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    Prevalence, risk factors, and management of asthma in China: a national cross-sectional study. Huang Kewu,Yang Ting,Xu Jianying,Yang Lan,Zhao Jianping,Zhang Xiangyan,Bai Chunxue,Kang Jian,Ran Pixin,Shen Huahao,Wen Fuqiang,Chen Yahong,Sun Tieying,Shan Guangliang,Lin Yingxiang,Xu Guodong,Wu Sinan,Wang Chaolong,Wang Ruiying,Shi Zhihong,Xu Yongjian,Ye Xianwei,Song Yuanlin,Wang Qiuyue,Zhou Yumin,Li Wen,Ding Liren,Wan Chun,Yao Wanzhen,Guo Yanfei,Xiao Fei,Lu Yong,Peng Xiaoxia,Zhang Biao,Xiao Dan,Wang Zuomin,Chen Zhengming,Bu Xiaoning,Zhang Hong,Zhang Xiaolei,An Li,Zhang Shu,Zhu Jianguo,Cao Zhixin,Zhan Qingyuan,Yang Yuanhua,Liang Lirong,Tong Xunliang,Dai Huaping,Cao Bin,Wu Tangchun,Chung Kian Fan,He Jiang,Wang Chen, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Asthma is a common chronic airway disease worldwide. Despite its large population size, China has had no comprehensive study of the national prevalence, risk factors, and management of asthma. We therefore aimed to estimate the national prevalence of asthma in a representative sample of the Chinese population. METHODS:A representative sample of 57 779 adults aged 20 years or older was recruited for the national cross-sectional China Pulmonary Health (CPH) study using a multi-stage stratified sampling method with parameters derived from the 2010 census. Ten Chinese provinces, representative of all socioeconomic settings, from six geographical regions were selected, and all assessments were done in local health centres. Exclusion criteria were temporary residence, inability to take a spirometry test, hospital treatment of cardiovascular conditions or tuberculosis, and pregnancy and breastfeeding. Asthma was determined on the basis of a self-reported history of diagnosis by a physician or by wheezing symptoms in the preceding 12 months. All participants were assessed with a standard asthma questionnaire and were classed as having or not having airflow limitation through pulmonary function tests before and after the use of a bronchodilator (400 μg of salbutamol). Risk factors for asthma were examined by multivariable-adjusted analyses done in all participants for whom data on the variables of interest were available. Disease management was assessed by the self-reported history of physician diagnosis, treatments, and hospital visits in people with asthma. FINDINGS:Between June 22, 2012, and May 25, 2015, 57 779 participants were recruited into the CPH study. 50 991 (21 446 men and 29 545 women) completed the questionnaire survey and had reliable post-bronchodilator pulmonary function test results and were thus included in the final analysis. The overall prevalence of asthma in our sample was 4·2% (95% CI 3·1-5·6), representing 45·7 million Chinese adults. The prevalence of asthma with airflow limitation was 1·1% (0·9-1·4), representing 13·1 million adults. Cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR] 1·89, 95% CI 1·26-2·84; p=0·004), allergic rhinitis (3·06, 2·26-4·15; p<0·0001), childhood pneumonia or bronchitis (2·43, 1·44-4·10; p=0·002), parental history of respiratory disease (1·44, 1·02-2·04; p=0·040), and low education attainment (p=0·045) were associated with prevalent asthma. In 2032 people with asthma, only 28·8% (95% CI 19·7-40·0) reported ever being diagnosed by a physician, 23·4% (13·9-36·6) had a previous pulmonary function test, and 5·6% (3·1-9·9) had been treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, 15·5% (11·4-20·8) people with asthma reported at least one emergency room visit and 7·2% (4·9-10·5) at least one hospital admission due to exacerbation of respiratory symptoms within the preceding year. INTERPRETATION:Asthma is prevalent but largely undiagnosed and undertreated in China. It is crucial to increase the awareness of asthma and disseminate standardised treatment in clinical settings to reduce the disease burden. FUNDING:National Key R&D Program of China, Ministry of Science and Technology of China; the Special Research Foundation for Public Welfare of Health, Ministry of Health of China; the Chinese National Research Program for Key Issues in Air Pollution Control; and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31147-X
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China: a nationwide prevalence study. Fang Liwen,Gao Pei,Bao Heling,Tang Xun,Wang Baohua,Feng Yajing,Cong Shu,Juan Juan,Fan Jing,Lu Ke,Wang Ning,Hu Yonghua,Wang Linhong The Lancet. Respiratory medicine BACKGROUND:Because of the rapid change in economic development and lifestyle in China, and the ageing population, concerns have grown that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could become epidemic. An up-to-date nationwide estimation of COPD prevalence in China is needed. METHODS:We did a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of individuals from mainland China aged 40 years or older. The primary outcome was COPD, defined according to the 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) lung function criteria. FINDINGS:Between Dec 29, 2014, and Dec 31, 2015, 66 752 adults were recruited to the study population. The estimated standardised prevalence of COPD was 13·6% (95% CI 12·0-15·2). The prevalence of COPD differed significantly between men and women (19·0%, 95% CI 16·9-21·2 vs 8·1%, 6·8-9·3; p<0·0001), mainly because of a significant difference in smoking status between men and women (current smokers 58·2% vs 4·0%). The prevalence of COPD differed by geographic region, with the highest prevalence in southwest China (20·2%, 95% CI 14·7-25·8) and the lowest in central China (10·2%, 8·2-12·2). Among adults with COPD, 56·4% (95% CI 53·7-59·2) had mild disease (GOLD stage I), 36·3% (34·3-38·3) had moderate disease (GOLD stage II), 6·5% (5·5-7·4) had severe disease (GOLD stage III), and 0·9% (0·6-1·1) had very severe disease (GOLD stage IV). INTERPRETATION:In a large, nationally representative sample of adults aged 40 years or older, the estimated overall prevalence of COPD in China in 2014-15 was 13·6%, indicating that this disease has become a major public-health problem. Strategies aimed at prevention and treatment of COPD are needed urgently. FUNDING:Chinese Central Government, the Ministry of Science and Technology of The People's Republic of China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30103-6
