iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analyses of Sterile/Fertile Anthers from a Thermo-Sensitive Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Wheat with Cytoplasm.
Zhang Gaoming,Ye Jiali,Jia Yulin,Zhang Lingli,Song Xiyue
International journal of molecular sciences
A “two-line hybrid system” was developed, previously based on thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility in (K-TCMS), which can be used in wheat breeding. The K-TCMS line exhibits complete male sterility and it can be used to produce hybrid wheat seeds during the normal wheat-growing season; it propagates via self-pollination at high temperatures. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-based quantitative proteome and bioinformatics analyses of the TCMS line KTM3315A were conducted under different fertility conditions to understand the mechanisms of fertility conversion in the pollen development stages. In total, 4639 proteins were identified, the differentially abundant proteins that increased/decreased in plants with differences in fertility were mainly involved with energy metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, translation, folding, and degradation. Compared with the sterile condition, many of the proteins that related to energy and phenylpropanoid metabolism increased during the anther development stage. Thus, we suggest that energy and phenylpropanoid metabolism pathways are important for fertility conversion in K-TCMS wheat. These findings provide valuable insights into the proteins involved with anther and pollen development, thereby, helping to further understand the mechanism of TCMS in wheat.
Cytological characterization of a thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile wheat line having K-type cytoplasm of .
Meng Liying,Liu Zihan,Zhang Lingli,Hu Gan,Song Xiyue
Male sterility is an important tool for obtaining crop heterosis. A thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile (TCMS) line was developed recently using a new method based on tiller regeneration. In the present study, we explored the critical growth stages required to maintain thermo-sensitive male sterility in TCMS lines and found that fertility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development. We investigated the fertility and cytology of temperature-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages. TCMS line KTM3315A exhibited thermo-sensitive male sterility in Zadoks growth stages 41-49 and 58-59. Morphologically, the line exhibited thermo-sensitive male sterility at 3-9 days before heading and at 3-6 days before flowering, and it was partially restored in three locations during spring and summer. TCMS line KTM3315A plants exhibited premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) from the early uninucleate stage of microspore development until the tapetal cells degraded completely. Microspore development was then blocked and the pollen abortion type was stainable abortion. Thus, male fertility in the line KTM3315A is sensitive to temperature and premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion, where it determines the starting period and affects male fertility conversion in K-type TCMS lines at certain temperatures.
Identification of Candidate Genes and Biosynthesis Pathways Related to Fertility Conversion by Wheat KTM3315A Transcriptome Profiling.
Ye Jiali,Duan Yang,Hu Gan,Geng Xingxia,Zhang Gaoming,Yan Pengjiao,Liu Zihan,Zhang Lingli,Song Xiyue
Frontiers in plant science
The thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (K-TCMS) system may facilitate hybrid wheat ( L.) seed multiplication and production. The K-TCMS line is completely male sterile during the normal wheat-growing season, whereas its fertility can be restored in a high-temperature environment. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for male sterility/fertility conversion and candidate genes involved with pollen development in K-TCMS, we employed RNA-seq to sequence the transcriptomes of anthers from K-TCMS line KTM3315A during development under sterile and fertile conditions. We identified 16840 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in different stages including15157 known genes (15135 nuclear genes and 22 plasmagenes) and 1683 novel genes. Bioinformatics analysis identified possible metabolic pathways involved with fertility based on KEGG pathway enrichment of the DEGs expressed in fertile and sterile plants. We found that most of the genes encoding key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and jasmonate biosynthesis pathways were significant upregulated in uninucleate, binuclate or trinucleate stage, which both interact with MYB transcription factors, and that link between all play essential roles in fertility conversion. The relevant DEGs were verified by quantitative RT-PCR. Thus, we suggested that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and jasmonate biosynthesis pathways were involved in fertility conversion of K-TCMS wheat. This will provide a new perspective and an effective foundation for the research of molecular mechanisms of fertility conversion of CMS wheat. Fertility conversion mechanism in thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterile/fertile wheat involves the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, jasmonate biosynthesis pathway, and MYB transcription factors.
