assess histological features and myogenic immunophenotypes. Twelve SC/SRMSs harboured MYOD1 mutations, including homozygous p.L122R (n = 8), heterozygous p.L122R (n = 3) and heterozygous p.E118K (n = 1). MYOD1-mutant tumours affected nine females and three males aged 8-64 years (median = 22.5), had a median size of 4.2 cm (range = 2-22) and involved the head and neck (n = 7), extremities (n = 4) and mediastinum (n = 1). Fascicular/spindle histology was predominant in four cases, including one with heterologous lipoblasts in focally myxoid stroma. Four sclerosing cases mainly comprised rounded cells, including one with multinucleated tumour cells. Four cases were histologically hybrid. The only PIK3CA (p.H1047R) mutation was detected in a predominantly spindled MYOD1-p.L122R-mutated case, but not in its laser-microdissected lipoblast-containing area. All MYOD1-mutant cases exhibited diffuse MYOD1 expression but patchy myogenin reactivity. At final follow-up (median = 13.5 months), recurrences (n = 4), metastases (n = 2) or both (n = 1) occurred in seven MYOD1-mutant cases; one had died of disease. Five non-mutated cases were reclassified as spindle embryonal (n = 3), dense embryonal (n = 1) and unclassifiable (n = 1) RMSs. CONCLUSION:MYOD1-mutant RMSs are uncommonly mutated with PIK3CA and behave aggressively with an expanded morphological and genetic spectrum, including lipoblastic differentiation, multinucleated cells and the alternative p.E118K mutation. 10.1111/his.13819
    A Molecular Study of Pediatric Spindle and Sclerosing Rhabdomyosarcoma: Identification of Novel and Recurrent VGLL2-related Fusions in Infantile Cases. Alaggio Rita,Zhang Lei,Sung Yun-Shao,Huang Shih-Chiang,Chen Chun-Liang,Bisogno Gianni,Zin Angelica,Agaram Narasimhan P,LaQuaglia Michael P,Wexler Leonard H,Antonescu Cristina R The American journal of surgical pathology Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (ScRMS) and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma (SRMS) have been recently reclassified as a stand-alone pathologic entity, separate from embryonal RMS. Genetically, a subset of the congenital cases display NCOA2 gene rearrangements, whereas tumors occurring in older children or adults harbor MYOD1 gene mutations with or without coexisting PIK3CA mutations. Despite these recent advances, a significant number of tumors lack known genetic alterations. In this study we sought to investigate a large group of pediatric SRMS/ScRMS, spanning a diverse clinical and pathologic spectrum, by using a combined fluorescence in situ hybridization, targeted DNA, and whole-transcriptome sequencing methodology for a more definitive molecular classification. A total of 26 SRMS and ScRMS cases were selected from the 2 participating institutions for the molecular analysis. Ten of the 11 congenital/infantile SRMS showed recurrent fusion genes: with novel VGLL2 rearrangements seen in 7 (63%), including VGLL2-CITED2 fusion in 4 and VGLL2-NCOA2 in 2 cases. Three (27%) cases harbored the previously described NCOA2 gene fusions, including TEAD1-NCOA2 in 2 and SRF-NCOA2 in 1. All fusion-positive congenital/infantile SRMS patients with available long-term follow-up were alive and well, none developing distant metastases. Among the remaining 15 SRMS patients older than 1 year, 10 (67%) showed MYOD1 L122R mutations, most of them following a fatal outcome despite an aggressive multimodality treatment. All 4 cases harboring coexisting MYOD1/PIK3CA mutations shared sclerosing morphology. All 5 fusion/mutation-negative SRMS cases presented as intra-abdominal or paratesticular lesions. 10.1097/PAS.0000000000000538
    Epithelioid and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma with FUS-TFCP2 or EWSR1-TFCP2 fusion: report of two cases. Chrisinger John S A,Wehrli Bret,Dickson Brendan C,Fasih Samir,Hirbe Angela C,Shultz David B,Zadeh Gelareh,Gupta Abha A,Demicco Elizabeth G Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology The WHO Classification of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone divides rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) into alveolar, embryonal, pleomorphic, and spindle cell/sclerosing types. Advances in molecular diagnostics have allowed for further refinement of RMS classification including the identification of new subtypes. Very rare RMS with epithelioid and spindle cell morphology, female predominance, marked osseous predilection, ALK expression, EWSR1/FUS-TFCP2 gene fusions, and highly aggressive clinical behavior have recently been recognized with only 23 cases reported in the English language literature. Herein, we report two additional cases with detailed clinicopathologic description and molecular confirmation. In brief, two young women presented each with a primary bone tumor-one with a frontal bone tumor and another with an osseous pelvic tumor. Both tumors showed epithelioid to spindle cell morphology, ALK expression, and EWSR1/FUS-TFCP2 gene fusions. Both patients died of disease less than 17 months from diagnosis despite administration of multiple lines of aggressive treatment. In addition, we review the literature and discuss differential diagnostic and potential treatment considerations. 10.1007/s00428-020-02870-0
