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    Diagnosis and treatment of dementia in neurology outpatient departments of general hospitals in China. Jia Jianping,Zuo Xiumei,Jia Xiang-Fei,Chu Changbiao,Wu Liyong,Zhou Aihong,Wei Cuibai,Tang Yi,Li Dan,Qin Wei,Song Haiqing,Ma Qingfeng,Li Junjie,Sun Yongxin,Min Baoquan,Xue Sufang,Xu Erhe,Yuan Quan,Wang Min,Huang Xiaoqin,Fan Chunqiu,Liu Jianghong,Ren Yi,Jia Qian,Wang Qi,Jiao Lidong,Xing Yi,Wu Xiaoguang, Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association INTRODUCTION:The status of dementia diagnosis and treatment of neurology outpatients in general hospitals in China remains unclear. METHODS:From neurology outpatients at 36 randomly selected hospitals, we first collected baseline data concerning the number of dementia doctors, memory clinics, and patients diagnosed with dementia. In stage 2, we intervened based on drawbacks discovered in stage 1, implementing a dementia initiative program. In stage 3, we reinvestigated the outpatients to determine the effects of intervention. RESULTS:After intervention, all 36 hospitals had established memory clinics (205 dementia doctors) compared with only 6 (47 dementia doctors) before intervention. The percentage of patients diagnosed with dementia significantly increased from 0.10% (536 dementia patients of 553,986 outpatients) in stage 1 to 0.41% (2482 dementia patients of 599,214 outpatients) in stage 3. DISCUSSION:Proper diagnosis and treatment are unavailable to many dementia patients because of a lack of dementia doctors and memory clinics in China. 10.1016/j.jalz.2015.06.1892
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China: a nationwide prevalence study. Fang Liwen,Gao Pei,Bao Heling,Tang Xun,Wang Baohua,Feng Yajing,Cong Shu,Juan Juan,Fan Jing,Lu Ke,Wang Ning,Hu Yonghua,Wang Linhong The Lancet. Respiratory medicine BACKGROUND:Because of the rapid change in economic development and lifestyle in China, and the ageing population, concerns have grown that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could become epidemic. An up-to-date nationwide estimation of COPD prevalence in China is needed. METHODS:We did a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of individuals from mainland China aged 40 years or older. The primary outcome was COPD, defined according to the 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) lung function criteria. FINDINGS:Between Dec 29, 2014, and Dec 31, 2015, 66 752 adults were recruited to the study population. The estimated standardised prevalence of COPD was 13·6% (95% CI 12·0-15·2). The prevalence of COPD differed significantly between men and women (19·0%, 95% CI 16·9-21·2 vs 8·1%, 6·8-9·3; p<0·0001), mainly because of a significant difference in smoking status between men and women (current smokers 58·2% vs 4·0%). The prevalence of COPD differed by geographic region, with the highest prevalence in southwest China (20·2%, 95% CI 14·7-25·8) and the lowest in central China (10·2%, 8·2-12·2). Among adults with COPD, 56·4% (95% CI 53·7-59·2) had mild disease (GOLD stage I), 36·3% (34·3-38·3) had moderate disease (GOLD stage II), 6·5% (5·5-7·4) had severe disease (GOLD stage III), and 0·9% (0·6-1·1) had very severe disease (GOLD stage IV). INTERPRETATION:In a large, nationally representative sample of adults aged 40 years or older, the estimated overall prevalence of COPD in China in 2014-15 was 13·6%, indicating that this disease has become a major public-health problem. Strategies aimed at prevention and treatment of COPD are needed urgently. FUNDING:Chinese Central Government, the Ministry of Science and Technology of The People's Republic of China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30103-6
    Increased prevalence and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes in South China. Yi M,Chen R-P,Yang R,Chen H Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association AIMS:To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS:We recruited patients with Type 2 diabetes with a BMI ≥ 24 kg/m , who visited the diabetes clinics of 60 hospitals in 21 cities in Guangdong Province, China from August 2011 to March 2012. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical tests and abdominal ultrasonography were performed for all the patients. RESULTS:The study included 3861 patients (1860 men) with a mean ± sd (range) age of 58.91 ± 13.06 (18-90) years. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was found in 1751 patients (45.4%), with a significantly higher prevalence among men than women (48.0 vs 42.9%). The peak of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence was in patients with a BMI of 34-35 kg/m , those with a triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio of 5.5-6.0, men aged < 30 years and women aged 40-50 years. Assessment using the BARD (BMI, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes) score system showed that the prevalence of advanced fibrosis was 80.52% in all patients and that women had a higher prevalence than men (86.52 vs 74.16%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that dyslipidaemia, BMI and 2-h postprandial plasma glucose were independent risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, while heart rate and female gender were protective factors. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes in South China is high. Multiple metabolic disorders were significantly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. 10.1111/dme.13174
    HIV prevalence among 338,432 infertile individuals in Hunan, China, 2012-2018: A cross-sectional study. Liu Gang,Zhang Huan,Zhu Wen-Bing,Peng Yang-Qin,Ding Rui,Fan Meng-Lin,Fan Li-Qing,Li Wei-Na PloS one BACKGROUND:The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) varies markedly among different risk groups in China, spreading fromhigh-risk populations to the general population. Indeed, China is in a critical period of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention and control; however, data regarding HIV testing, infection and coinfection among infertile couples are lacking. This study aimed to estimate the HIV/AIDS prevalence to identify risk factors among infertile couples in Hunan, China. METHODS:A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of HIV/other infections (hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis, and Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infections) among 338,432 infertile individuals in Hunan, China, from 2012 to 2018. We calculated linear trends in prevalence using bivariate linear regression. RESULTS:The overall prevalence rates of HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, MG, syphilis, and HBV and HCV antibody positivity in this study were 0.04%, 1.73%, 0.05%, 2.60%, 2.15%, 12.01% and 0.56%, respectively. The predominant infection was HBV, followed by MG, syphilis, and chlamydia. Only 1.13% of the participants (382/338432) reported sexually transmitted disease (STD) signs and symptoms suggesting genital tract infection. However, from 2012-2018, the variation in HIV prevalence was not significant (β = 0.000, PTREND = 0.907). The characteristics of the HIV-infected infertile population have not shifted dramatically, with women accounting for 32.56% of HIV cases in China. Overall, 87.60% of HIV-infected individuals have a relatively low education. In total, 37.98% of HIV-positive patients engage in high-risk behaviors. CONCLUSIONS:This study expands upon existing knowledge of HIV prevalence in the infertile Chinese population. However, much work is needed to achieve popularization of prevention knowledge and change concept. Routine HIV screening is urgently needed for all adults with high-risk behaviors. 10.1371/journal.pone.0238564