Oxidative Stress and Aberrant Programmed Cell Death Are Associated With Pollen Abortion in Isonuclear Alloplasmic Male-Sterile Wheat.
Liu Zihan,Shi Xiaoyi,Li Sha,Zhang Lingli,Song Xiyue
Frontiers in plant science
Cytoplasmic male sterility is crucial for the utilization of hybrid heterosis and it possibly occurs in parallel with tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) and oxidative metabolism responses. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie pollen abortion in wheat. Therefore, we obtained two isonuclear alloplasmic male sterile lines (IAMSLs) with and cytoplasm. Compared with the maintainer line, cytochemical analyses of the anthers demonstrated that the IAMSLs exhibited anomalous tapetal PCD and organelles, with premature PCD in K87B1-706A and delayed PCD in Ju87B1-706A. We also found that the dynamic trends in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were consistent in these two IAMSLs during anther development and they were potentially associated with the initiation of tapetal PCD. In addition, the activities of ROS-scavenging enzymes increased rapidly, whereas non-enzymatic antioxidants were downregulated together with excess ROS production in IAMSLs. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase genes, which encode important antioxidant enzymes, were significantly upregulated during early pollen development. Thus, we inferred that excessive ROS and the abnormal transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme genes disrupted the balance of the antioxidant system and the presence of excess ROS may have been related to aberrant tapetal PCD progression, thereby affecting the development of microspores and ultimately causing male sterility. These relationships between the mechanism of PCD and ROS metabolism provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for abortive pollen in wheat.
Analysis of metabolic pathways related to fertility restoration and identification of fertility candidate genes associated with Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
Li Sha,Liu Zihan,Jia Yulin,Ye Jiali,Yang Xuetong,Zhang Lingli,Song Xiyue
BMC plant biology
BACKGROUND:Thermo-sensitive male-sterility based on Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm (K-TCMS) plays an important role in hybrid wheat breeding. This has important possible applications in two-line hybrid wheat breeding but the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism related to fertility restoration are poorly understood. In this study, comparative transcriptome profiling based on RNA sequencing was conducted for two near-isogenic lines comprising KTM3315R and its sterile counterpart KTM3315A, a total of six samples (3 repetitions per group), in order to identify fertility restoration genes and their metabolic pathways. RESULTS:In total, 2642 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, among which 1238 were down-regulated and 1404 were up-regulated in fertile anthers. Functional annotation enrichment analysis identified important pathways related to fertility restoration, such as carbohydrate metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism and biosynthesis, as well as candidate genes encoding pectin methylesterase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase. Moreover, transcription factor analysis showed that a large number of DEGs were mainly involved with the WRKY, bHLH, and MYB transcription factor families. Determination of total soluble sugar and flavonoid contents demonstrated that important metabolic pathways and candidate genes are associated with fertility restoration. Twelve DEGs were selected and detected by quantitative reverse-transcribed PCR, and the results indicated that the transcriptome sequencing results were reliable. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that identified DEGs were related to the fertility restoration and they proved to be crucial in Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm. These findings also provide a basis for exploring the molecular regulation mechanism associated with wheat fertility restoration as well as screening and cloning related genes.
Blocked synthesis of sporopollenin and jasmonic acid leads to pollen wall defects and anther indehiscence in genic male sterile wheat line 4110S at high temperatures.