    SNP genotyping of a sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: reveals highly aneuploid profile and a specific MDM2/HMGA2 amplification. Bouron-Dal Soglio Dorothée,Rougemont Anne-Laure,Absi Riwa,Barrette Stéphane,Montpetit Alexandre,Fetni Raouf,Fournet Jean-Christophe Human pathology Since the first description of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma in 2000, 19 pediatric cases have been reported in the literature. However, it is debated whether sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma represents a specific rhabdomyosarcoma entity or a variant of embryonal or alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. To date, 6 sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma karyotypes and 1 sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma comparative genomic hybridization profile have been reported. We present the first whole-genome tumoral genotyping of a sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma by high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array. The single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping revealed a complex pattern including gains and losses of whole chromosomes and an amplification of the 12q13-15 region. Amplification of the 12q13-q15 region containing SAS, GLI, CDK4, and MDM2 has been observed in rhabdomyosarcoma. In the present case, the 2 amplified target genes were MDM2 and HMGA2, excluding CDK4. The identification of a specific MDM2-HGMA2 amplicon excluding CDK4 has only been described so far in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Further studies are needed to assess if this anomaly is a specific marker of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. 10.1016/j.humpath.2009.01.021
    Clinical and molecular heterogeneity of head and neck spindle cell and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. Owosho Adepitan A,Chen Sonja,Kashikar Shruti,Zhang Lei,Chen Chun-Liang,Wexler Leonard H,Estilo Cherry L,Huryn Joseph M,Antonescu Cristina R Oral oncology 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2016.05.009
    Spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma of bone with FUS-TFCP2 fusion: confirmation of a very recently described rhabdomyosarcoma subtype. Dashti Nooshi K,Wehrs Rebecca N,Thomas Brittany C,Nair Asha,Davila Jaime,Buckner Jan C,Martinez Anthony P,Sukov William R,Halling Kevin C,Howe Benjamin M,Folpe Andrew L Histopathology AIMS:Rhabdomyosarcomas of bone are extremely rare, with fewer than 10 reported cases. A very rare subtype of spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma harbouring a FUS-TFCP2 fusion and involving both soft tissue and bone locations has been reported very recently. We report only the fourth case of this unusual, clinically aggressive rhabdomyosarcoma. MATERIAL AND RESULTS:A previously well 72-year-old male presented with a destructive lesion of the mandible. Morphological and immunohistochemical study of a needle biopsy and the subsequent resection showed a spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. RNA-seq, RT-PCR and FISH confirmed the presence of the FUS-TFCP2 fusion. CONCLUSIONS:Spindle cell rhabdomyosarcomas carrying the FUS-TFCP2 fusion are very rare rhabdomyosarcoma variants with osseous predilection. The classification and differential diagnosis of this unusual molecular variant of spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma are discussed. 10.1111/his.13649
    MYOD1 (L122R) mutations are associated with spindle cell and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcomas with aggressive clinical outcomes. Rekhi Bharat,Upadhyay Pawan,Ramteke Manoj P,Dutt Amit Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Recurrent mutations in the myogenic transcription factor MYOD1 and PIK3CA were initially described in a subset of embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas. Recently, two independent studies demonstrated presence of MYODI (L122R) mutations as the basis to re-classify a spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma, along with a sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma, distinct from an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. We analyzed a much larger cohort of 49 primary rhabdomyosarcoma tumor samples of various subtypes, collected over a period of 9 years, for the