Nutrient pathways regulating the nuclear maturation of mammalian oocytes.
Downs Stephen M
Reproduction, fertility, and development
Oocyte maturation is defined as that phase of development whereby a fully grown oocyte reinitiates meiotic maturation, completes one meiotic division with extrusion of a polar body, then arrests at MII until fertilisation. Completion of maturation depends on many different factors, not the least of which is the proper provision of energy substrates to fuel the process. Interaction of the oocyte and somatic compartment of the follicle is critical and involves numerous signals exchanged between the two cell types in both directions. One of the prominent functions of the cumulus cells is the channelling of metabolites and nutrients to the oocyte to help stimulate germinal vesicle breakdown and direct development to MII. This entails the careful integration and coordination of numerous metabolic pathways, as well as oocyte paracrine signals that direct certain aspects of cumulus cell metabolism. These forces collaborate to produce a mature oocyte that, along with accompanying physiological changes called cytoplasmic maturation, which impart subsequent developmental competence to the oocyte, can be fertilised and develop to term. This review focuses on nuclear maturation and the metabolic interplay that regulates it, with special emphasis on data generated in the mouse.
Human oocyte maturation in vitro.
Coticchio Giovanni,Dal-Canto Mariabeatrice,Guglielmo Maria-Cristina,Mignini-Renzini Mario,Fadini Rubens
The International journal of developmental biology
Oocytes from medium-sized antral follicles have already completed their growth phase and, if released from the follicular environment and cultured in vitro, are able to resume the meiotic process and mature. However, in vitro maturation (IVM) does not entirely support all the nuclear and cytoplasmic changes that occur physiologically as an effect of the ovulatory stimulus. Regardless, oocyte IVM is widely applied for the breeding of agriculturally important species. In assisted reproduction technology, IVM has been proposed as an alternative treatment to circumvent the drawbacks of standard ovarian stimulation regimens. Initially introduced to eliminate the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome afflicting women presenting with polycystic ovaries, subsequently IVM has been suggested to represent an additional approach suitable also for normovulatory patients. So far, in children born from IVM cycles, no doubts of an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities have been raised. Many more births would be achieved if novel IVM systems, currently dominated by empiricism, could be conceived according to more physiological criteria. Recent findings shedding new light on the control of meiotic progression, the support of cumulus cells to the oocyte cellular reorganization occurring during maturation, and the modulation of the stimulus that promotes oocyte maturation downstream the mid-cycle gonadotropin signal are likely to provide crucial hints for the development of more efficient IVM systems.
Changes in MPF and MAPK activities in porcine oocytes activated by different methods.
Nanassy L,Lee K,Javor A,Machaty Z
The effect of different oocyte activation methods on the dynamics of M-phase promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in porcine oocytes were examined. Three activativation methods were tested: (1) electroporation (EP); (2) electroporation combined with butyrolactone I (BL), an inhibitor of cdc2 and cdk2 kinases; (3) electroporation followed by a treatment with cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis blocker. The activity of cdc2 in MII oocytes was 0.067+/-0.011pmol/oocyte/min (mean+/-S.E.M.), which by 1h decreased in every treatment group (P<0.05) and stayed at low levels until 6h post-activation, approximately the time of pronuclear formation. The initial MAPK activity (0.123+/-0.017pmol/oocyte/min) also decreased 1h after each type of activation treatment (P<0.005). However, in the electroporation only group, activity reached its lowest level at 3h; thereafter, it started to recover and at later time points, MAPK activity did not differ from that in non-treated oocytes (P>0.1). In contrast, oocytes where electroporation was followed by protein kinase or protein synthesis inhibition had low MAPK activity by the time pronuclei were to be formed. Pronuclear formation in these groups (86.3+/-3.3% for EP+BL and 87.6+/-3.7% for EP+CHX) was higher compared to that found in the EP-only oocytes (69.4+/-3.3%; P<0.05). These findings demonstrated that electroporation alone efficiently triggered the inactivation of MPF but not that of MAPK. In order to achieve low MAPK activity to allow high frequency of pronuclear formation, electroporation should be followed by a treatment that inhibits protein synthesis or specific protein kinases. The combined activation methods provided stimuli that efficiently induced both MPF and MAPK inactivation and triggered pronuclear formation with high frequencies.
Activities of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are not required for the global histone deacetylation observed after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in porcine oocytes.
Endo Tsutomu,Naito Kunihiko,Kume Sachi,Nishimura Yukio,Kashima Koji,Tojo Hideaki
Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
The acetylation of nuclear core histone has been suggested to work as an epigenetic mark for transmitting gene expression patterns to daughter cells. Global histone deacetylations, presumably involved in the reprogramming of the gene expression, have been observed after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in a cell cycle-dependent manner during meiotic maturation of mouse and porcine oocytes, although the regulation mechanism of histone deacetylation has not been studied well. In the present study, we examined the involvement of a crucial cell-cycle-regulator, maturation-promoting factor (MPF), and a meiosis-related kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in the global histone deacetylation during porcine oocyte maturation. In order to know whether the activities of MPF and MAPK were required, or the breakdown of GV membrane was sufficient, for the global histone deacetylation observed after GVBD, we artificially destroyed the GV membrane of the porcine immature oocytes. The artificial GV destruction (AGVD) induced histone deacetylation without the activation of MPF and MAPK. This deacetylation after AGVD was not affected by an MPF inhibitor, roscovitine, or an inhibitor of protein synthesis, cycloheximide, but was completely prevented by an inhibitor of histone deactylases (HDACs), trichostatine A. HDAC1 was present in the GV of the immature oocytes and localized on chromosomes after GVBD and AGVD. These results suggest that the MPF and MAPK activities were dispensable and the breakdown of the GV membrane was sufficient for the global histone deacetylation, which was catalyzed by HDAC activity.
Oocyte ultrastructure in bovine primordial to early tertiary follicles.
Fair T,Hulshof S C,Hyttel P,Greve T,Boland M
Anatomy and embryology
The aim of the present study was to describe in detail the changes occurring in the cytoplasmic ultrastructure of the bovine oocyte from the onset of growth in the primordial follicle until the completion of growth in the tertiary follicle. Bovine oocytes from primordial, primary, secondary and early to mid-antral follicles were processed and analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The primordial follicular oocyte was characterized by numerous coated pits on the oolemma and the accumulation of free and organelle-related smooth (SER) and rough (RER) endoplasmic reticulum, round mitochondria and Golgi complexes around the nucleus, which was located slightly off centre. Up to the secondary follicular stage the oocyte displayed an increase in the number of microvilli, elongated mitochondria and Golgi complexes. During the secondary follicular stage, formation of the zona pellucida, development of gap junctions between the oocyte and the granulosa cells, formation of the cortical granules in the oocyte and reduction in the number of coated pits on the oolemma were seen. In the tertiary follicular oocyte up to 100 microm in diameter, the number of Golgi complexes and lipid droplets increased and the organelles were dislocated to the deep cortical region. During the final growth of the oocyte up to >120 microm, the organelles were dislocated further to the peripheral region, the extent of the free SER and RER compartments were reduced, the number of individual cortical granules increased, hooded mitochondria became abundant and the perivitelline space developed. In conclusion, the growth of the bovine oocyte is associated with the relocation and modulation of a number of cytoplasmic organelles as well as the development of oocyte specific structures such as the zona pellucida and cortical granules.