Lysyl oxidase and MMP-2 expression in dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovary in rats.
Henmi H,Endo T,Nagasawa K,Hayashi T,Chida M,Akutagawa N,Iwasaki M,Kitajima Y,Kiya T,Nishikawa A,Manase K,Kudo R
Biology of reproduction
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by cystogenesis; however, the cause of this cystogenesis is unknown. At ovulation, preovulatory collagenolytic activities in the ovarian follicles increase and various proteinases are needed to degrade the tissues surrounding the follicles. To clarify the roles of enzymes in collagen degradation of the follicular wall of polycystic ovary (PCO) in relation to the cystogenesis, we examined expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), which initiates cross-link formation of the collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix, and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in ovaries of model rats with PCO induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) compared with MMP expression in control rats. DHEA treatment increased LOX mRNA expression to more than three times the control value (P: < 0.01). MMP-2 mRNA expression in control rats was threefold greater than that in the DHEA-induced group (P: < 0.05). Expression of both latent and active forms of MMP-2 in controls was more than twice that in the DHEA-induced group (P: < 0.05) as shown by Western blotting, and expression of the active form of MMP-2 was also twice as high in the controls as in the DHEA-treated group (P: < 0.05) as shown by zymography. Our results suggest that depression of MMP-2 activity and increased LOX expression may be one of the causes of the cystogenesis of PCO.
Quality of life, psychosocial well-being, and sexual satisfaction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Elsenbruch Sigrid,Hahn Susanne,Kowalsky Daniela,Offner Alexandra H,Schedlowski Manfred,Mann Klaus,Janssen Onno E
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. PCOS is one of the leading causes of infertility and manifests with hirsutism, acne, and obesity. To investigate its impact on health-related quality of life and sexuality, 50 women with PCOS and 50 controls were evaluated with standardized questionnaires (36-item short-form health survey, symptom checklist revised, and life satisfaction questionnaire). The impact of hirsutism, obesity, and infertility was assessed using five-point rating scales, and sexual satisfaction was analyzed with visual analog scales. Patients showed greater psychological disturbances on the symptom checklist revised dimensions, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, and psychoticism, along with a lower degree of life satisfaction in the life satisfaction questionnaire scales health, self, and sex. Health-related quality of life measured with the 36-item short-form health survey revealed significantly decreased scores for physical role function, bodily pain, vitality, social function, emotional role function, and mental health in patients with PCOS. Although patients had the same partner status and frequency of sexual intercourse, they were significantly less satisfied with their sex life and found themselves less attractive. Most of the differences were not affected by correction for body weight. In conclusion, PCOS causes a major reduction in the quality of life and severely limits sexual satisfaction.
Effect of Exercise on Ovulation: A Systematic Review.
Hakimi Osnat,Cameron Luiz-Claudio
Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)
BACKGROUND:Infertility has been described as a devastating life crisis for couples, and has a particularly severe effect on women, in terms of anxiety and depression. Anovulation accounts for around 30% of female infertility, and while lifestyle factors such as physical activity are known to be important, the relationship between exercise and ovulation is multi-factorial and complex, and to date there are no clear recommendations concerning exercise regimes. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of physical activity on ovulation and to discuss the possible mechanisms by which exercise acts to modulate ovulation in reproductive-age women. This was done with a view to improve existing guidelines for women wishing to conceive, as well as women suffering from anovulatory infertility. SEARCH METHODS:The published literature was searched up to April 2016 using the search terms ovulation, anovulatory, fertility, sport, physical activity and exercise. Both observational and interventional studies were considered, as well as studies that combined exercise with diet. Case studies and articles that did not report anovulation/ovulation or ovarian morphology as outcomes were excluded. Studies involving administered drugs in addition to exercise were excluded. RESULTS:In total, ten interventions and four observational cohort studies were deemed relevant. Cohort studies showed that there is an increased risk of anovulation in extremely heavy exercisers (>60 min/day), but vigorous exercise of 30-60 min/day was associated with reduced risk of anovulatory infertility. Ten interventions were identified, and of these three have studied the effect of vigorous exercise on ovulation in healthy, ovulating women, but only one showed a significant disruption of ovulation as a result. Seven studies have investigated the effect of exercise on overweight/obese women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or anovulatory infertility, showing that exercise, with or without diet, can lead to resumption of ovulation. The mechanism by which exercise affects ovulation is most probably via modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis due to increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In heavy exercisers and/or underweight women, an energy drain, low leptin and fluctuating opioids caused by excess exercise have been implicated in HPA dysfunction. In overweight and obese women (with or without PCOS), exercise contributed to lower insulin and free androgen levels, leading to the restoration of HPA regulation of ovulation. CONCLUSIONS:Several clear gaps have been identified in the existing literature. Short-term studies of over-training have not always produced the disturbance to ovulation identified in the observational studies, bringing up the question of the roles of longer term training and chronic energy deficit. We believe this merits further investigation in specific cohorts, such as professional athletes. Another gap is the complete absence of exercise-based interventions in anovulatory women with a normal body mass index (BMI). The possibly unjustified focus on weight loss rather than the exercise programme means there is also a lack of studies comparing types of physical activity, intensity and settings. We believe that these gaps are delaying an efficient and effective use of exercise as a therapeutic modality to treat anovulatory infertility.
Androgens and mood dysfunction in women: comparison of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome to healthy controls.
Weiner Cindy L,Primeau Margaret,Ehrmann David A
OBJECTIVE:Our understanding of the organizational and activational effects of human gonadal hormones on behavior has depended on the study of endocrine disorders. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that begins in puberty and is characterized by chronically augmented free testosterone (FT) levels. The purposes of this study were 1) to compare negative mood states of women with PCOS to those of women with normal hormonal levels and 2) to examine the relationship between negative moods and androgens. METHODS:Twenty-seven women with PCOS were case-matched to 27 normal menstruating women on body mass index since being overweight is a common symptom of PCOS and could affect mood states. Serum levels of FT, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, and progesterone were determined. Self-reported depression, anger, anxiety, and aggression were analyzed between groups, and individual scores were compared across groups to hormone values. RESULTS:Depression was significantly increased in the PCOS group and remained so after considering the variance related to physical symptomatology and other mood states. Furthermore, a curvilinear relationship between FT and negative affect across groups was suggested: the most elevated negative mood-scale scores were associated with FT values just beyond the upper limits of normal, while lower negative mood levels corresponded to both normal and extremely high values of FT. CONCLUSIONS:These results are consistent with a model of activational influences of testosterone on adult female behavior. Implications are discussed for future research and for treatment of PCOS and other menstrual-cycle mood disorders.
Effects of androgen and leptin on behavioral and cellular responses in female rats.
Feng Yi,Shao Ruijin,Weijdegård Birgitta,Wang Tienpei,Johansson Julia,Sun Shan,Wang Wei,Egecioglu Emil,Billig Håkan,Stener-Victorin Elisabet
Hormones and behavior
The causes of anxiety and depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain elusive. To identify steps linking androgen signaling to the regulation of affective symptoms in vivo, we compared behavioral responses in female rats continuously exposed to DHT from puberty (a model of DHT-induced PCOS) and in rats exposed to DHT for 1week. Continuous and 1week of DHT exposure resulted in a general decrease in locomotor activity and time spent on the open arms in the elevated plus maze, indicating anxiety-like behavior. Rats with DHT-induced PCOS have increases in adiposity and circulating leptin levels accompanied by leptin resistance. One week of DHT exposure decreased androgen receptor (AR) expression in the hypothalamus and leptin synthesis and function in adipocytes; it also inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and attenuated leptin activity by increasing levels of soluble leptin receptor, a leptin-binding protein, in the hypothalamus. This may affect the androgen-induced anxiety-related behavior in female rats. In conclusion, our results highlight the central role of androgens in behavioral function in female rats and suggest that androgens directly regulate the AR by decreasing its hypothalamic expression. Androgens also increase leptin synthesis in adipocytes, which drives central leptin signaling, and may regulate anxiety-related behaviors. Elucidating mechanisms by which androgens modulate female anxiety-like behavior may uncover useful approaches for treating women with PCOS who have symptoms of anxiety.
Diet-induced obesity exacerbates metabolic and behavioral effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in a rodent model.