presence of MYOD1 (L122R), PIK3CA (H1047), and PIK3CA (E542/E545) mutations, along with immunohistochemical analysis of desmin, myogenin, and MYOD1. Although activating PIK3CA mutations were absent across the sample set analyzed, we report 20% MYOD1 (L122R) mutation in rhabdomyosarcomas, found exclusively in 10 of 21 spindle cell and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcomas, occurring mostly in the head and neck region along with extremity sites (64%), than the paratesticular and intra-abdominal sites. Furthermore, while all 10 MYOD1 mutant spindle cell and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma samples showed diffuse and strong MYOD1 immunoexpression, 7 of 31 samples of rhabdomyosarcoma with wild-type MYOD1 were negative for MYOD1 expression. Clinically, a striking correlation was found between MYOD1 mutation and the clinical outcomes available for 15 of 21 cases: 5 of 7 patients with spindle cell and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcomas, harboring MYOD1 mutation, were alive-with-disease and 2 of 8 patients with spindle cell and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcomas, with mutant MYOD1, were free-of-disease. Taken together, we present the first report of MYOD1 (L122R) mutation in the largest cohort of 49 rhabdomyosarcomas reported so far, that are associated with a relatively aggressive clinical course. Moreover, consistent with the earlier two studies, this study further reinforces a relationship between spindle cell and the sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma-now recognized as a single subtype, distinct from an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. 10.1038/modpathol.2016.144
    Clinicopathologic analysis of spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. Yasui Naoko,Yoshida Akihiko,Kawamoto Hiroshi,Yonemori Kan,Hosono Ako,Kawai Akira Pediatric blood & cancer BACKGROUND:Clinical characteristics and optimal treatment strategies for spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (ssRMS) have not been well established because of its rarity. PROCEDURE:Retrospective re-evaluation of sarcoma specimens (1997-2014) identified 16 ssRMSs (median age 20 years, range 7-39 years). Clinicopathological features, clinical course, and outcome were analyzed. RESULTS:Primary disease sites were the head and neck (10 cases) and other regions (6 cases). Nine cases were at Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study preoperative stage 3. The primary tumors were >5 cm in 13 cases. Two patients had lymph node metastases, but none had distant metastases at presentation. At follow-up (median period 39 months, range 4.6-201), seven patients were alive without disease. Among nine patients treated with the vincristine, actinomycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) regimen, five responded well, with four surviving free of disease. Among ten patients with recurrent or progressive disease, three experienced local recurrence, four had distant metastases, and three had both. None exhibited bone marrow invasion. Eight of the ten patients died in median time from relapse to death of 18 months (range 11-56). CONCLUSIONS:Although most ssRMSs present as a bulky tumor, nodal or distant metastases are rare at presentation. ssRMSs initially show good response to VAC, but >50% of tumors recur or progress; these data suggest a worse prognosis of ssRMS compared to the pediatric embryonal variant. As relapse typically occurs as local or distant solitary lesion without bone marrow invasion, localized treatment combined with chemotherapy would contribute to improve the prognosis of recurrent ssRMS. 10.1002/pbc.25367
    Cytogenetic and Molecular Study of an Adult Sclerosing Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Extremity: -mutation and Clonal Evolution. Gorunova Ludmila,Bjerkehagen Bodil,Micci Francesca,Heim Sverre,Panagopoulos Ioannis Cancer genomics & proteomics BACKGROUND:Spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma is a genomically heterogeneous, uncommon subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma, particularly rare in adults. Its MYOD1-mutant variant is aggressive irrespective of age. Cytogenetic data on spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma are sparse and disparate. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cytogenetic and molecular analyses were performed on an adult sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. RESULTS:The karyotype of the sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma displayed clonal evolution corresponding to two hyperdiploid clones: 48,XY,+i(19)(p10),+22/48,idem,der(9)t(2;9)(q21~22;p21). The changes were gain of chromosome 19 with the overrepresentation of 19p arm, gain of chromosome 22, gain of the 2q arm, and loss of 9p21. Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous c.T365G (p.L122R) mutation of the MYOD1 gene, but none of PIK3CA. CONCLUSION:To our knowledge, this is the first adult MYOD1-mutant sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma studied cytogenetically. The only other reported sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma with MYOD1 mutation and abnormal karyotype was pediatric. Since these tumors are highly aggressive, further studies unravelling their cytogenetic and molecular characteristics are warranted. 10.21873/cgp.20212
