Use of the CatWalk gait analysis system to assess functional recovery in rodent models of peripheral nerve injury - a systematic review.
Heinzel Johannes,Längle Gregor,Oberhauser Viola,Hausner Thomas,Kolbenschlag Jonas,Prahm Cosima,Grillari Johannes,Hercher David
Journal of neuroscience methods
Injuries of the peripheral nervous system are common among the population affecting around 3% of all trauma patients. This high clinical need in the field of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration has been steadily driving experimental and epidemiological research. Thereby, it is crucial to determine the exact degree of recovery of end-organ function. Regeneration after nerve injuries is assessed by a wide variety of techniques and pre-clinical model systems, where rodent models are among the most widely used. However, results from rodents are difficult to translate to human patients in general, and reproducible and comparable assessment of functional recovery is of highest importance. Computerized gait analysis allows comprehensive acquisition of locomotor function. As the animals cross the recording device voluntarily, functional recovery is assessable with a minimum degree of human interference on their behavior. This article aims to give a detailed overview on the existing literature on CatWalk gait analysis in rodent models of peripheral nerve injuries of upper and lower extremities, e.g. axonotmesis, neurotmesis or fibrosis, with special emphasis on differences between models. Researchers interested in assessment of locomotor function in such models will especially benefit from this work as it will provide them with an overview of the various experimental setups and expected outcomes. This work also addresses potential pitfalls and hurdles in order to promote well designed, comparable studies allowing for accelerated development of therapeutic strategies in peripheral repair and regeneration.
Evolution and function of the hominin forefoot.
Fernández Peter J,Mongle Carrie S,Leakey Louise,Proctor Daniel J,Orr Caley M,Patel Biren A,Almécija Sergio,Tocheri Matthew W,Jungers William L
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The primate foot functions as a grasping organ. As such, its bones, soft tissues, and joints evolved to maximize power and stability in a variety of grasping configurations. Humans are the obvious exception to this primate pattern, with feet that evolved to support the unique biomechanical demands of bipedal locomotion. Of key functional importance to bipedalism is the morphology of the joints at the forefoot, known as the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs), but a comprehensive analysis of hominin MTPJ morphology is currently lacking. Here we present the results of a multivariate shape and Bayesian phylogenetic comparative analyses of metatarsals (MTs) from a broad selection of anthropoid primates (including fossil apes and stem catarrhines) and most of the early hominin pedal fossil record, including the oldest hominin for which good pedal remains exist, Results corroborate the importance of specific bony morphologies such as dorsal MT head expansion and "doming" to the evolution of terrestrial bipedalism in hominins. Further, our evolutionary models reveal that the MT1 of shifts away from the reconstructed optimum of our last common ancestor with apes, but not necessarily in the direction of modern humans. However, the lateral rays of are transformed in a more human-like direction, suggesting that they were the digits first recruited by hominins into the primary role of terrestrial propulsion. This pattern of evolutionary change is seen consistently throughout the evolution of the foot, highlighting the mosaic nature of pedal evolution and the emergence of a derived, modern hallux relatively late in human evolution.