Ressler Ilana B,Grayson Bernadette E,Ulrich-Lai Yvonne M,Seeley Randy J
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Although a comorbidity of PCOS is obesity, many are lean. We hypothesized that increased saturated fat consumption and obesity would exacerbate metabolic and stress indices in a rodent model of PCOS. Female rats were implanted with the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or placebo pellets prior to puberty. Half of each group was maintained ad libitum on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 40% butter fat calories) or nutrient-matched low-fat diet (LFD). Irrespective of diet, DHT-treated animals gained more body weight, had irregular cycles, and were glucose intolerant compared with controls on both diets. HFD/DHT animals had the highest levels of fat mass and insulin resistance. DHT animals demonstrated increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze by decreased distance traveled and time in the open arms. HFD consumption increased immobility during the forced-swim test. DHT treatment suppressed diurnal corticosterone measurements in both diet groups. In parallel, DHT treatment significantly dampened stress responsivity to a mild stressor. Brains of DHT animals showed attenuated c-Fos activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus; irrespective of DHT-treatment, however, all HFD animals had elevated hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus c-Fos activation. Whereas hyperandrogenism drives overall body weight gain, glucose intolerance, anxiety behaviors, and stress responsivity, HFD consumption exacerbates the effect of androgens on adiposity, insulin resistance, and depressive behaviors.
The role of the endogenous opioid system in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Eyvazzadeh Aimee D,Pennington Kathryn P,Pop-Busui Rodica,Sowers MaryFran,Zubieta Jon-Kar,Smith Yolanda R
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:To review the complex role of the opioid system in reproduction and carbohydrate metabolism, abnormalities in the opioid system in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and the role of opioid antagonists in the management of PCOS-related infertility. DESIGN:Pertinent articles were identified through a computer PubMed search. References of selected articles were hand searched for additional citations. CONCLUSION(S):Endogenous opioids are generally considered inhibitory central neurotransmitters. Peripherally, opioids are involved in the regulation of pancreatic islet function, hepatic insulin clearance, and glucose metabolism, potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in PCOS. The presence of sex steroids is required for normal function of the opioid system in both GnRH secretion and carbohydrate metabolism. In women with PCOS, growing evidence suggests dysregulation of the opioid system both centrally and peripherally, with complex interactions. The opioid system effects on carbohydrate metabolism appear to be modulated by obesity. Finally, naltrexone has been demonstrated to successfully augment traditional ovulation induction regimens, but has limited support as a single ovulation induction agent for PCOS.
Personality and psychiatric disorders in women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome.
Scaruffi Elisabetta,Gambineri Alessandra,Cattaneo Stefania,Turra Jenni,Vettor Roberto,Mioni Roberto
Frontiers in endocrinology
BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. METHOD:Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner's comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. RESULTS:MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive-aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive-compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test's results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. CONCLUSION:PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects.
Dietary composition in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review to inform evidence-based guidelines.
Moran Lisa J,Ko Henry,Misso Marie,Marsh Kate,Noakes Manny,Talbot Mac,Frearson Meredith,Thondan Mala,Stepto Nigel,Teede Helena J
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
While lifestyle management is recommended as first-line treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the optimal dietary composition is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different diet compositions on anthropometric, reproductive, metabolic, and psychological outcomes in PCOS. A literature search was conducted (Australasian Medical Index, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, PsycInfo, and EBM reviews; most recent search was performed January 19, 2012). Inclusion criteria were women with PCOS not taking anti-obesity medications and all weight-loss or maintenance diets comparing different dietary compositions. Studies were assessed for risk of bias. A total of 4,154 articles were retrieved and six articles from five studies met the a priori selection criteria, with 137 women included. A meta-analysis was not performed due to clinical heterogeneity for factors including participants, dietary intervention composition, duration, and outcomes. There were subtle differences between diets, with greater weight loss for a monounsaturated fat-enriched diet; improved menstrual regularity for a low-glycemic index diet; increased free androgen index for a high-carbohydrate diet; greater reductions in insulin resistance, fibrinogen, total, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for a low-carbohydrate or low-glycemic index diet; improved quality of life for a low-glycemic index diet; and improved depression and self-esteem for a high-protein diet. Weight loss improved the presentation of PCOS regardless of dietary composition in the majority of studies. Weight loss should be targeted in all overweight women with PCOS through reducing caloric intake in the setting of adequate nutritional intake and healthy food choices irrespective of diet composition.
Pioglitazone Metformin Complex Improves Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Comorbid Psychological Distress via Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation: A Prospective Clinical Study.
Guo Qing-Jun,Shan Jing,Xu Yi-Feng,Hu Yan-Yan,Huo Cui-Lan,Song Jing-Yun,Wang Chao-Qun,Zhou Hui,Yu Chao-Qin,Huang Qin
Mediators of inflammation
Objective:This study aimed at investigating the therapeutic effect and mechanism of pioglitazone metformin complex preparation (PM) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comorbid psychological distress. Methods:Seventy-five patients with PCOS comorbid psychological distress were randomly allocated into the PM, metformin, and placebo groups. The primary efficacy measure was the change from baseline to week 12 on the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R) scores. NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-, and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and at week 12. The participants were required to meet the criteria for PCOS (Rotterdam, NIH) and psychological distress (any factor scores of SCL - 90 - R > 2). Results:The participants had significantly high scores on the SCL-90-R scales of anxiety and depression. PM significantly decreased anxiety and depression symptom severity (from 2.31 ± 0.75 to 1.65 ± 0.38, < 0.001, and from 2.08 ± 0.74 to 1.61 ± 0.46, = 0.010, at week 12, respectively). PM significantly decreased the expression of NRPL3 and caspase-1. Patients in the PM group experienced a significant reduction in IL-1 (from 98.42 ± 14.38 to 71.76 ± 13.66, = 0.02), IL-6 (from 87.51 ± 8.74 to 71.98 ± 15.87, = 0.02), and TNF- (from 395.33 ± 88.55 to 281.98 ± 85.69, = 0.04). PM was superior to metformin in reducing total testosterone (2.24 ± 0.74 versus 3.06 ± 0.83, = 0.024, at week 12). Conclusions:This study is the first to reveal that PM alleviates psychological distress via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome and improves several markers, including total testosterone.
Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Hollinrake Elizabeth,Abreu Alison,Maifeld Michelle,Van Voorhis Bradley J,Dokras Anuja
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with several metabolic complications. A few small studies have also suggested an increased risk of depression in women with PCOS. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of depressive disorders in women with PCOS compared with controls and to evaluate the correlation between depression, hyperandrogenism, and other metabolic markers. DESIGN:Cohort study. SETTING:University Hospital. PATIENT(S):Women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria; n = 103). Women without PCOS seen during the same time period for an annual exam were used as control subjects (n = 103). INTERVENTION(S):Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire (PRIME-MD PHQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Depressive disorders. RESULT(S):Women with PCOS were at an increased risk for depressive disorders (new cases) compared with controls (21% vs. 3%; odds ratio 5.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-20.69]; P<.03). The overall risk of depressive disorders in women with PCOS was 4.23 (95% CI 1.49-11.98; P<.01) independent of obesity and infertility. Compared with the nondepressed PCOS subjects, the depressed PCOS subjects had a higher body mass index (BMI) and evidence of insulin resistance (P<.02). CONCLUSION(S):We report a significantly increased risk of depressive disorders (as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV) in women with PCOS and recommend routine screening in this population.
Quality of life and psychological well being in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Barnard L,Ferriday D,Guenther N,Strauss B,Balen A H,Dye L
Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with poor quality of life (QoL) and high levels of depression. Existing research is confounded by small sample sizes and inconsistent use of control groups. METHODS:Depression and QoL were assessed in women with PCOS and healthy controls (n = 1359). The polycystic ovary syndrome health-related QoL questionnaire (PCOSQ) was modified to include an acne subscale. RESULTS:Seventy-one percentage of women with PCOS who were taking anti-androgen (AA) medication and 67% not taking AA medication were classified as depressed. Women with PCOS had lower QoL on all seven factors of the modified PCOSQ (emotional disturbance, weight, infertility, acne, menstrual symptoms, menstrual predictability and hirsutism). Weight was the largest contributor to poor QoL for women taking and not taking AA medication. Women taking AA medications, independent of diagnosis, generally had better QoL than women not taking them. CONCLUSIONS:This large study refines our understanding of depression and QoL in PCOS and demonstrates the need to regularly review the psychological health of women with PCOS.