    Establishment and characterization of NCC-ssRMS1-C1: a novel patient-derived spindle-cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. Yoshimatsu Yuki,Noguchi Rei,Tsuchiya Ryuto,Sei Akane,Sugaya Jun,Iwata Shintaro,Sugiyama Masanaka,Yoshida Akihiko,Kawai Akira,Kondo Tadashi Human cell Spindle-cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (ssRMS) is a rare subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma, characterized by unique pathological features. Although distinctive molecular backgrounds such as frequent mutations in MyoD1 have been reported, optimized therapy has not been fully developed, and further investigations are required. Patient-derived cancer models are critical tools for basic and pre-clinical studies. However, there is no model for ssRMS. Thus, this study aimed to develop a novel cell line from the tumor tissue of a patient with ssRMS. Using surgically resected tissue, we successfully established this cell line, named NCC-ssRMS1-C1. These cells exhibited spindle-shape morphology, consistent with the pathological observations of the original tumor tissue. Genetic studies demonstrated that NCC-ssRMS1-C1 cells retained original copy number alterations and the typical point mutation in MyoD1. Malignant phenotypes such as proliferation, spheroid formation, and invasion were confirmed in vitro by studying NCC-ssRMS1-C1 cells. Upon screening an anti-cancer agent library, sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as actinomycin D was revealed. We conclude that the NCC-ssRMS1-C1 cell line will be a useful resource for basic and pre-clinical studies. 10.1007/s13577-020-00359-1
    MYOD1-mutant spindle cell and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: an aggressive subtype irrespective of age. A reappraisal for molecular classification and risk stratification. Agaram Narasimhan P,LaQuaglia Michael P,Alaggio Rita,Zhang Lei,Fujisawa Yumi,Ladanyi Marc,Wexler Leonard H,Antonescu Cristina R Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Sclerosing and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare histologic subtype, designated in the latest WHO classification as a stand-alone pathologic entity. Three genomic groups have been defined: an infantile subset of spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma harboring VGLL2-related gene fusions, a MYOD1-mutant subset commonly associated with sclerosing morphology, and a subset lacking recurrent genetic abnormalities. In this study, we focus on MYOD1-mutant rhabdomyosarcoma to further define their clinicopathologic characteristics and behavior in a larger patient cohort. We investigated 30 cases of MYOD1-mutant rhabdomyosarcoma (12 previously reported and 18 newly diagnosed) with an age range of 2-94 years, including 15 children. All cases showed morphology within the spectrum of spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (8 cases showing pure sclerosing morphology, 8 cases  showing pure spindle cell morphology and 14 cases showing a hybrid phenotype of spindle, sclerosing and primitive undifferentiated areas). All tumors harbored either homozygous or heterozygous MYOD1 (p.L122R) exon 1 mutations. In 10 (33%) cases, a co-existent PIK3CA mutation was identified. Hot-spot mutations in NRAS and HRAS were each identified in a single case, respectively. Follow-up was available on 22 (73%) patients with a median duration of 28 months. Local recurrence was seen in 12 (55%) and distant recurrence in 12 (55%) cases, despite multimodality chemoradiation therapy. At last follow-up, 15 (68%) patients died of the disease, one patient was alive with disease and five had no evidence of disease. The prognosis was equally poor in pediatric and adult patients. In conclusion, MYOD1 mutation defines an aggressive rhabdomyosarcoma subset, with poor outcome and response to therapy, irrespective of age. Given that this distinct molecular subtype is characterized by an aggressive biologic behavior compared to other genetic subtypes of spindle and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma, the MYOD1 genotype should be used as a molecular marker in both subclassification and prognostication of rhabdomyosarcoma. 10.1038/s41379-018-0120-9