Yang Xuetong,Ye Jiali,Zhang Lingli,Song Xiyue
Functional & integrative genomics
Environment-sensitive genic male sterility is a valid tool for hybrid production and hybrid breeding, but there are no previous reports of the molecular mechanism of fertility conversion. In this study, RNA-seq, phenotypic and cytological observations, and physiological indexes were applied to analyze thermo-sensitive genic male sterility line 4110S under different temperature conditions to explore the fertility transformation mechanism. In total, 3420 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified comprising 2331 upregulated genes and 1089 downregulated genes. The DEGs were apparently distributed among 54 Gene Ontology functional groups. The phenylpropanoid, long-chain fatty acid, and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis pathways were related to male sterility, where their downregulation blocked the synthesis of sporopollenin and JA. Phenotypic and cytological analyses showed that pollen wall defects and anther indehiscence at high temperatures induced sterility. Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results indicated that the abundance of JA was lower in 4110S under restrictive conditions (high temperature) than permissive conditions (low temperature). A possible regulated network of pathways associated with male sterility was suggested. These results provided insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility conversion in the thermosensitive male sterility system.
Comparative transcriptome analysis indicates that a core transcriptional network mediates isonuclear alloplasmic male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
Liu Zihan,Li Sha,Li Wei,Liu Qi,Zhang Lingli,Song Xiyue
BMC plant biology
BACKGROUND:Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) plays a crucial role in the utilization of heterosis and various types of CMS often have different abortion mechanisms. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms related to anther abortion in wheat, which remain unclear at present. RESULTS:In this study, five isonuclear alloplasmic male sterile lines (IAMSLs) and their maintainer were investigated. Cytological analysis indicated that the abortion type was identical in IAMSLs, typical and stainable abortion, and the key abortive period was in the binucleate stage. Most of the 1,281 core shared differentially expressed genes identified by transcriptome sequencing compared with the maintainer in the vital abortive stage were involved in the metabolism of sugars, oxidative phosphorylation, phenylpropane biosynthesis, and phosphatidylinositol signaling, and they were downregulated in the IAMSLs. Key candidate genes encoding chalcone--flavonone isomerase, pectinesterase, and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase were screened and identified. Moreover, further verification elucidated that due to the impact of downregulated genes in these pathways, the male sterile anthers were deficient in sugar and energy, with excessive accumulations of ROS, blocked sporopollenin synthesis, and abnormal tapetum degradation. CONCLUSIONS:Through comparative transcriptome analysis, an intriguing core transcriptome-mediated male-sterility network was proposed and constructed for wheat and inferred that the downregulation of genes in important pathways may ultimately stunt the formation of the pollen outer wall in IAMSLs. These findings provide insights for predicting the functions of the candidate genes, and the comprehensive analysis of our results was helpful for studying the abortive interaction mechanism in CMS wheat.
Comparative transcriptome analysis indicates conversion of stamens into pistil-like structures in male sterile wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with Aegilops crassa cytoplasm.
Liu Qi,Liu Zihan,Li Wei,Song Xiyue
BACKGROUND:Aegilops crassa cytoplasm is an important source for investigating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Moreover, the stamens of line C303A exhibit a high degree of pistillody, turning almost white. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies pistillody in C303A remains unclear. Therefore, to obtain a better understanding of pistillody in C303A, the phenotypic and cytological features of C303A were observed to identify the key stage for the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures. Transcriptome profiles were determined for stamens using Illumina RNA sequencing. RESULTS:Morphological observations of the CMS wheat line with Aegilops crassa cytoplasm C303A showed that the pistils developed normally, but the stamens were ultimately aborted and they released no pollen when mature. According to paraffin section observations, the stamens began to transform into pistils or pistil-like structures in the binucleate stage (BNS). Therefore, the stamens were collected from line C303A and its maintainer 303B in the BNS for transcriptome sequencing. In total, 20,444 wheat genes were determined as differentially expressed in C303A and 303B stamens, with 10,283 upregulated and 10,161 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses showed that most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were annotated with GO terms comprising metabolic process, cell, cellular process, catalytic activity, and cell part. Analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database showed that the enriched DEGs were mainly associated with energy metabolism. We also found several essential genes that may contribute to pistillody in C303A. These findings suggest that disrupted energy metabolism and reactive oxygen metabolism induce pistillody and eventually lead to abortion in C303A. CONCLUSION:We determined the complex transcriptome profiles for C303A stamens and demonstrated that disrupted energy metabolism and class B MADS-box genes are related to pistillody. These findings may facilitate future studies of the mechanistic response of the wheat stamen and pollen development in CMS.