Disturbed stress responses in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Benson S,Arck P C,Tan S,Hahn S,Mann K,Rifaie N,Janssen O E,Schedlowski M,Elsenbruch S
BACKGROUND:We analyzed the neuroendocrine and immune cell responses to psychosocial stress in PCOS patients compared to BMI-matched healthy controls. METHODS:Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in 32 PCOS patients and 32 BMI-matched healthy controls. At baseline, during, and 10- and 45-min after stress, state anxiety, cardiovascular responses, cortisol, ACTH, as well as circulating leukocyte subpopulations were analyzed, together with hsCRP and serum IL-6 concentrations. RESULTS:In response to public speaking stress, both groups showed significant but comparable increases in state anxiety, and blood pressure (all p<0.001; time effects). The ACTH and cortisol stress responses were significantly enhanced in PCOS (both p<0.05; interaction effect). In addition, heart rate was significantly higher in PCOS (p<0.05; group effect). PCOS patients displayed a reduced upregulation of IL-6 levels in response to stress (p<0.05; interaction effect). Baseline levels of circulating leukocyte subpopulations, IL-6 and hsCRP concentrations did not differ between BMI-matched controls and PCOS patients. PCOS patients were characterized by markedly increased psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS:PCOS patients showed enhanced HPA-axis and heart rate reactivity as well as a reduced upregulation of IL-6 in response to stress. The altered stress reactivity in PCOS patients may constitute a link between depression, overweight, and the cardiovascular and diabetes risks associated with the diagnosis.
Depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical and biochemical correlates.
Rasgon Natalie L,Rao Rekha C,Hwang Sun,Altshuler Lori L,Elman Shana,Zuckerbrow-Miller Joni,Korenman Stanley G
Journal of affective disorders
BACKGROUND:We assessed the prevalence of mood disturbance among women with prospectively documented polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS:Thirty-two women with PCOS completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Rating Scale (CES-D). Clinical and biochemical characteristics were assessed. RESULTS:Sixteen women had CES-D scores indicative of depression. Depression was associated with greater insulin resistance (P=0.02) and higher body mass index (P=0.05). Women receiving oral contraceptives for the treatment of PCOS were less depressed than patients not receiving treatment (P=0.03). LIMITATIONS:Possible selection bias, use of a screening tool alone without further diagnostic evaluation of depression, small samples size and lack of direct comparison with an age matched control group, should be considered in interpretation of these results. CONCLUSION:Findings suggest a high prevalence of depression among women with PCOS, and an association between depression and PCOS markers.
The effects of aerobic physical exercises on body image among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Kogure Gislaine Satyko,Lopes Iris Palma,Ribeiro Victor Barbosa,Mendes Maria Célia,Kodato Sérgio,Furtado Cristiana Libardi Miranda,Silva de Sá Marcos Felipe,Ferriani Rui Alberto,Lara Lúcia Alves da Silva,Reis Rosana Maria Dos
Journal of affective disorders
BACKGROUND:Both physical and mental health care for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) require a multidisciplinary approach. We evaluated the effects of continuous (CAT) and intermittent (IAT) aerobic training in different protocols that measure body image, anxiety, depression and sexual dysfunction in women with PCOS. METHODS:In this controlled clinical trial, women with PCOS were randomly allocated for 16 weeks to 1 out of 3 groups: CAT (n = 28), IAT (n = 29), or control group (CG, n = 30). For data collection, we used the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Figure Rating Scale (FRS), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Measurement Scales (HADS). RESULTS:No effects of CAT, IAT or CG groups were identified in the perceptual dimension of body image. The dis(satisfaction) grade improved after exercise in the CAT group (p ≤ 0.01) compared to the CG, as well as improved within CAT and IAT groups. Total FSFI, and HADS-A and HADS-D scores improved after exercise in the both groups. At baseline and after the study period, there were positive correlations between scores for dis(satisfaction), HADS-A and HADS-D scores. HADS-A and HADS-D scores had a negative correlation with FSFI total in the IAT (p = =0.02) group compared to the CG, as well as within CAT and IAT groups. LIMITATIONS:The participants were not matched for body mass index (normal, overweight and obese) which may interfere on body image dimensions. CONCLUSION:Aerobic exercise improves sexual function and indices related to anxiety and depression. Likewise, it interferes in cognitive-affective dimension of the body image.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Associated With Adverse Mental Health and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes.
Berni Thomas R,Morgan Christopher L,Berni Ellen R,Rees D Aled
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Context:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism and subfertility, but the effects on mental health and child neurodevelopment are unclear. Objectives:To determine if (1) there is an association between PCOS and psychiatric outcomes and (2) whether rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are higher in children of mothers with PCOS. Design:Data were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Patients with PCOS were matched to two control sets (1:1) by age, body mass index, and primary care practice. Control set 2 was additionally matched on prior mental health status. Primary outcomes were the incidence of depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Secondary outcomes were the prevalence of ADHD or ASD in the children. Results:Eligible patients (16,986) were identified; 16,938 and 16,355 were matched to control sets 1 and 2, respectively. Compared with control set 1, baseline prevalence was 23.1% vs 19.3% for depression, 11.5% vs 9.3% for anxiety, and 3.2% vs 1.5% for bipolar disorder (P < 0.001). The hazard ratio for time to each endpoint was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.32), 1.20 (1.11 to 1.29), and 1.21 (1.03 to 1.42) for set 1 and 1.38 (1.30 to 1.45), 1.39 (1.29 to 1.51), and 1.44 (1.21 to 1.71) for set 2. The odds ratios for ASD and ADHD in children were 1.54 (1.12 to 2.11) and 1.64 (1.16 to 2.33) for set 1 and 1.76 (1.27 to 2.46) and 1.34 (0.96 to 1.89) for set 2. Conclusions:PCOS is associated with psychiatric morbidity and increased risk of ADHD and ASD in their children. Screening for mental health disorders should be considered during assessment.
Mental health and physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a brief review.
Conte Francesca,Banting Lauren,Teede Helena J,Stepto Nigel K
Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)
This review was designed to consider the available literature concerning mental health and physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A systematic approach was taken and two electronic databases (PubMed and EBSCO Research articles published between 1970 and 2013) were searched in 2013 to inform a narrative review. Inclusion criteria encompassed requirements for the research to involve a physical activity intervention and assessment of mental health outcomes in women with PCOS. Seven articles considered mental health outcomes and physical activity interventions for women with PCOS. The results demonstrated positive outcomes following physical activity intervention for health-related quality of life, depression, and anxiety. Only one paper reported the independent effects of physical activity on mental health. All other interventions included multi-factor lifestyle interventions or did not establish a control group. Physical activity is likely to be beneficial to the mental health of women with PCOS; however, more research is required to establish the nature of the relationship between physical activity and mental health outcomes.
Prevalence of androgenic alopecia in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and characterization of associated clinical and biochemical features.
Quinn Molly,Shinkai Kanade,Pasch Lauri,Kuzmich Lili,Cedars Marcelle,Huddleston Heather
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:To describe the prevalence of androgenic alopecia (AGA) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to characterize associated clinical and biochemical features. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Multidisciplinary PCOS clinic at a tertiary academic center. PATIENT(S):A total of 254 women with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria were systematically examined from 2007 to 2012 by a reproductive endocrinologist, a dermatologist, and a psychologist. INTERVENTION(S):Comprehensive dermatologic exams, ultrasonic imaging, serum testing, and Beck Depression Inventory Fast Screen (BDI-FS). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Presence of AGA, acne, hirsutism, biochemical hyperandrogenemia, metabolic dysfunction, and clinical depression. RESULT(S):Fifty-six of 254 patients with PCOS (22.0%) had AGA. Subjects with PCOS and AGA were more likely to have acne or hirsutism than those without AGA (96.3% vs. 70.6%). Subjects with AGA were more likely to report concern with hair loss (70.4% vs. 37.7%); however, their BDI-FS scores were no different from subjects without AGA. There were no differences between subjects with and without AGA in biochemical hyperandrogenism or metabolic parameters. CONCLUSION(S):AGA is prevalent in 22% of subjects meeting diagnostic criteria for PCOS. AGA is associated with other manifestations of clinical hyperandrogenism, but not with greater risk of biochemical hyperandrogenemia or metabolic dysfunction than with PCOS alone.
