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    Mediterranean diet for type 2 diabetes: cardiometabolic benefits. Esposito Katherine,Maiorino Maria Ida,Bellastella Giuseppe,Panagiotakos Demosthenes B,Giugliano Dario Endocrine Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals. The American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend Mediterranean diet for improving glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies show that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a 20-23 % reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while the results of randomized controlled trials show that Mediterranean diet reduces glycosylated hemoglobin levels by 0.30-0.47 %, and is also associated with a 28-30 % reduced risk for cardiovascular events. The mechanisms by which Mediterranean diet produces its cardiometabolic benefits in type 2 diabetes are, for the most, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative: increased consumption of high-quality foods may cool down the activation of the innate immune system, by reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing that of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This may favor the generation of an anti-inflammatory milieu, which in turn may improve insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissues and endothelial function at the vascular level and ultimately act as a barrier to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and development of atherosclerosis. 10.1007/s12020-016-1018-2
    The Mediterranean diet and risk of type 2 diabetes in Iranian population. Khalili-Moghadam Sajjad,Mirmiran Parvin,Bahadoran Zahra,Azizi Fereidoun European journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is fast increasing in recent decades. Limited prospective studies are available on Mediterranean diet protective effect against T2D development. We assessed longitudinal association of the Mediterranean diet with T2D risk in Iranian men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Diet was measured using a 168-item food frequency questionnaire in 2139 adults (free of T2D), aged 20-70 years. All individuals, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet score (MDS), received scores between 0 and 8 points. Multivariate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were reported for the association of T2D and the MDS, with adjustment of diabetes risk score (DRS) and dietary energy intakes. RESULTS:During follow-up, a total of 143 events occurred. Individuals who had higher intakes of fish/sea foods, legumes, nuts, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) to saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio had a decreased risk of T2D. After adjustment for confounders, an inverse association was found between adherence to the MDS and T2D (HR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.27-0.83). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings demonstrated an inverse association between the Mediterranean diet score and incidence of T2D. 10.1038/s41430-018-0336-2
    Overall dietary variety and adherence to the Mediterranean diet show additive protective effects against coronary heart disease. Amato Manuela,Bonomi Alice,Laguzzi Federica,Veglia Fabrizio,Tremoli Elena,Werba José P,Giroli Monica G Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD BACKGROUND AND AIM:Along with the increasing evidence of the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean Diet (MD), the scientific interest and advocacy of dietary variety as a potentially healthy eating habit gradually faded, until its complete oblivion in the latest European cardiovascular prevention guidelines. Our study aims to investigate whether dietary variety adds to the "Mediterranean-ness" of the diet in protecting against coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS:In this case-control Italian study, data on eating habits were collected from 178 patients with CHD and 155 healthy controls, primarily males, frequency matched for age and gender, using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Adherence to MD was estimated from FFQ by the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), an index developed by Trichopoulou (2003) ranging from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating a stricter adherence. Overall dietary variety was computed from FFQ as a count of single food items consumed at least once a month. Associations between MDS or overall dietary variety and coronary status were evaluated by logistic regression models adjusted for BMI, physical activity, smoking, education, and caloric intake; the Odds Ratio (OR) for CHD for each 1.5-point increase in MDS was 0.76 [IC 95% 0.59; 0.98], whereas the OR for CHD for each 15-item increase in dietary variety was 0.62 [IC 95% 0.46; 0.84]. Remarkably, adherence to MD and overall dietary variety were independently associated with a significantly reduced chance of CHD. CONCLUSION:Dietary Mediterranean-ness and overall dietary variety exhibit additive cardioprotective effects. 10.1016/j.numecd.2020.04.002