Silencing TRPM7 in mouse cortical astrocytes impairs cell proliferation and migration via ERK and JNK signaling pathways.
Zeng Zhao,Leng Tiandong,Feng Xuechao,Sun Huawei,Inoue Koichi,Zhu Li,Xiong Zhi-Gang
Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a non-selective cation channel, is highly expressed expressed in the brain and plays a critical role in ischemic neuronal death. Astrocyte, the most abundant cell type in central nervous system (CNS), exerts many essential functions in the physiological and pathological conditions. Here we investigated the expression and functions of the TRPM7 channel in mouse cortical astrocytes. Using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, immunostaining, western blot and patch clamp recording, we showed that functional TRPM7 channel is expressed in cultured mouse cortical astrocytes. Knocking down TRPM7 with specific siRNA impairs the proliferation and migration of astrocytes by 40.2% ± 3.9% and 40.1% ± 11.5%, respectively. Consistently, inhibition of TRPM7 with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) also decreases astrocyte proliferation and migration by 46.1% ± 2.5% and 64.2% ± 2.4%. MAPKs and Akt signaling pathways have been shown to be implicated in TRPM7-mediated responses including cell proliferation and migration. Our data show that suppression of TRPM7 in astrocytes reduces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt. In addition, TRPM7, as a cation channel, has been involved in the Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ homeostasis in several types of cells. In our study, we found that silencing TRPM7 decreases the intracellular basal Mg²⁺ concentration without affecting Ca²⁺ concentration in astrocytes. However, an addition of Mg²⁺ to the growth medium could not rescue the impaired proliferation of astrocytes. Together, our data suggest that TRPM7 channel may play a critical role in the proliferation and migration of astrocytes via the ERK and JNK pathways.
SLC41A1 and TRPM7 in magnesium homeostasis and genetic risk for Parkinson's disease.
Sturgeon Morgan,Wu Perry,Cornell Robert
Journal of neurology & neuromedicine
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system with a clinically heterogeneous presentation that includes progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. A minority of PD cases are familial and are caused by mutations in single genes. Most cases, however, are idiopathic PD, a complex multifactorial disorder with environmental and genetic contributors to etiology. Here, we first briefly summarize published evidence that among environmental contributors is dietary deficiency of magnesium. We then review genetic data suggesting that mutations in genes encoding two proteins contributing to cellular magnesium homeostasis confer risk for PD or other Parkinsonian conditions. First, the gene encoding magnesium transporter SLC41A1 is, among others, a candidate for the causative gene in the PARK16 locus where variation is associated with risk for idiopathic Parkinsonian disease. Studies of the function of SLC41A1 in animal models are needed to test whether this protein has a role in maintenance of dopaminergic neurons. Second, in a small study, a hypomorphic variant of TRPM7, a magnesium-permeable channel, was over-represented in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/ Parkinson dementia complex versus controls from the same ethnic group. Although this association was not detected in a second study, in zebrafish Trpm7 is necessary for terminal differentiation and reduction of toxin-sensitivity in dopaminergic neurons. Overall, epidemiological results support the possibility that mutations in genes relevant to magnesium homeostasis would alter PD risk, but deeper genetic analyses of PD patients are necessary to confirm whether and are among such genes.
Activation of TRPM7 by naltriben enhances migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells.
Wong Raymond,Turlova Ekaterina,Feng Zhong-Ping,Rutka James T,Sun Hong-Shuo
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive brain tumor in the central nervous system, remains a lethal diagnosis with a median survival of < 15 months. Aberrant expression of the TRPM7 channel has been linked to GBM functions. In this study, using the human GBM cell line U87, we evaluated the TRPM7 activator naltriben on GBM viability, migration, and invasiveness. First, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we showed that naltriben enhanced the endogenous TRPM7-like current in U87 cells. In addition, with Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, we observed robust Ca2+ influx following naltriben application. Naltriben significantly enhanced U87 cell migration and invasion (assessed with scratch wound assays, Matrigel invasion experiments, and MMP-2 protein expression), but not viability and proliferation (evaluated with MTT assays). Using Western immunoblots, we also detected the protein levels of p-Akt/t-Akt, and p-ERK1|2/t-ERK1|2. We found that naltriben enhanced the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, but not the PI3k/Akt pathway. Therefore, potentiated TRPM7 activity contributes to the devastating migratory and invasive characteristics of GBM.
TRPV6, TRPM6 and TRPM7 Do Not Contribute to Hair-Cell Mechanotransduction.
Morgan Clive P,Zhao Hongyu,LeMasurier Meredith,Xiong Wei,Pan Bifeng,Kazmierczak Piotr,Avenarius Matthew R,Bateschell Michael,Larisch Ruby,Ricci Anthony J,Müller Ulrich,Barr-Gillespie Peter G
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
Hair cells of the inner ear transduce mechanical stimuli like sound or head movements into electrical signals, which are propagated to the central nervous system. The hair-cell mechanotransduction channel remains unidentified. We tested whether three transient receptor channel (TRP) family members, TRPV6, TRPM6 and TRPM7, were necessary for transduction. TRPV6 interacted with USH1C (harmonin), a scaffolding protein that participates in transduction. Using a cysteine-substitution knock-in mouse line and methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents selective for this allele, we found that inhibition of TRPV6 had no effect on transduction in mouse cochlear hair cells. TRPM6 and TRPM7 each interacted with the tip-link component PCDH15 in cultured eukaryotic cells, which suggested they might be part of the transduction complex. Cochlear hair cell transduction was not affected by manipulations of Mg, however, which normally perturbs TRPM6 and TRPM7. To definitively examine the role of these two channels in transduction, we showed that deletion of either or both of their genes selectively in hair cells had no effect on auditory function. We suggest that TRPV6, TRPM6 and TRPM7 are unlikely to be the pore-forming subunit of the hair-cell transduction channel.
Reactive astrocytes in multiple sclerosis impair neuronal outgrowth through TRPM7-mediated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan production.
Kamermans Alwin,Planting Kirsten E,Jalink Kees,van Horssen Jack,de Vries Helga E
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by inflammation-mediated demyelination, axonal injury and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms underlying impaired neuronal function are not fully understood, but evidence is accumulating that the presence of the gliotic scar produced by reactive astrocytes play a critical role in these detrimental processes. Here, we identified astrocytic Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7), a Ca -permeable nonselective cation channel, as a novel player in the formation of a gliotic scar. TRPM7 was found to be highly expressed in reactive astrocytes within well-characterized MS lesions and upregulated in primary astrocytes under chronic inflammatory conditions. TRPM7 overexpressing astrocytes impaired neuronal outgrowth in vitro by increasing the production of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, a key component of the gliotic scar. These findings indicate that astrocytic TRPM7 is a critical regulator of the formation of a gliotic scar and provide a novel mechanism by which reactive astrocytes affect neuronal outgrowth.