Predictive factors of health-related quality of life in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a structural equation modeling approach.
Bazarganipour Fatemeh,Ziaei Saeide,Montazeri Ali,Foroozanfard Fatemeh,Kazemnejad Anoshirvan,Faghihzadeh Soghrat
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:To determine association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosexual variables in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Two private gynecology clinics. PATIENT(S):A sample of 300 women with PCOS were entered into the study and were subdivided into three groups: hyperandrogenism (HA) and PCO morphology; menstrual dysfunction and PCO morphology; menstrual dysfunction and HA and/or PCO morphology. Then each patient completed the following questionnaires: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Body Image Concern Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Short-Form Health Survey, and the Female Sexual Function Index. INTERVENTION(S):None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Both direct and indirect relationships among clinical symptoms, psychologic status, self-esteem, body image, and sexual function as independent predictors of HRQOL were examined with the use of structural equation modeling analysis. RESULT(S):The clinical variables and psychologic distress had the strongest indirect relationships with HRQOL in the HA phenotype. The highest effect of PCOS symptoms on HRQOL impairment in patients with menstrual irregularities along with HA and patients with menstrual irregularities along with polycystic ovaries was exerted by clinical variables, poor perception of self-worth, negative body image, and sexual dysfunction. CONCLUSION(S):In patients with various phenotypes of PCOS, the effects of mediating variables on HRQOL are different. In patients with PCOS, the findings suggest that mediating factors, especially psychologic distress, self-esteem, body image, and sexual function, play an important role and should be taken into consideration and adequately treated if present.
Comparison of dietary intake and physical activity between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome: a review.
Lin Annie W,Lujan Marla E
Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age worldwide. In addition to deleterious effects on fertility imparted by PCOS, women with PCOS are at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, and certain cancers. Hormonal and metabolic aberrations in PCOS have the potential to influence dietary intake and physical activity levels. There are emerging global data that women with PCOS have different baseline dietary energy intakes compared with women without PCOS. These alterations in diet may exacerbate clinical symptoms and compound risk of chronic disease in patients. Few studies have compared baseline physical activity levels between women with and without PCOS. Although comparisons between studies are confounded by several factors, the data point to no differences in activity levels among PCOS and non-PCOS groups. This review provides an assessment of the current literature on baseline dietary intake and physical activity levels in women with PCOS. Future recommendations to strengthen research in this area are provided, given the implications to aid in the development of effective nutrition-focused interventions for PCOS.
The effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Jamilian Mehri,Shojaei Azadeh,Samimi Mansooreh,Afshar Ebrahimi Faraneh,Aghadavod Esmat,Karamali Maryam,Taghizadeh Mohsen,Jamilian Hamidreza,Alaeinasab Somayeh,Jafarnejad Sadegh,Asemi Zatollah
Journal of affective disorders
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS:Forty PCOS women were allocated into two groups and treated with 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 12 weeks. Parameters of mental health were recorded at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. Gene expression related to insulin and inflammation were measured in blood samples of PCOS women. RESULTS:After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation led to significant improvements in beck depression inventory total score (- 2.2 ± 2.0 vs. - 0.2 ± 1.3, P = 0.001), general health questionnaire scores (- 5.5 ± 4.6 vs. - 1.0 ± 2.3, P < 0.001) and depression anxiety and stress scale scores (- 7.2 ± 5.2 vs. - 1.3 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). Compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation could up-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression (P = 0.04) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of PCOS women. In addition, compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation down-regulated interleukin-8 (IL-8) (P = 0.003) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression (P = 0.001) in PBMC of PCOS women. There were no significant difference between-group changes in glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in PBMC of PCOS women. CONCLUSION:Omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation was effective in improving parameters of mental health, and gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-8 and TNF-α of women with PCOS.
Sleep disturbances in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: prevalence, pathophysiology, impact and management strategies.
Fernandez Renae C,Moore Vivienne M,Van Ryswyk Emer M,Varcoe Tamara J,Rodgers Raymond J,March Wendy A,Moran Lisa J,Avery Jodie C,McEvoy R Doug,Davies Michael J
Nature and science of sleep
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting the reproductive, metabolic and psychological health of women. Clinic-based studies indicate that sleep disturbances and disorders including obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness occur more frequently among women with PCOS compared to comparison groups without the syndrome. Evidence from the few available population-based studies is supportive. Women with PCOS tend to be overweight/obese, but this only partly accounts for their sleep problems as associations are generally upheld after adjustment for body mass index; sleep problems also occur in women with PCOS of normal weight. There are several, possibly bidirectional, pathways through which PCOS is associated with sleep disturbances. The pathophysiology of PCOS involves hyperandrogenemia, a form of insulin resistance unique to affected women, and possible changes in cortisol and melatonin secretion, arguably reflecting altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. Psychological and behavioral pathways are also likely to play a role, as anxiety and depression, smoking, alcohol use and lack of physical activity are also common among women with PCOS, partly in response to the distressing symptoms they experience. The specific impact of sleep disturbances on the health of women with PCOS is not yet clear; however, both PCOS and sleep disturbances are associated with deterioration in cardiometabolic health in the longer term and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Both immediate quality of life and longer-term health of women with PCOS are likely to benefit from diagnosis and management of sleep disorders as part of interdisciplinary health care.
Anxiety and depression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a comprehensive investigation.
Deeks Amanda A,Gibson-Helm Melanie E,Teede Helena J
Fertility and sterility
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with high levels of depression, which impact quality of life and limit self-efficacy, yet less is known about prevalence of anxiety. This cross-sectional, observational study of community-based women with PCOS comprehensively examined mood and found that anxiety existed at higher levels than depression, anxiety was underdiagnosed, and more women with PCOS who reported infertility were depressed.
Prevalence and implications of anxiety in polycystic ovary syndrome: results of an internet-based survey in Germany.
Benson S,Hahn S,Tan S,Mann K,Janssen O E,Schedlowski M,Elsenbruch S
Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
BACKGROUND:Comparatively little attention has been paid to the symptoms of anxiety in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), although anxiety disorders constitute the most common psychiatric diagnoses among endocrine patients and in the general population. Therefore, our goal was to address the prevalence, determinants and implications of anxiety alone or anxiety in combination with depression in German women with PCOS. METHODS:In this nation-wide, internet-based survey, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS) and quality of life (SF-12) were assessed together with sociodemographic information and clinical PCOS symptoms in 448 PCOS women. RESULTS:Of the patients, 34% showed clinically relevant HADS anxiety scores and 21% had clinically relevant HADS depression scores. Quality of life was significantly impaired in PCOS women with anxiety (P < 0.001), in particular, in women with comorbid anxiety and depression (P < 0.001). The risk for clinically relevant HADS anxiety scores was significantly enhanced in PCOS women with acne (odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-2.52) and an unfulfilled wish to conceive (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.01-2.23). CONCLUSIONS:PCOS women may be at an increased risk for clinically relevant anxiety, and comorbid anxiety and depression is also very common. Anxiety contributes to impaired quality of life in PCOS. Given the high prevalence and the serious implications, and the availability of effective treatment options given proper diagnosis, clinicians should be more aware of anxiety disorders in women with PCOS.
Antidepressants for polycystic ovary syndrome.
Zhuang Jing,Wang Xianding,Xu Liangzhi,Wu Taixiang,Kang Deying
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
BACKGROUND:The prevalence of depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is high; one study has shown it to be four times that of women without PCOS. Therefore, systematic evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for women with PCOS is important. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in treating depression and other symptoms in women with PCOS. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the following databases from inception to June 2012: the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (controlled-trials.com), the National Institute of Health Clinical Trials register (clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Trials Registry Platform search portal (www.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx). SELECTION CRITERIA:Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for women with PCOS were included in this review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:The methodological quality of the trials was assessed independently by two review authors, in parallel with data extraction. The risk of bias in the included study was assessed in six domains: 1. sequence generation; 2. allocation concealment; 3. blinding of participants, personnel and outcome assessors; 4. completeness of outcome data; 5. selective outcome reporting; 6. other potential sources of bias. MAIN RESULTS:We found no studies reporting any of our primary review outcomes (depression and allied mood disorder scores, quality of life and adverse events). Only one study with 16 women was eligible for inclusion. This study compared sibutramine versus fluoxetine in women with PCOS, and reported only endocrine and metabolic outcomes. It was unclear whether the participants had psychological problems at baseline. No significant difference was found between the groups for any of the measured outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:There is no evidence on the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in treating depression and other symptoms in women with PCOS.
