Mitofusins regulate lipid metabolism to mediate the development of lung fibrosis.
Chung Kuei-Pin,Hsu Chia-Lang,Fan Li-Chao,Huang Ziling,Bhatia Divya,Chen Yi-Jung,Hisata Shu,Cho Soo Jung,Nakahira Kiichi,Imamura Mitsuru,Choi Mary E,Yu Chong-Jen,Cloonan Suzanne M,Choi Augustine M K
Accumulating evidence illustrates a fundamental role for mitochondria in lung alveolar type 2 epithelial cell (AEC2) dysfunction in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of mitochondrial fusion in AEC2 function and lung fibrosis development remains unknown. Here we report that the absence of the mitochondrial fusion proteins mitofusin1 (MFN1) and mitofusin2 (MFN2) in murine AEC2 cells leads to morbidity and mortality associated with spontaneous lung fibrosis. We uncover a crucial role for MFN1 and MFN2 in the production of surfactant lipids with MFN1 and MFN2 regulating the synthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol in AEC2 cells. Loss of MFN1, MFN2 or inhibiting lipid synthesis via fatty acid synthase deficiency in AEC2 cells exacerbates bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. We propose a tenet that mitochondrial fusion and lipid metabolism are tightly linked to regulate AEC2 cell injury and subsequent fibrotic remodeling in the lung.
Role of advanced glycation end products in cellular signaling.
Ott Christiane,Jacobs Kathleen,Haucke Elisa,Navarrete Santos Anne,Grune Tilman,Simm Andreas
Improvements in health care and lifestyle have led to an elevated lifespan and increased focus on age-associated diseases, such as neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, frailty and arteriosclerosis. In all these chronic diseases protein, lipid or nucleic acid modifications are involved, including cross-linked and non-degradable aggregates, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Formation of endogenous or uptake of dietary AGEs can lead to further protein modifications and activation of several inflammatory signaling pathways. This review will give an overview of the most prominent AGE-mediated signaling cascades, AGE receptor interactions, prevention of AGE formation and the impact of AGEs during pathophysiological processes.
A Receptor of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily Regulates Adaptive Thermogenesis.
Hurtado Del Pozo Carmen,Ruiz Henry H,Arivazhagan Lakshmi,Aranda Juan Francisco,Shim Cynthia,Daya Peter,Derk Julia,MacLean Michael,He Meilun,Frye Laura,Friedline Randall H,Noh Hye Lim,Kim Jason K,Friedman Richard A,Ramasamy Ravichandran,Schmidt Ann Marie
Exquisite regulation of energy homeostasis protects from nutrient deprivation but causes metabolic dysfunction upon nutrient excess. In human and murine adipose tissue, the accumulation of ligands of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) accompanies obesity, implicating this receptor in energy metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that mice bearing global- or adipocyte-specific deletion of Ager, the gene encoding RAGE, display superior metabolic recovery after fasting, a cold challenge, or high-fat feeding. The RAGE-dependent mechanisms were traced to suppression of protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of its key targets, hormone-sensitive lipase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, upon β-adrenergic receptor stimulation-processes that dampen the expression and activity of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and thermogenic programs. This work identifies the innate role of RAGE as a key node in the immunometabolic networks that control responses to nutrient supply and cold challenges, and it unveils opportunities to harness energy expenditure in environmental and metabolic stress.
AGER1 downregulation associates with fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and type 2 diabetes.
Dehnad Ali,Fan Weiguo,Jiang Joy X,Fish Sarah R,Li Yuan,Das Suvarthi,Mozes Gergely,Wong Kimberly A,Olson Kristin A,Charville Gregory W,Ali Mohammed,Török Natalie J
The Journal of clinical investigation
Type 2 diabetes is clinically associated with progressive necroinflammation and fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulate during prolonged hyperglycemia, but the mechanistic pathways that lead to accelerated liver fibrosis have not been well defined. In this study, we show that the AGEs clearance receptor AGER1 was downregulated in patients with NASH and diabetes and in our NASH models, whereas the proinflammatory receptor RAGE was induced. These findings were associated with necroinflammatory, fibrogenic, and pro-oxidant activity via the NADPH oxidase 4. Inhibition of AGEs or RAGE deletion in hepatocytes in vivo reversed these effects. We demonstrate that dysregulation of NRF2 by neddylation of cullin 3 was linked to AGER1 downregulation and that induction of NRF2 using an adeno-associated virus-mediated approach in hepatocytes in vivo reversed AGER1 downregulation, lowered the level of AGEs, and improved proinflammatory and fibrogenic responses in mice on a high AGEs diet. In patients with NASH and diabetes or insulin resistance, low AGER1 levels were associated with hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and ductular reaction. Collectively, prolonged exposure to AGEs in the liver promotes an AGER1/RAGE imbalance and consequent redox, inflammatory, and fibrogenic activity in NASH.
Loss of RAGE in pulmonary fibrosis: molecular relations to functional changes in pulmonary cell types.
Queisser Markus A,Kouri Fotini M,Königshoff Melanie,Wygrecka Malgorzata,Schubert Uwe,Eickelberg Oliver,Preissner Klaus T
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a transmembrane receptor of the Ig superfamily. While vascular RAGE expression is associated with kidney and liver fibrosis, high expression levels of RAGE are found under physiological conditions in the lung. In this study, RAGE expression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was assessed, and the relationship of the receptor to functional changes of epithelial cells and pulmonary fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of the disease was investigated. Significant down-regulation of RAGE was observed in lung homogenate and alveolar epithelial type II cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, as well as in bleomycin-treated mice, demonstrated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, RAGE down-regulation was provoked by stimulation of primary human lung fibroblasts and A549 epithelial cells with the proinflammatory cytokines, transforming growth factor-beta1 or TNF-alpha. Blockade of RAGE resulted in impaired cell adhesion, and small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of RAGE increased cell proliferation and migration of A549 cells and human primary fibroblast in vitro. These results indicate that RAGE serves a protective role in the lung, and that loss of the receptor is related to functional changes of pulmonary cell types, with the consequences of fibrotic disease.