Identification and validation of genetic loci for tiller angle in bread wheat.
Zhao Dehui,Yang Li,Xu Kaijie,Cao Shuanghe,Tian Yubing,Yan Jun,He Zhonghu,Xia Xianchun,Song Xiyue,Zhang Yong
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik
KEY MESSAGE:Two major QTL for tiller angle were identified on chromosomes 1AL and 5DL, and TaTAC-D1 might be the candidate gene for QTA.caas-5DL. An ideal plant architecture is important for achieving high grain yield in crops. Tiller angle (TA) is an important factor influencing yield. In the present study, 266 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Zhongmai 871 (ZM871) and its sister line Zhongmai 895 (ZM895) was used to map TA by extreme pool-genotyping and inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM). Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 1AL and 5DL were identified with reduced tiller angle alleles contributed by ZM895. QTA.caas-1AL was detected in six environments, explaining 5.4-11.2% of the phenotypic variances. The major stable QTL, QTA.caas-5DL, was identified in all eight environments, accounting for 13.8-24.8% of the phenotypic variances. The two QTL were further validated using BCF populations derived from backcrosses ZM871/ZM895//ZM871 (121 lines) and ZM871/ZM895//ZM895 (175 lines). Gene TraesCS5D02G322600, located in the 5DL QTL and designated TaTAC-D1, had a SNP in the third exon with 'A' and 'G' in ZM871 and ZM895, respectively, resulting in a Thr169Ala amino acid change. A KASP marker based on this SNP was validated in two sets of germplasm, providing further evidence for the significant effects of TaTAC-D1 on TA. Thus extreme pool-genotyping can be employed to detect QTL for plant architecture traits and KASP markers tightly linked with the QTL can be used in wheat breeding programs targeting improved plant architecture.
Identification and validation of genetic locus Rfk1 for wheat fertility restoration in the presence of Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm.
Chen Yanru,Jia Yulin,Niu Fuqiang,Wu Yongfeng,Ye Jiali,Yang Xuetong,Zhang Lingli,Song Xiyue
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik
KEY MESSAGE:Major fertility restorer locus for Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm in wheat, Rfk1, was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS. Most likely candidate gene is TraesCS1B02G197400LC, which is predicted to encode a pectinesterase/pectinesterase inhibitor. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used for heterosis and hybrid seed production in wheat. Genes related to male fertility restoration in the presence of Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm have been reported, but the fertility restoration-associated gene loci have not been investigated systematically. In this study, a BCF population derived from a backcross between KTP116A, its maintainer line TP116B, and its restorer line LK783 was employed to map fertility restoration by bulked segregant RNA-Seq (BSR-Seq). A major fertility allele restorer locus for Ae. kotschyi cytoplasm in wheat, Rfk1, was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS, and it was contributed by LK783. Morphological and cytological studies showed that male fertility restoration occurred mainly after the late uninucleate stage. Based on simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, the gene locus was located between Xnwafu_6 and Xbarc137 on chromosome arm 1BS. To further isolate the specific region, six Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction markers derived from BSR-Seq were developed to delimit Rfk1 within physical intervals of 26.0 Mb. After searching for differentially expressed genes within the candidate interval in the anthers and sequencing analysis, TraesCS1B02G197400LC was identified as a candidate gene for Rfk1 and it was predicted to encode a pectinesterase/pectinesterase inhibitor. Expression analysis also confirmed that it was specifically expressed in the anthers, and its expression level was higher in fertile lines compared with sterile lines. Thus, TraesCS1B02G197400LC was identified as the most likely candidate gene for Rfk1, thereby providing insights into the fertility restoration mechanism for K-type CMS in wheat.