Psychological parameters in the reproductive phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Moran L J,Deeks A A,Gibson-Helm M E,Teede H J
Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to assess the psychological features in women with different polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes [National Institute of Health (NIH) and non-NIH diagnostic criteria] and women without PCOS. METHODS:An observational, cross-sectional study compared overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) premenopausal women with PCOS (n = 29 NIH and n = 25 non-NIH) and controls (n = 27). Anxiety and depression were compared between women with NIH or non-NIH PCOS and women without PCOS. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) domains related to emotions, body hair, weight, infertility and menstrual problems were compared between women with NIH and non-NIH PCOS. RESULTS:Overall, women with PCOS had worse anxiety (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.048) compared with women without PCOS. Both women with NIH PCOS and non-NIH PCOS presented more often with moderate anxiety (P = 0.005 and P = 0.01, respectively) compared with women without PCOS. Women with NIH PCOS had worse HRQoL related to infertility (P = 0.012), emotions (P = 0.02) and weight (P = 0.016). No significant differences were observed between the two PCOS phenotypes for HRQoL domains related to body hair or menstrual problems. Both NIH (β = 0.30, P = 0.024) and non-NIH (β = 0.32, P = 0.016) PCOS status predicted anxiety, whereas age (β = 0.35, P = 0.008) and free androgen index (β = 0.31, P = 0.027) predicted depression. CONCLUSIONS:PCOS is associated with anxiety and depression. Non-NIH phenotypes present with similar psychological profiles to NIH PCOS, indicating increased psychological dysfunction in PCOS, even in milder reproductive phenotypes. However, women with NIH PCOS appear to have worse HRQoL in some areas than women with non-NIH PCOS. Psychological function and HRQoL should be considered in all women with PCOS.
Obesity, depression, and chronic low-grade inflammation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Benson S,Janssen O E,Hahn S,Tan S,Dietz T,Mann K,Pleger K,Schedlowski M,Arck P C,Elsenbruch S
Brain, behavior, and immunity
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) present with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases at a young age, including obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation. Since depression is common in PCOS, this study aimed to address whether depression correlates with indices of chronic low-grade inflammation beyond the association with obesity. METHODS:Serum concentrations of IL-6, the stimulated production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10, leukocyte numbers, and hsCRP were analyzed in 57 PCOS patients and 28 healthy women, together with clinical parameters, including body mass index (BMI), testosterone, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and psychological parameters, including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and health-related quality-of-life (SF-36) scores. RESULTS:PCOS patients demonstrated significantly increased hsCRP, IL-6, and leukocyte numbers. Group differences in IL-6 and leukocyte numbers, but not hsCRP, disappeared after controlling for BMI. The stimulated production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 was significantly decreased, irrespective of BMI. In PCOS, hsCRP, IL-6, and leukocyte numbers were correlated with BMI, HDL, diastolic blood pressure, and with insulin resistance. On the other hand, no correlations were found with depression scores or with PCOS-specific endocrine abnormalities. In regression models, BMI was a significant predictor of the key immune markers, and explained a large amount of variance, whereas BDI was not included in either model. CONCLUSIONS:These data confirm that obesity plays a pivotal role in inflammatory processes relevant to cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS. However, even lean PCOS patients may display subtle alterations in specific aspects of immunity. Our findings did not support a correlation of depression with chronic low-grade inflammation in PCOS.
Anxiety and depression symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with controls matched for body mass index.
Jedel E,Waern M,Gustafson D,Landén M,Eriksson E,Holm G,Nilsson L,Lind A-K,Janson P O,Stener-Victorin E
Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
BACKGROUND:Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in those without this disorder. Possible confounding effects of overweight and obesity are suggested. The aim was to compare symptoms of anxiety and depression in women with PCOS and controls matched for age, body weight and body mass index (BMI). METHODS:Women with PCOS (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) were recruited from the community. Persons with ongoing psychotropic medication were excluded. All potential participants underwent gynecological examination to confirm case-control status. Participants completed the self-reported versions of the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S) and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S). RESULTS:Women with PCOS had a higher BSA-S score compared with controls (median, range: 10.5, 1-24 versus 5.0, 0-28, P < 0.001). They scored higher on the following four individual symptoms: reduced sleep (2.0, 0-5 versus 0, 0-2, P < 0.001), worry (1.5, 0-4 versus 0, 0-6, P = 0.004), phobias (1, 0-4 versus 0, 0-3, P < 0.001), and pain (1, 0-3 versus 0, 0-2, P < 0.001). No statistical difference was demonstrated regarding MADRS-S scores (10.0, 0-27 versus 5.5, 0-24, P = 0.053). Only one of the nine MADRS-S symptoms, reduced sleep, which is also included in the BSA-S, differed between cases and controls. CONCLUSIONS:Several anxiety symptoms distinguished women with PCOS from a control group matched on BMI. A better understanding of the symptoms is needed to identify and alleviate anxiety symptoms in this vulnerable group.
Insulin resistance, obesity, inflammation, and depression in polycystic ovary syndrome: biobehavioral mechanisms and interventions.
Farrell Kristen,Antoni Michael H
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:To summarize physiological and psychological characteristics that are common among women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and provide evidence suggesting that addressing psychological disturbances can reduce or alleviate physical symptoms of PCOS through behavioral pathways and physiological pathways. METHOD(S):Empirical studies and expert consensuses pertaining to physiological, psychological, and medical management aspects of PCOS were identified and presented in this review. Articles were identified by searching Pubmed, PsycInfo, Medline ISI, CINAHL, or a Web browser (i.e., Google) using numerous combinations of terms pertaining to physiological, psychological, and medical management aspects of PCOS. An article was chosen to be included in this review if it reported findings and/or provided information that related to and helped support the main purpose(s) of this review article. RESULT(S):Available literature on the physiological (i.e., hyperandrogenism, central obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance) and psychological (i.e., depression, anxiety, eating disorders) factors among women with PCOS provides evidence that these various aspects of PCOS are strongly interrelated. CONCLUSION(S):The existence of these relationships among physiological and psychological factors strongly suggests that medical management of PCOS would greatly benefit from inclusion of psychological and behavioral approaches.
The mental health of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Yin Xican,Ji Yinan,Chan Cecilia Lai Wan,Chan Celia Hoi Yan
Archives of women's mental health
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed to be associated with several mental health problems, including anxiety, depression, diminished sexual satisfaction, and lowered health-related quality of life, etc. A systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature was conducted comparing the mental health of women with and without PCOS. Ten English and Chinese databases were searched up to 12/31/2018. Random-effects models were introduced, and subgroup analysis, sensitivity test, and meta-regression were carried out to determine the source for heterogeneity among studies. Forty-six studies, including 30,989 participants (9265 women with PCOS and 25,638 controls), were qualified for review according to the inclusion criteria. Twenty-eight studies reported depression symptoms, 22 studies were on anxiety, 16 studies showed quality of life (QoL) status, 12 studies were about sexual dysfunction, five on emotional distress, four on binge eating, and four on somatization. Women with PCOS reported significantly higher depression (SMD = 0.64; 95% CI 0.50-0.78), anxiety (SMD = 0.63; 95% CI 0.50-0.77), lower QoL (SMD = - 0.55; 95% CI -0.69 to -0.40), and not significant sexual dysfunction (SMD = - 0.24; 95% CI - 0.49 to 0.01). Studies from different countries, adopting various diagnosis criteria, using diverse instruments, as well as in different years, have reported heterogenetic results. Women with PCOS in China reported a larger effect size of depression and anxiety than patients from other countries. The results of this study have indicated that women with PCOS suffer from depression, anxiety, and experience a lower quality of life, whereas their sexual function is not distinct from that of healthy women. Psychological health care interventions for women with PCOS were addressed.
