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    Stem-cell-based tissue engineering of murine teeth. Ohazama A,Modino S A C,Miletich I,Sharpe P T Journal of dental research Teeth develop from reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme cells and epithelium, where the epithelium provides the instructive information for initiation. Based on these initial tissue interactions, we have replaced the mesenchyme cells with mesenchyme created by aggregation of cultured non-dental stem cells in mice. Recombinations between non-dental cell-derived mesenchyme and embryonic oral epithelium stimulate an odontogenic response in the stem cells. Embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, and adult bone-marrow-derived cells all responded by expressing odontogenic genes. Transfer of recombinations into adult renal capsules resulted in the development of tooth structures and associated bone. Moreover, transfer of embryonic tooth primordia into the adult jaw resulted in development of tooth structures, showing that an embryonic primordium can develop in its adult environment. These results thus provide a significant advance toward the creation of artificial embryonic tooth primordia from cultured cells that can be used to replace missing teeth following transplantation into the adult mouth. 10.1177/154405910408300702
    Cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of exfoliated deciduous teeth is a feasible stem cell resource for regenerative medicine. Ma Lan,Makino Yusuke,Yamaza Haruyoshi,Akiyama Kentaro,Hoshino Yoshihiro,Song Guangtai,Kukita Toshio,Nonaka Kazuaki,Shi Songtao,Yamaza Takayoshi PloS one Human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been considered to be a promising source for regenerative therapy because they contain unique postnatal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) with self-renewal capacity, multipotency and immunomodulatory function. However preservation technique of deciduous teeth has not been developed. This study aimed to evaluate that cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of human exfoliated deciduous teeth is a retrievable and practical SHED source for cell-based therapy. SHED isolated from the cryopreserved deciduous pulp tissues for over 2 years (25-30 months) (SHED-Cryo) owned similar stem cell properties including clonogenicity, self-renew, stem cell marker expression, multipotency, in vivo tissue regenerative capacity and in vitro immunomodulatory function to SHED isolated from the fresh tissues (SHED-Fresh). To examine the therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo on immune diseases, SHED-Cryo were intravenously transplanted into systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) model MRL/lpr mice. Systemic SHED-Cryo-transplantation improved SLE-like disorders including short lifespan, elevated autoantibody levels and nephritis-like renal dysfunction. SHED-Cryo amended increased interleukin 17-secreting helper T cells in MRL/lpr mice systemically and locally. SHED-Cryo-transplantation was also able to recover osteoporosis bone reduction in long bones of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, SHED-Cryo-mediated tissue engineering induced bone regeneration in critical calvarial bone-defect sites of immunocompromised mice. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo transplantation on immune and skeletal disorders was similar to that of SHED-Fresh. These data suggest that cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues of deciduous teeth provide a suitable and desirable approach for stem cell-based immune therapy and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. 10.1371/journal.pone.0051777
    Regeneration of dental pulp/dentine complex with a three-dimensional and scaffold-free stem-cell sheet-derived pellet. Na Sijia,Zhang Hao,Huang Fang,Wang Weiqi,Ding Yin,Li Dechao,Jin Yan Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine Dental pulp/dentine complex regeneration is indispensable to the construction of biotissue-engineered tooth roots and represents a promising approach to therapy for irreversible pulpitis. We used a tissue-engineering method based on odontogenic stem cells to design a three-dimensional (3D) and scaffold-free stem-cell sheet-derived pellet (CSDP) with the necessary physical and biological properties. Stem cells were isolated and identified and stem cells from root apical papilla (SCAPs)-based CSDPs were then fabricated and examined. Compact cell aggregates containing a high proportion of extracellular matrix (ECM) components were observed, and the CSDP culture time was prolonged. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dentine sialoprotein (DSPP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and runt-related gene 2 (RUNX2) mRNA was higher in CSDPs than in cell sheets (CSs), indicating that CSDPs have greater odonto/osteogenic potential. To further investigate this hypothesis, CSDPs and CSs were inserted into human treated dentine matrix fragments (hTDMFs) and transplanted into the subcutaneous space in the backs of immunodeficient mice, where they were cultured in vivo for 6 weeks. The root space with CSDPs was filled entirely with a dental pulp-like tissue with well-established vascularity, and a continuous layer of dentine-like tissue was deposited onto the existing dentine. A layer of odontoblast-like cells was found to express DSPP, ALP and BSP, and human mitochondria lined the surface of the newly formed dentine-like tissue. These results clearly indicate that SCAP-CSDPs with a mount of endogenous ECM have a strong capacity to form a heterotopic dental pulp/dentine complex in empty root canals; this method can be used in the fabrication of bioengineered dental roots and also provides an alternative treatment approach for pulp disease. 10.1002/term.1686
    Priming Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth with Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Enhances Mineralization Within Tissue-Engineered Constructs Implanted in Craniofacial Bone Defects. Novais Anita,Lesieur Julie,Sadoine Jérémy,Slimani Lotfi,Baroukh Brigitte,Saubaméa Bruno,Schmitt Alain,Vital Sibylle,Poliard Anne,Hélary Christophe,Rochefort Gaël Y,Chaussain Catherine,Gorin Caroline Stem cells translational medicine The craniofacial area is prone to trauma or pathologies often resulting in large bone damages. One potential treatment option is the grafting of a tissue-engineered construct seeded with adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The dental pulp appears as a relevant source of MSCs, as dental pulp stem cells display strong osteogenic properties and are efficient at bone formation and repair. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and/or hypoxia primings were shown to boost the angiogenesis potential of dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Based on these findings, we hypothesized here that these primings would also improve bone formation in the context of craniofacial bone repair. We found that both hypoxic and FGF-2 primings enhanced SHED proliferation and osteogenic differentiation into plastically compressed collagen hydrogels, with a much stronger effect observed with the FGF-2 priming. After implantation in immunodeficient mice, the tissue-engineered constructs seeded with FGF-2 primed SHED mediated faster intramembranous bone formation into critical size calvarial defects than the other groups (no priming and hypoxia priming). The results of this study highlight the interest of FGF-2 priming in tissue engineering for craniofacial bone repair. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:844&857. 10.1002/sctm.18-0182
    Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis. Sun Hai-Hua,Chen Bo,Zhu Qing-Lin,Kong Hui,Li Qi-Hong,Gao Li-Na,Xiao Min,Chen Fa-Ming,Yu Qing Biomaterials Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P < 0.05), the decreases were not consistent with the degree of periodontitis. Furthermore, the cells did not necessarily show significantly diminished in vitro multi-differentiation potential. Only DPSCs from Group A and the Control group formed dentin-like matrix in vivo when cell-seeded biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the cells were isolated from periodontally compromised teeth (P < 0.05). Again, increased periodontal destruction was not necessarily followed by a decrease in the amount of dentin- and pulp-like tissue formed. These findings provide preliminary evidence that periodontally compromised teeth might contain putative stem cells with certain MSC properties, as long as the vitality of the pulp has not been totally damaged. Whether these cells can serve as a source of autologous multipotent MSCs for clinical regenerative therapies warrants further investigation with larger sample sizes and various types of periodontitis. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.08.003
    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth as an alternative cell source in bio-root regeneration. Yang Xueting,Ma Yue,Guo Weihua,Yang Bo,Tian Weidong Theranostics A stem cell-mediated bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) has proven to be a prospective tool for the treatment of tooth loss. As shown in our previous studies, dental follicle cells (DFCs) are suitable seeding cells for the construction of bio-roots. However, the DFCs which can only be obtained from unerupted tooth germ are restricted. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), which are harvested much more easily through a minimally invasive procedure, may be used as an alternative seeding cell. In this case, we compared the odontogenic characteristics of DFCs and SHEDs in bio-root regeneration. : The biological characteristics of SHEDs and DFCs were determined . The cells were then induced to secrete abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) and form macroscopic cell sheets. We combined the cell sheets with treated dentin matrix (TDM) for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice and orthotopic jaw bone implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats to further verify their regenerative potential. : DFCs exhibited a higher proliferation rate and stronger osteogenesis and adipogenesis capacities, while SHEDs displayed increased migration ability and excellent neurogenic potential. Both dental follicle cell sheets (DFCSs) and sheets of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDSs) expressed not only ECM proteins but also osteogenic and odontogenic proteins. Importantly, similar to DFCSs/TDM, SHEDSs/TDM also successfully achieved the regeneration of the periodontal tissues, which consist of periodontal ligament fibers, blood vessels and new born alveolar bone. : Both SHEDs and DFCs possessed a similar odontogenic differentiation capacity and SHEDs were regarded as a prospective seeding cell for use in bio-root regeneration in the future. 10.7150/thno.31801
    Advanced Biomaterials and Techniques for Oral Tissue Engineering and Regeneration-A Review. Matichescu Anamaria,Ardelean Lavinia Cosmina,Rusu Laura-Cristina,Craciun Dragos,Bratu Emanuel Adrian,Babucea Marius,Leretter Marius Materials (Basel, Switzerland) The reconstruction or repair of oral and maxillofacial functionalities and aesthetics is a priority for patients affected by tooth loss, congenital defects, trauma deformities, or various dental diseases. Therefore, in dental medicine, tissue reconstruction represents a major interest in oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontics, orthodontics, endodontics, and even daily clinical practice. The current clinical approaches involve a vast array of techniques ranging from the traditional use of tissue grafts to the most innovative regenerative procedures, such as tissue engineering. In recent decades, a wide range of both artificial and natural biomaterials and scaffolds, genes, stem cells isolated from the mouth area (dental follicle, deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament, dental pulp, salivary glands, and adipose tissue), and various growth factors have been tested in tissue engineering approaches in dentistry, with many being proven successful. However, to fully eliminate the problems of traditional bone and tissue reconstruction in dentistry, continuous research is needed. Based on a recent literature review, this paper creates a picture of current innovative strategies applying dental stem cells for tissue regeneration in different dental fields and maxillofacial surgery, and offers detailed information regarding the available scientific data and practical applications. 10.3390/ma13225303
    Stem cell-based tooth and periodontal regeneration. Hu L,Liu Y,Wang S Oral diseases Currently regeneration of tooth and periodontal damage still remains great challenge. Stem cell-based tissue engineering raised novel therapeutic strategies for tooth and periodontal repair. Stem cells for tooth and periodontal regeneration include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), stem cells from the dental apical papilla (SCAPs), and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), dental epithelial stem cells (DESCs), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To date, substantial advances have been made in stem cell-based tooth and periodontal regeneration, including dentin-pulp, whole tooth, bioroot and periodontal regeneration. Translational investigations have been performed such as dental stem cell banking and clinical trials. In this review, we present strategies for stem cell-based tissue engineering for tooth and periodontal repair, and the translational studies. 10.1111/odi.12703