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    Enhancement of development of azoxymethane-induced colonic premalignant lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Hirose Yoshinobu,Hata Kazuya,Kuno Toshiya,Yoshida Koujiro,Sakata Keiko,Yamada Yasuhiro,Tanaka Takuji,Reddy Bandaru S,Mori Hideki Carcinogenesis Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity and diabetes mellitus may be risk factors for colon cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these chronic diseases promote colon carcinogenesis remain unknown. C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice have obese and diabetic phenotypes because of disruption of the leptin receptor. The present study was designed to investigate whether development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced dysplastic and early neoplastic (premalignant) lesions of the colon is modulated in db/db mice. Homozygous db/db mice, heterozygous db/+ mice and littermate controls (+/+) were injected with AOM under food restriction ( approximately 10.8 kcal/mouse/day) and killed 5 weeks after the carcinogen treatment. Their colons were assessed for premalignant lesions induced by AOM. We found a significant increase in the multiplicity of the total premalignant lesions in db/db mice when compared with db/+ or +/+ mice. Phenotypically, serum leptin and insulin levels in db/db mice were significantly higher than those in db/+ or +/+ mice, whereas the body weights and glucose levels in blood of db/db, db/+ and +/+ mice were comparable. In addition, immunostaining of the leptin receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor showed up-regulation of these protein levels specifically in the lesions. Our data indicate that development of AOM-induced premalignant lesions is enhanced in db/db mice with hyperleptinemia and hyperinsulinemia. The results have important implications for further exploration of the possible underlying events that affect the positive association between colon cancer and chronic diseases (obesity and diabetes). 10.1093/carcin/bgh059
    Citrus auraptene suppresses azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Hayashi Kei,Suzuki Rikako,Miyamoto Shingo,Shin-Ichiroh Yoshitani,Kohno Hiroyuki,Sugie Shigeyuki,Takashima Shigeki,Tanaka Takuji Nutrition and cancer The current study was designed to investigate whether dietary citrus auraptene (AUR) suppresses the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal preneoplastic lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice with obese and diabetic phenotypes. Female db/db and wild (+/+) mice were divided into the AOM + AUR, AOM alone, AUR alone, and the untreated groups in each phenotype. AOM was given 3 weekly intraperitoneal injections (10 mg/kg bw). AUR (250 ppm) was given in diet during the study (for 10 wk). Dietary AUR significantly reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and Beta -catenin-accumulated crypt (BCAC) in both phenotypes. The treatment also lowered cell proliferation activity and increased apoptotic cells in both lesions. Our findings indicate that dietary AUR is able to suppress the early phase of colon carcinogenesis in both phenotypes, suggesting possible application of AUR as a chemopreventive agent in both the high-risk and general populations for colorectal cancer. 10.1080/01635580701308216
    Aldose reductase inhibition suppresses azoxymethane-induced colonic premalignant lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Saxena Ashish,Shoeb Mohammad,Tammali Ravinder,Ramana Kota V,Srivastava Satish K Cancer letters Type-2 diabetes and obesity-related metabolic abnormalities are major risk factors for the development of colon cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor, fidarestat, on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic premalignant lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db obese mice. Our results indicate that fidarestat given in the drinking water caused a significant reduction in the total number of colonic premalignant lesions in the AOM treated obese mice. Further, the expression levels of PKC-β2, AKT, COX-2 and iNOS in the colonic mucosa of AOM-treated mice were significantly decreased by fidarestat. The serum levels of IL-1α, IP-10, MIG, TNF-α and VEGF are significantly suppressed in AOM + fidarestat treated obese mice. Fidarestat also decreased the expression of COX-2, iNOS, XIAP, survivin, β-catenin and NF-κB in high glucose-treated HT29 colon cancer cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that fidarestat inhibits the development of colonic premalignant lesions in an obesity-related colon cancer and is chemopreventive to colorectal carcinogenesis in obese individuals. 10.1016/j.canlet.2014.09.006
    Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin on azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in C57/BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Kochi Takahiro,Shimizu Masahito,Sumi Takafumi,Kubota Masaya,Shirakami Yohei,Tanaka Takuji,Moriwaki Hisataka BMC gastroenterology BACKGROUND:Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities, including excess oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, are associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid found in aquatic animals, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. The present study examined the effects of astaxanthin on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic premalignant lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) obese mice. METHOD:Male db/db mice were administered 4 weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM (15 mg/kg body weight) from 5 weeks of age and subsequently, from 1 week after the last injection of AOM, were fed a diet containing 200 ppm astaxanthin throughout the experiment (8 weeks). RESULT:The development of colonic premalignant lesions, i.e., aberrant crypt foci and β-catenin accumulated crypts, was significantly inhibited in mice treated with astaxanthin than in mice fed the basal diet. Astaxanthin administration markedly reduced urinary levels of 8-OHdG and serum levels of d-ROMs, which are oxidative stress markers, while increasing the expression of mRNA for the antioxidant enzymes GPx1, SOD1, and CAT in the colonic mucosa of AOM-treated db/db mice. The expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, F4/80, CCL2, and CXCL2 mRNA in the colonic mucosa of AOM-treated mice were significantly decreased by astaxanthin. Dietary feeding with astaxanthin also resulted in a reduction in the numbers of NF-κB- and PCNA-positive cells that were increased by AOM exposure, in the colonic epithelium. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that astaxanthin inhibits the development of colonic premalignant lesions in an obesity-related colorectal carcinogenesis model by reducing oxidative stress, attenuating chronic inflammation, and inhibiting NF-κB activation and cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. Astaxanthin, therefore, may be a potential candidate as a chemoprevention agent against colorectal carcinogenesis in obese individuals. 10.1186/s12876-014-0212-z
    Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors suppress azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db obese mice. Kubota Masaya,Shimizu Masahito,Sakai Hiroyasu,Yasuda Yoichi,Ohno Tomohiko,Kochi Takahiro,Tsurumi Hisashi,Tanaka Takuji,Moriwaki Hisataka Biochemical and biophysical research communications Obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, including chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) also plays a critical role in obesity-related metabolic disorders and in several types of carcinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), both of which inhibit the RAS, on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated colonic premalignant lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) obese mice. Male db/db mice were given 4 weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM (15 mg/kg body weight), and then, they received drinking water containing captopril (ACE inhibitor, 5mg/kg/day) or telmisartan (ARB, 5mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. At sacrifice, administration of either captopril or telmisartan significantly reduced the total number of colonic premalignant lesions, i.e., aberrant crypt foci and β-catenin accumulated crypts, compared to that observed in the control group. The expression levels of TNF-α mRNA in the colonic mucosa of AOM-treated db/db mice were decreased by captopril and telmisartan. Captopril lowered the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PAI-1 mRNAs, while telmisartan lowered the expression levels of COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and PAI-1 mRNAs in the white adipose tissues of these mice. In addition, these agents significantly reduced the levels of urinary 8-OHdG, a surrogate marker of oxidative damage to DNA, in the experimental mice. These findings suggested that both ACE inhibitor and ARB suppress chemically-induced colon carcinogenesis by attenuating chronic inflammation and reducing oxidative stress in obese mice. Therefore, targeting dysregulation of the RAS might be an effective strategy for chemoprevention of colorectal carcinogenesis in obese individuals. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.05.115
    Development of aberrant crypt foci in the colons of ob/ob and db/db mice: evidence that leptin is not a promoter. Ealey Kafi N,Lu Suying,Archer Michael C Molecular carcinogenesis Leptin is elevated in obesity and has been suggested to increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), although the evidence is conflicting. The objective of this study was to compare the susceptibility to colon carcinogenesis of db/db mice that have highly elevated circulating leptin and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, both of which are obese. Seven-week-old male ob/ob, db/db, and WT mice received 4 weekly i.p. injections of 5 mg/kg azoxymethane (AOM) and were killed 14 wk later for the analysis of putative preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). There were no differences in ACF number or multiplicity between ob/ob and db/db mice. Leptin has been shown to induce CYP2E1, the main enzyme that activates AOM, but we observed no differences in hepatic CYP2E1 activity or colonic CYP2E1 protein levels between ob/ob and db/db mice. We also induced ACF with 2 oral doses 3 d apart of 30 mg/kg methylnitrosourea (MNU), a direct-acting carcinogen. There were no differences in ACF number or multiplicity between the two groups of obese animals 5 wk following the last dose of MNU. The colonic mucosa of db/db mice expressed significantly lower mRNA levels of ObRa, the predominant short form of the leptin receptor, compared to ob/ob mice, and following i.p. injection with 1 mg/kg recombinant mouse leptin, exhibited significantly reduced p44/42 pMAPK compared to saline-treated controls. These results show that ObRa is functionally active in the colons of db/db mice. We conclude that leptin does not play a significant role in ACF development. 10.1002/mc.20419
    The Activation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK Signaling by Insulin/IGF-1 Is Responsible for the Development of Colon Cancer with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Teng Jia-An,Wu San-Gang,Chen Jia-Xin,Li Qiang,Peng Fang,Zhu Zhou,Qin Jian,He Zhen-Yu PloS one Previous studies showed that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is linked to increased risk of developing colon cancer. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are increased in patients with T2DM. The increased insulin and IGF-1 may be responsible for the developing of colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of insulin and IGF-1 in colon cancer development in vitro and in vivo. Insulin and IGF-1 alone or together elevated proliferation and reduced apoptosis in colon cancer MC38 cells. Meanwhile, insulin and IGF-1 promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Treatment with ERK1/2 or JNK inhibitor in the presence of insulin and IGF-1 significantly decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and increased Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression and finally increased apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation. Accelerative colon tumor growth was found in a mouse model of T2DM with db/db mice which got high level of endogenous insulin and IGF-1. Furthermore, the inhibition of ERK1/2 or JNK suppressed the development of colon tumor in vivo. These results suggest that the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK signaling by insulin and IGF-1, at least in part, is responsible for the development of colon cancer with T2DM. 10.1371/journal.pone.0149822