Lifestyle management improves quality of life and depression in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Thomson Rebecca L,Buckley Jonathan D,Lim Siew S,Noakes Manny,Clifton Peter M,Norman Robert J,Brinkworth Grant D
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of adding exercise to dietary restriction on depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN:Analysis of depression and quality of life outcomes from a randomized, controlled prospective clinical intervention that evaluated the effects on a range of health outcomes in women with PCOS. SETTING:Clinical research unit. PATIENT(S):One hundred four overweight/obese PCOS women (aged 29.3 ± 0.7 years; body mass index [BMI] 36.1 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)). INTERVENTION(S):Randomized to one of three 20-week lifestyle programs: diet only, diet and aerobic exercise, or diet and combined aerobic-resistance exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Depression and PCOS-specific HRQOL. RESULT(S):Forty-nine women completed the intervention (diet only = 14, diet and aerobic exercise = 15, diet and combined aerobic-resistance exercise = 20). By week 20 all groups achieved weight loss and had improvements in depression and PCOS-specific HRQOL scores, except for body hair domain score. There was no difference between treatments for all outcomes. CONCLUSION(S):This study demonstrated that dietary restriction alone and combined with exercise had similar benefits for improving depression and HRQOL scores in overweight and obese women with PCOS.
Predictors of depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Naqvi Syed Haider,Moore Ava,Bevilacqua Kris,Lathief Sanam,Williams Joanne,Naqvi Nighat,Pal Lubna
Archives of women's mental health
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a cross-sectional study of 114 women seeking consultation for symptoms of PCOS (menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, and/or acne), personal and family history of depression (HD and FHD respectively) were enquired. Vitamin D status (n = 104) and manifest depressive symptoms assessed by personal health questionnaire (PHQ) (MD) were evaluated in a subset (85). Relationships between HD and MD with PCOS symptoms, FHD, and vitamin D status were assessed using adjusted analyses. Thirty-five percent acknowledged a HD; MD (PHQ > 4) was apparent in 43 %. HD was associated with hirsutism (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.01-5.9), disturbed sleep (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.3-6.9), and with FHD (OR 4.8, 95 % CI 1.7-13.5). Disturbed sleep (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.01-5.7) and FHD (OR 3.8, 95 % CI 1.3-11.2) were independent predictors of HD adjusting for race and BMI. An inverse correlation was noted between serum 25 OH vitamin D (25OHD) levels and PHQ score, but only in those with vitamin D deficiency (25OHD ≤ 30 ng/ml, n = 57, r =-0.32, p = 0.015). 25OHD < 20 ng/ml (OR 3.5, 95 % CI 1.1-11.8) and HD (OR 12.8, 95 % CI 3.6-45.2) predicted scoring in the highest PHQ tertile after adjusting for hirsutism, BMI, and race. In women with PCOS, disturbed nocturnal sleep and FDH predicted personal HD, whereas HD and vitamin D deficiency related to the severity of MD symptoms.
The relationship between clinicobiochemical markers and depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Rahiminejad Mohammad Ehsan,Moaddab Amirhossein,Rabiee Soghra,Esna-Ashari Farzaneh,Borzouei Shiva,Hosseini Seyyed Mohammad
Iranian journal of reproductive medicine
BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that clinical features of Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with a lower degree of health, self, and sex satisfaction. OBJECTIVE:Our study aimed to investigate possible associations between depression and different clinicobiochemical markers of PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In a cross-sectional analytic study, 120 PCOS women aged 18-45 yr, were enrolled. Beck Depression Inventory was used to assess depression. Also, all participants underwent biochemical studies. Individuals with 15 points and more in Beck test were referred to a psychiatrist to participate in a complementary interview for the diagnosis of depression based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSMIV-TR) criteria. RESULTS:Among the study participants, 82 women (68.3%) were non-depressed, and 38 patients (31.7%) had some degrees of depression. According to the psychiatric interview, 10 patients (8.3%) had major depression, 22 patients (18.3%) had minor depression and 6 patients (5%) had dysthymia. We failed to show any significant difference in body mass index, hirsutism, infertility, serum total testosterone, lipid profile, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) between depressed and non-depressed subjects (p>0.05). Using Spearman correlation, we did not find a positive correlation between BDI scores and clinicobiochemical markers for all PCOS subjects (-0.139≤r≤+0.121, p>0.05). CONCLUSION:In spite of high rate of depression in women with PCOS, there was no significant association between Clinicobiochemical Markers and depression.
Psychiatric disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Brutocao Claire,Zaiem Feras,Alsawas Mouaz,Morrow Allison S,Murad M Hassan,Javed Asma
PURPOSE:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder affecting up to 15% of women in the reproductive age. Prior studies suggest that PCOS can be associated with mood and psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder in women with PCOS. METHODS:We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus through February 08, 2017 for studies that examined the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder in adolescents or adults with a clinical or biochemical diagnosis of PCOS. We used a random-effects model to generate pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:We included 57 studies reporting on 172,040 patients. The majority of studies addressed depression and anxiety. Studies had fair methodological quality although most estimates were unadjusted. Women with PCOS were more likely to have a clinical diagnosis of depression (odds ratio (OR), 2.79; 95% CI, 2.23-3.50), anxiety (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 2.10-3.60), bipolar disorder (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.43-2.23) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR, 1.37; 95% CI 1.22-1.55), but not social phobia or panic disorder. Using various scales, the severity of symptoms of depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and somatization disorders were higher compared to women without PCOS. CONCLUSIONS:PCOS is associated with an increased risk of diagnosis of depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. It is associated with worse symptoms of depression, anxiety, OCD, and somatization. Screening for these disorders to allow early intervention may be warranted.
High prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Cooney Laura G,Lee Iris,Sammel Mary D,Dokras Anuja
Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
STUDY QUESTION:Do women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with control women, and do these symptoms correlate with age, BMI, testosterone, hirsutism or insulin resistance (IR)? SUMMARY ANSWER:Women with PCOS have significantly increased odds of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of obesity, and the symptoms are weakly associated with age, BMI, elevated testosterone, hirsutism and IR. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:Previous studies have reported that women with PCOS have an increased prevalence of mild depressive and anxiety symptoms or an increase in mean depression and anxiety scores, although these scores are usually within the normal range. Thus, it is therefore not clear whether these findings are clinically significant. The prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, which require follow-up and would benefit from treatment, is not known in this population. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:A comprehensive systematic review (SR) was performed up to January 2016 and included 30 cross-sectional studies, representing 3050 subjects with PCOS and 3858 controls, from 10 different countries. The meta-analysis (MA) on depressive symptoms included 18 studies and the MA on anxiety symptoms included 9 studies. A separate SR identified 15 studies for the meta-regression examining the associations with PCOS-related symptoms or comorbidities. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:All studies included adult women with PCOS, defined by the National Institutes of Health or Rotterdam criteria, and a control group without PCOS. Ovid, Embase, PsychInfo and Cochrane were searched up to January 2016. Included studies used a validated screening tool to compare the prevalence or mean scores of depressive and/or anxiety symptoms. Random effects MA was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Sensitivity analyses of methodological characteristics and a meta-regression of the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) to evaluate PCOS-related clinical and laboratory associations were performed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:Women with PCOS had increased odds of any depressive symptoms (OR: 3.78; 95% CI: 3.03-4.72; 18 studies) and of moderate/severe depressive symptoms (OR: 4.18; 95% CI: 2.68-6.52; 11 studies). Women with PCOS had increased odds of any anxiety symptoms (OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 3.22-9.80, nine studies) and of moderate/severe anxiety symptoms (OR: 6.55; 95% CI: 2.87, 14.93; five studies). When subjects were matched on BMI, women with PCOS still had higher odds of both depressive (OR: 3.25; 95% CI 1.73-6.09; four studies) and anxiety symptoms (OR: 6.30, 95% CI: 1.88-21.09; three studies). There was no substantial heterogeneity among studies in the overall MA on depressive symptoms (I2 = 22.4%, P = 0.19), but there was significant heterogeneity among studies in the analysis on anxiety symptoms (I2 = 59.6%, P= 0.01). In the meta-regression evaluating pooled SMDs between groups, women with PCOS and concurrent depression had higher mean values of age, BMI, hirsutism score and IR, while women with PCOS and concurrent anxiety had higher mean values of BMI, hirsutism score and free testosterone (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION:All studies were cross-sectional, thus we can only hypothesize that the diagnosis of PCOS precedes the diagnosis of depression and anxiety. There were large variations in methodological characteristics especially in the studies screening for anxiety; however, they only partly explained effect size variation. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:This evidence-synthesis analysis shows that PCOS diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms and suggests that providers should consider screening women with PCOS for both depression and anxiety. Although age, obesity, hyperandrogenism and IR do not explain the entire association, well-designed studies are needed to assess the impact of treatment of these factors on depressive and anxiety symptoms in women with PCOS. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S):No funding was used for this study. There are no conflicts of interest. REGISTRATION NUMBER:N/A.
