Extracellular Vesicles from Thyroid Carcinoma: The New Frontier of Liquid Biopsy.
Rappa Germana,Puglisi Caterina,Santos Mark F,Forte Stefano,Memeo Lorenzo,Lorico Aurelio
International journal of molecular sciences
The diagnostic approach to thyroid cancer is one of the most challenging issues in oncology of the endocrine system because of its high incidence (3.8% of all new cancer cases in the US) and the difficulty to distinguish benign from malignant non-functional thyroid nodules and establish the cervical lymph node involvement during staging. Routine diagnosis of thyroid nodules usually relies on a fine-needle aspirate biopsy, which is invasive and often inaccurate. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify novel, accurate, and non-invasive diagnostic procedures. Liquid biopsy, as a non-invasive approach for the detection of diagnostic biomarkers for early tumor diagnosis, prognosis, and disease monitoring, may be of particular benefit in this context. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a consistent source of tumor-derived RNA due to their prevalence in circulating bodily fluids, the well-established isolation protocols, and the fact that RNA in phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles is protected from blood-borne RNases. Recent results in other types of cancer, including our recent study on plasma EVs from glioblastoma patients suggest that information derived from analysis of EVs from peripheral blood plasma can be integrated in the routine diagnostic tumor approach. In this review, we will examine the diagnostic and prognostic potential of liquid biopsy to detect tumor-derived nucleic acids in circulating EVs from patients with thyroid carcinoma.
The Role of Exosomes in Thyroid Cancer and Their Potential Clinical Application.
Feng Kaixiang,Ma Runsheng,Zhang Lele,Li Hongqiang,Tang Yifeng,Du Gongbo,Niu Dongpeng,Yin Detao
Frontiers in oncology
The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is rapidly increasing worldwide. The diagnostic accuracy and dynamics of TC need to be improved, and traditional treatments are not effective enough for patients with poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. Exosomes are membrane vesicles secreted specifically by various cells and are involved in intercellular communication. Recent studies have shown that exosomes secreted by TC cells contribute to tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. Exosomes in liquid biopsies can reflect the overall molecular information of tumors, and have natural advantages in diagnosing TC. Exosomes also play an important role in tumor therapy due to their special physicochemical properties. TC patients will benefit as more exosome patterns are discovered. In this review, we discuss the role of TC-derived exosomes in tumorigenesis and development, and describe the application of exosomes in the diagnosis and treatment of TC.
Recent advancements in the study of breast cancer exosomes as mediators of intratumoral communication.
Groza Monica,Zimta Alina-Andreea,Irimie Alexandru,Achimas-Cadariu Patriciu,Cenariu Diana,Stanta Giorgio,Berindan-Neagoe Ioana
Journal of cellular physiology
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with a morbidity rate of 27.8% and a mortality rate of 15% among women population worldwide. Understanding how this cancer develops and the mechanisms behind tumor progression and chemoresistance is of utmost importance. Exosomes mediate communication in a population of heterogeneous tumoral cells. They have a cargo composed of oncogenes and oncomiRs which change the transcriptomic scenario of their targeted cells and activate numerous tumor-promoting signaling pathways. Exosomes secreted by breast cancer cells lead to enhanced cell proliferation, replicative immortality, angiogenesis, invasion, migration, and chemoresistance. Studying exosomes from this perspective offers more in depth understanding of breast malignancy and may aid in the future development of early diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic options. We present the latest findings in this area and offer practical solutions which may further stimulate the much-needed research of exosome in breast cancer.
Tumor-derived exosomes: Potential biomarker or therapeutic target in breast cancer?
Hesari AmirReza,Golrokh Moghadam Seyed Ali,Siasi AmirShayan,Rahmani Mahsa,Behboodi Negin,Rastgar-Moghadam Azam,Ferns Gordon A,Ghasemi Faezeh,Avan Amir
Journal of cellular biochemistry
Exosomes are released by normal and tumour cells, including those involved in breast cancer, and provide a means of intercellular communications. Exosomes with diameters ranging between 30-150 nm are involved in transferring biological information, via various lipids, proteins, different forms of RNAs, and DNA from one cell to another, and this can result in reprogramming of recipient cell functions. These vesicles are present in all body fluids, for example, blood plasma/serum, semen, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, breast milk, and urine. It has been recently reported that these particles are involved in the development and progression of different tumor types, including breast cancer. Furthermore, it has been suggested that exosomes have the potential to be used as drug transporters, or as biomarkers. This review highlights the potential roles of exosomes in normal and breast cancer cells and their potential applications as biomarkers with special focus on their potential applications in treatment of breast cancer.