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    NLRP3 inhibition improves heart function in GPER knockout mice. Wang Hao,Sun Xuming,Hodge Hunter S,Ferrario Carlos M,Groban Leanne Biochemical and biophysical research communications The molecular mechanisms of postmenopausal heart diseases in women may involve the loss of estrogen-deactivation of its membrane receptor, G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), and subsequent activation of the cardiac NLRP3 inflammasome, a component of the innate immune system. To study the potential effects of cardiac GPER on NLRP3-mediated inflammatory pathways, we characterized changes in innate immunity gene transcripts in hearts from 6-month-old cardiomyocyte-specific GPER knockout (KO) mice and their GPER-intact wild type (WT) littermates using RT Profiler™ real-time PCR array. GPER deletion in cardiomyocytes decreased %fractional shortening (%FS) and myocardial relaxation (e'), and increased the early mitral inflow filling velocity-to-early mitral annular descent velocity ratio (E/e'), determined by echocardiography, and increased the mRNA levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), determined by real-time PCR. Of the 84 inflammasome-related genes tested, 9 genes were upregulated, including NLRP3 and IL-18, while 1 gene, IL-12a, was downregulated in GPER KO when compared to WT. The importance of NLRP3 upregulation in GPER KO-induced heart failure was further confirmed by an in vivo study showing that, compared to vehicle-treated KO mice, 8 weeks of treatment with a NLRP3 inhibitor, MCC950 (10 mg/kg, i.p., 3 times per week), significantly limited hypertrophic remodeling, defined by reductions in heart weight/body weight, and improved systolic and diastolic functional indices, including increases in %FS and e', and decreases E/e' (P < 0.05). Both ANF and BNP mRNA levels were also significantly reduced by chronic MCC950 treatment. The findings from this study point toward a new understanding for the increased occurrence of heart diseases in women following loss or absence of estrogenic protection and GPER activation that involves cardiac NLRP3 inflammatory pathways. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.05.045
    Estrogen ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by regulating activation of NLRP3 in mice. Cheng Cheng,Wu Huimei,Wang Muzi,Wang Lixia,Zou Hongyun,Li Shuai,Liu Rongyu Bioscience reports Estrogen has been suggested to play a protective role against airway inflammations, such as asthma. In these processes, the inflammasome nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) partly accounts for the activation of pro-inflammatory factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether NLRP3 was involved in the protective effect of estrogen against allergic airway inflammation. An ovariectomy was performed on female C57BL/6 mice; some were sham-operated (sham). We then sensitized and challenged them with ovalbumin (OVA) to establish an airway inflammation model. Meanwhile, some mice were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) for 28 days. The expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream products, caspase-1 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), increased concomitantly with OVA-challenged airway inflammation and decreased with the expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ). In addition, treating ovariectomized (OVX) mice with E2 dramatically ameliorated airway inflammation via such mechanisms as leukocyte recruitment, mucus production, and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines other than IL-18 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF). Furthermore, E2 suppressed both the mRNA expression and protein expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β. In summary, our study showed that NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production markedly increased in OVA-induced airway inflammation, and E2 effectively abrogated such inflammation by regulating the activation of NLRP3. 10.1042/BSR20181117
    Estradiol inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome in fibroblast-like synoviocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide and adenosine triphosphate. Shi Jianfeng,Zhao Weibo,Ying Haijian,Zhang Ying,Du Juping,Chen Shuaishuai,Li Jun,Shen Bo International journal of rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVE:Nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin 3 domain (NLRP3) inflammasome is known for activating pro-inflammatory cytokines in knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study was performed to identify whether NLRP3 inflammasome can be triggered by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and adenosine triphos adenine (ATP), which are positively related with knee OA severity in joint-spaces, in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), and to identify whether estrogen would inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. METHODS:In the present study, human FLS were isolated from the knee OA in patients during arthroplasty, and were treated with LPS and ATP in the presence or absence of estradiol (E2). The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of NLRP3 components were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to examine interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 content in the supernatant. Estrogen receptor α inhibitor MPP and β inhibitor PHTPP were used to explore how E2 works. RESULTS:Our results demonstrated that treatment with LPS and ATP increased significantly both in mRNA and protein levels of all the NLRP3 inflammasome components, and triggered the NLRP3 inflammasome, followed by upregulated IL-1β and IL-18 in the cell supernatant. E2 appeared to inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by diminishing mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3 through estrogen receptor β, and decreased the expression of IL-1β and IL-18 as well. CONCLUSION:These results suggested the increased LPS and ATP in joint-space may promote knee OA by NLRP3 inflammasome and E2 may exert a protective effect by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in FLS. 10.1111/1756-185X.13198