Increased risk for abnormal depression scores in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Dokras Anuja,Clifton Shari,Futterweit Walter,Wild Robert
Obstetrics and gynecology
OBJECTIVE:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and depression both have a high prevalence in reproductive-aged women. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal depression scores in women who meet currently recognized definitions of PCOS compared with women in a well-defined control group. DATA SOURCES:The search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE Classic plus EMBASE, PsycINFO, Current Contents-Clinical Medicine and Current Contents-Life Sciences and Web of Science. Cochrane software Review Manager 5.0.24 was used to construct forest plots comparing risk of abnormal depression scores in those in the PCOS and control groups. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION:Studies with well-defined criteria of women with PCOS and control groups of women without PCOS, with demographic information including age and body mass index (BMI), were included. Of 752 screened articles, 17 met the selection criteria for systematic review and 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS:Data were abstracted independently by three reviewers. All studies were cross-sectional and most used the Rotterdam criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS (n=10). The odds ratio (OR) for abnormal depression scores was 4.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.96-5.5, P<.01) in women with PCOS (n=522) compared with those in the control groups (n=475). A subanalysis showed that the odds for abnormal depression scores was independent of BMI (OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.62-6.41). Several validated tools were used to screen for depression; the common tool used was the Beck Depression Inventory. CONCLUSION:The results of our study suggest the need to screen all women with PCOS for depression using validated screening tools. Women with PCOS are at an increased risk for abnormal depression scores independent of BMI.
Depression-Like Behavior in a Dehydroepiandrosterone-Induced Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Yu Qiuxiao,Hao Shuxian,Wang Huamin,Song Xi,Shen Qiyang,Kang Jihong
Biology of reproduction
Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can suffer from psychological disorders, among which depression is the most commonly diagnosed. However, the pathogenesis is still unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the behaviors of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS mice, the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) on mouse behaviors, and the underlying mechanism. Prepubertal C57BL/6 mice (25 days of age) were divided into four groups and injected daily with the vehicle sesame oil or DHEA on the normal chow or a 60% HFD for 20 consecutive days. Depression-like behavior of the mice was examined using a forced swim test, tail suspension test, and open field test. Thereafter, the animals were killed and four brain regions were collected. The brain levels of monoamines and their metabolites, including norepinephrine, serotonin, 5-hydroxy-3-indolacetic acid, dopamine, and 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, were analyzed by HPLC. Our data show that DHEA-treated mice exhibited depression-like behavior according to the results from behavioral assessment. The brain contents of monoamines and/or their metabolites decreased in DHEA-treated mice compared with controls. HFD did not seem to markedly affect the behavioral responses, the brain monoamines, or their metabolites in the mice. These findings suggest that DHEA treatment induced depression-like behavior in PCOS mice, possibly through down-regulation of brain monoamines and/or their metabolites, which implies the contribution of hyperandrogenism to the psychological symptoms of women with PCOS.
Anxiety and depression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Barry J A,Kuczmierczyk A R,Hardiman P J
Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
BACKGROUND:Our aim was to assess differences in anxiety and depression between women with and without (controls) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature comparing women with PCOS to control groups on anxiety and depression. Electronic databases were searched up to 17 December 2010. The inverse variance method based, as appropriate, on a random- or fixed-effects model in Review Manager, Version 5 was used to analyse the data. RESULTS:Twelve comparative studies were included; all studies assessed depression (910 women with PCOS and 1347 controls) and six also assessed anxiety (208 women with PCOS and 169 controls). Analysis revealed higher depression (Z = 17.92, P < 0.00001; Hedges' g = 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.92) and anxiety (Z = 5.03, P < 0.00001; Hedges' g = 0.54; 95% CI 0.33-0.75) scores in the participants with, than without, PCOS. Studies controlling for BMI showed a smaller difference between women with PCOS and controls on anxiety and depression scores than studies not controlling for BMI. CONCLUSIONS:Women with PCOS on average tend to experience mildly elevated anxiety and depression, significantly more than women without PCOS. Women with PCOS with lower BMI tended to have slightly lower anxiety and depression scores, suggesting that having a lower BMI reduces anxiety and depression. Future studies might consider (i) controlling for BMI, (ii) stratifying by medication use in order to control for any anti-androgenic effects of medication and (iii) excluding women with polycystic ovaries from control groups.
Obesity and depression are risk factors for future eating disorder-related attitudes and behaviors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Greenwood Eleni A,Pasch Lauri A,Cedars Marcelle I,Huddleston Heather G
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE(S):To identify clinical predictors of future eating disorder symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:University center. PATIENT(S):One hundred sixty-four women with PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria. INTERVENTION(S):Participants were characterized at a baseline visit between 2006 and 2017. A questionnaire including the validated Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was self-administered at follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):EDE-Q global score (0-6, higher scores indicate more severe symptoms). RESULT(S):One hundred sixty-four women completed the follow-up survey an average of 5.3 years after the baseline visit. Compared with a normative population, women with PCOS had higher EDE-Q global scores (2.3 vs. 1.5) and scored higher on all subscales. Within the PCOS cohort, the following baseline clinical characteristics were independently predictive of scoring in the highest EDE-Q global score tertile: body mass index, waist circumference, hyperandrogenemia, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and depression scores. Obesity at baseline conferred a 6.9-fold increase in the odds of elevated EDE-Q score (adjusted odds ratio = 6.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.70, 17.62), while a positive depression screen conferred 3.6-fold increased odds (adjusted odds ratio = 3.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.74-7.35). Compared with white women, nonwhite women were at risk of higher EDE-Q scores. CONCLUSION(S):Women with PCOS are at risk of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, which may interfere with attempts at lifestyle interventions. Clinicians should screen women with PCOS for eating disorder psychopathology, especially those with obesity or depression. An exclusive focus on weight loss may have unintended consequences.
Depression, anxiety and cardiometabolic risk in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Cinar Nese,Kizilarslanoglu Muhammed Cemal,Harmanci Ayla,Aksoy Duygu Yazgan,Bozdag Gurkan,Demir Basaran,Yildiz Bulent Okan
Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with psychological and metabolic disturbances. The aim of this study was to determine whether depression, anxiety and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are more common in women with PCOS and associated with metabolic risk. METHODS:The study included 226 PCOS patients and 85 BMI-matched healthy control women. All participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing depression (Beck Depression Inventory), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and both depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire). Patients also completed a PCOS HRQOL questionnaire. Hirsutism scores, serum androgens and lipids were obtained. All subjects underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS:28.6% of PCOS women versus 4.7% of control women had clinical depression scores indicating an 8.1-fold increased risk of depression in PCOS (P < 0.001). Depression and anxiety scores were higher in PCOS women than controls (P < 0.01 for all subscales). Obese PCOS subjects had higher depression scores and rates than non-obese PCOS women (P < 0.05). Depression scores were significantly correlated with insulin resistance and lipid parameters and with the number of components comprising the metabolic syndrome. Menstrual and hirsutism problems were the most serious concerns followed by emotional problems on the HRQOL. CONCLUSIONS:Depression and anxiety are more common in patients with PCOS compared with healthy women. Depression in PCOS might be associated with obesity and metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
Putative role for insulin resistance in depression risk in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Greenwood Eleni A,Pasch Lauri A,Shinkai Kanade,Cedars Marcelle I,Huddleston Heather G
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether insulin resistance is associated with depression risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), independent of other factors, including body mass index (BMI). DESIGN:Cross-sectional. SETTING:Tertiary university center. PATIENT(S):A total of 301 women, aged 14-52 years, with PCOS by Rotterdam criteria, consecutively examined between 2006 and 2013. INTERVENTION(S):Complete history and physical examinations, including endovaginal ultrasounds, dermatologic assessments, completion of Beck Depression Inventory Fast Screen (BDI-FS), and serum testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Scores >4 on BDI-FS indicated a positive screen for depression. Scores were further subdivided into mild (5-8), moderate (9-12), and severe (>12) depression risk. Insulin resistance was assessed using the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULT(S):A total of 131 women (44%) were at risk for depression, determined by positive BDI-FS screening. These patients had higher BMI (32.3 vs. 28.5), and elevated insulin resistance, assessed by HOMA-IR (5.2 vs. 2.6), compared with patients with negative depression screening. In a stratified analysis by BMI category, obese women with positive depression screens had elevated HOMA-IR, compared with obese women with normal BDI-FS scores (7.4 vs. 4.1). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR was independently related to the odds of depression risk after controlling for age, ethnicity, BMI, and exercise (odds ratio: 1.07). CONCLUSION(S):Depression is common in PCOS. After controlling for confounders in multivariate regression analyses, we found HOMA-IR to be significantly associated with depression risk. Our data suggest a complex interplay among insulin resistance, obesity, and depression in PCOS, warranting additional investigation. Mental health assessment is indicated in comprehensive care of patients with PCOS.
Weight Loss and Lowering Androgens Predict Improvements in Health-Related Quality of Life in Women With PCOS.
Dokras Anuja,Sarwer David B,Allison Kelly C,Milman Lauren,Kris-Etherton Penny M,Kunselman Allen R,Stetter Christy M,Williams Nancy I,Gnatuk Carol L,Estes Stephanie J,Fleming Jennifer,Coutifaris Christos,Legro Richard S
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
CONTEXT:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and increased prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders. The impact of PCOS-specific treatments on these co-morbidities is unclear. OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of weight loss and decreasing hyperandrogenism on HRQOL and mood and anxiety disorders in women with PCOS. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS:A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (OWL-PCOS) of preconception treatment conducted at two academic centers in women (age, 18-40 years; body mass index, 27-42 kg/m(2)) with PCOS defined by Rotterdam criteria. INTERVENTION:Continuous oral contraceptive pill (OCP) or intensive lifestyle intervention or the combination (Combined) for 16 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Changes in HRQOL assessed by PCOSQ and SF-36 and prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder assessed by PRIME-MD PHQ. RESULTS:The lowest scores were noted on the general health domain of the SF-36 and the weight and infertility domains on the PCOSQ. All three interventions resulted in significant improvement in the general health score on the SF-36. Both the OCP and Combined groups showed improvements in all domains of the PCOSQ (P < .01) compared to baseline scores. The Combined group had significant improvements in the weight, body hair, and infertility domains compared to a single treatment group (P < .05). In a linear regression model, change in weight correlated with improvements in the weight domain (P < .001) and physical well-being (P < .02), change in T correlated with improvements in the hair domain (P < .001), and change in both weight and T correlated with the infertility (P < .001) and menstrual domains (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Both weight loss and OCP use result in significant improvements in several physical and mental domains related to quality of life, depressive symptoms, and anxiety disorders, and combined therapies offer further benefits in overweight/obese women with PCOS.
Clinical course of depression symptoms and predictors of enduring depression risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Results of a longitudinal study.
Greenwood Eleni A,Pasch Lauri A,Shinkai Kanade,Cedars Marcelle I,Huddleston Heather G
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:To  characterize depression symptoms over time and  test the hypothesis that adverse metabolic parameters would associate with risk of enduring depression risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:University center. PATIENT(S):One hundred sixty-three women with PCOS. INTERVENTION(S):The Beck Depression Inventory Fast Screen (BDI-FS) was self-administered at baseline and follow-up to identify depression risk, using a cutoff score >4. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):BDI-FS scores. RESULT(S):Median baseline age was 29.0 years, and median follow-up interval was 5.5 years. Fifty-nine of 163 women had positive depression screens at baseline (36%); 52 women (32%) screened positive at follow-up. Median change in BDI-II score was 0 (interquartile range, -2, 1) over the study period. Of the 59 women at risk for depression at baseline, 22 screened negative at follow-up (37%), while 37 women remained at risk (63%). Considering these 59 women with positive depression screens at baseline, higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with increased odds of enduring depression risk at follow-up (adjusted odds ratio = 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.00, 1.18), in a multivariate logistic regression model. Compared with women with normal body weight at baseline, obese women (BMI >30 kg/m) had five-fold increased odds of enduring depression risk at follow-up (adjusted odds ratio = 5.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.07, 24.0). CONCLUSION(S):The prevalence of depression was relatively stable over time in a cohort of women with PCOS. Elevated BMI is a hallmark of enduring depression risk. These results may assist providers in developing targeted intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of long-term depressive symptoms in women with PCOS.
Depression and Anxiety in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Etiology and Treatment.
Cooney Laura G,Dokras Anuja
Current psychiatry reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women and is associated with an increased prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms. This review presents potential mechanisms for this increased risk and outlines treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS:Women with PCOS have increased odds of depressive symptoms (OR 3.78; 95% CI 3.03-4.72) and anxiety symptoms (OR 5.62; 95% CI 3.22-9.80). Obesity, insulin resistance, and elevated androgens may partly contribute to this association. Therefore, in addition to established treatment options, treatment of PCOS-related symptoms with lifestyle modification and/or oral contraceptive pills may be of benefit. Screening for anxiety and depression is recommended in women with PCOS at the time of diagnosis. The exact etiology for the increased risk in PCOS is still unclear. Moreover, there is a paucity of published data on the most effective behavioral, pharmacological, or physiological treatment options specifically in women with PCOS.
GnRH dysregulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a manifestation of an altered neurotransmitter profile.
Chaudhari Nirja,Dawalbhakta Mitali,Nampoothiri Laxmipriya
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
BACKGROUND:GnRH is the master molecule of reproduction that is influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Any alteration in these regulatory loops may result in reproductive-endocrine dysfunction such as the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Although low dopaminergic tone has been associated with PCOS, the role of neurotransmitters in PCOS remains unknown. The present study was therefore aimed at understanding the status of GnRH regulatory neurotransmitters to decipher the neuroendocrine pathology in PCOS. METHODS:PCOS was induced in rats by oral administration of letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Following PCOS validation, animals were assessed for gonadotropin levels and their mRNA expression. Neurotrasnmitter status was evaluated by estimating their levels, their metabolism and their receptor expression in hypothalamus, pituitary, hippocampus and frontal cortex of PCOS rat model. RESULTS:We demonstrate that GnRH and LH inhibitory neurotransmitters - serotonin, dopamine, GABA and acetylcholine - are reduced while glutamate, a major stimulator of GnRH and LH release, is increased in the PCOS condition. Concomitant changes were observed for neurotransmitter metabolising enzymes and their receptors as well. CONCLUSION:Our results reveal that increased GnRH and LH pulsatility in PCOS condition likely result from the cumulative effect of altered GnRH stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in hypothalamic-pituitary centre. This, we hypothesise, is responsible for the depression and anxiety-like mood disorders commonly seen in PCOS women.
Emotional distress is a common risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 28 studies.
Veltman-Verhulst Susanne M,Boivin Jacky,Eijkemans Marinus J C,Fauser Bart J C M
Human reproduction update
BACKGROUND For a number of reasons, the results of previous meta-analyses may not fully reflect the mental health status of the average woman suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or the causes of this distress. Our objective was to examine emotional distress and its associated features in women with PCOS. METHODS A comprehensive meta-analysis of comparative studies reporting measures of depression, anxiety or emotional-subscales of quality of life (emoQoL) was performed. PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo and the Cochrane trial register databases were searched up to November 2011 (see Supplementary Data for PUBMED search string). Unpublished data obtained through contact with authors were also included. The standardized mean difference (SMD) of distress scores was calculated. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analysis of methodological and PCOS-related features were performed. RESULTS Twenty-eight studies (2384 patients and 2705 control women) were included. Higher emotional distress was consistently found for women with PCOS compared with control populations [main outcomes: depression: 26 studies, SMD 0.60 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.73), anxiety: 17 studies, SMD of 0.49 (95% CI 0.36-0.63), emoQoL: 8 studies, SMD -0.66 (95% CI -0.92 to -0.41)]. However, heterogeneity was present (I(2) 52-76%). Methodological and clinical aspects only partly explained effect size variation. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS exhibit significantly more emotional distress compared with women without PCOS. However, distress scores mostly remain within the normal range. The cause of emotional distress could only partly be explained by methodological or clinical features. Clinicians should be aware of the emotional aspects of PCOS, discuss these with patients and refer for appropriate support where necessary and in accordance with patient preference.