    Prevalence and risk factors of asthma in mainland China: The CARE study. Lin Jiangtao,Wang Wenya,Chen Ping,Zhou Xin,Wan Huanying,Yin Kaisheng,Ma Lijun,Wu Changgui,Li Jing,Liu Chuntao,Su Nan,Liu Guoliang,Xie Hua,Tang Wei,Huang Mao,Chen Yan,Liu Yuanhua,Song Liqiang,Chen Xianliang,Zhang Yongming,Li Wen,Sun Lichao Respiratory medicine BACKGROUND:There are limited population based data on the prevalence of asthma in China. The China Asthma and Risk factors Epidemiologic (CARE) survey was designed to understand the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in mainland China. OBJECTIVES:The CARE survey aims to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in mainland China among adolescents (age >14 years) and adults. METHODS:The survey was performed between February 2010 and August 2012 in eight provinces/cities of seven areas in mainland China. The inhabitants (age, >14 years) recruited in this survey were through multi-stage cluster random sampling. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical history and lung function tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyzed the risk factors for asthma. RESULTS:The study included 164 215 subjects (men, 79 692 [48.53%]; women, 84 523 [51.47%]). 2034 (1.24%) were asthmatic patients. Among all asthmatic patients, 521 (25.61%) were newly diagnosed. Univariable regression analysis showed that risk factors for asthma included smoking, first-degree relatives with asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, COPD, pollinosis, allergic pneumonia, concomitant allergic diseases, BMI and raising pets. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that asthma risk factors included women, age stratification, smoking, first-degree relatives suffering from asthma or pollinosis, combined with allergic rhinitis, eczema or GERD. CONCLUSIONS:We speculated that the prevalence of asthma is increasing in mainland China among individuals aged >14 years in the past 10 years. A number of risk factors were identified. The risk factors of asthma would be further elucidated in our future work. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS:Our CARE study highlights that asthma epidemic in mainland China should be paid more attention. 10.1016/j.rmed.2018.02.010
    [Prevalence of soil - borne nematode infections among residents living in urban/town areas of China in 2015]. Zhu H H,Zhou C H,Zhu T J,Huang J L,Qian M B,Chen Y D,Li S Z,Zhou X N Zhongguo xue xi chong bing fang zhi za zhi = Chinese journal of schistosomiasis control OBJECTIVE:To understand the prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections among residents living in urban/town areas of China, so as to provide insights into the control and elimination of soil-borne nematodiasis. METHODS:A total of 5 epidemic areas were classified in China according to the prevalence of human infections captured from the 2014-2015 national survey on major human parasitic diseases in China, and the total sample size was estimated according to the binomial distribution and Poisson's distribution. Then, the total sample size was allocated proportionally to each province (autonomous region, municipality) of China based on the percentage of residents living in urban and town areas, and the number of survey sites in each province (autonomous region, municipality) was proportionally assigned according to the percentages of residents living in urban and town areas. Then, stratified sampling was performed at county, township and community levels according to the number of sampling sites in each province (autonomous region, municipality), and the survey site (community) was defined as the smallest sampling unit. All permanent residents in the survey sites were selected as the study subjects, and their stool samples were collected for identification and counting of parasite egg using a Kato-Katz technique. The prevalence and intensity of each parasite species were calculated. RESULTS:From 2014 to 2015, among the 133 231 residents detected in 31 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) of China, the overall prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections was 1.23% (1 636/133 231), and the prevalence rates of hookworm, and infections were 0.77% (1 032/133 231), 0.32% (426/133 231) and 0.17% (224/133 231), respectively. The highest prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections was seen in Jiangxi (4.03%, 82/2 034) and Chongqing (4.03%, 524/13 012), followed by in Hainan (3.47%, 72/2 075). The prevalence of soilborne nematode infections was 1.07% (662/62 139) in men and 1.37% (974/71 092) in women, and the greatest prevalence was found in residents at ages of 65 to 70 years (2.56%, 219/8 569). With regard to occupations and education levels, herdsmen (2.47%, 2/81) and illiterate residents (3.33%, 226/6 795) were found to have the highest prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections, respectively. In addition, mild infections were predominantly identified in hookworm-, - and -infected individuals (all > 90%). CONCLUSIONS:The overall prevalence of soil-borne nematodiasis remains low in urban and town areas of China; however, human infections are widespread. According to the epidemiological features, health education combined with deworming are recommended to reduce the prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections among residents living in urban and town areas of China. 10.16250/j.32.1374.2020202
    Prevalence of and risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury in rural China: Results from a nationwide survey in China. Tang Jie,Li Guowei,Chen Baoxin,Huang Zhijie,Zhang Yanmei,Chang Hongjuan,Wu Chunxia,Ma Xiaoguang,Wang Jiaji,Yu Yizhen Journal of affective disorders BACKGROUND:Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a highly prevalent and serious public health problem among adolescents worldwide. However, to date there were no studies assessing the prevalence of NSSI defined by suggested DSM-5 criteria among Chinese adolescents. We aimed to conduct a nationwide survey to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for NSSI among school-based adolescents in rural China. METHODS:A total sample of 15,623 adolescents in rural China were enrolled by using a multistage sampling method. Data was collected by self-report questionnaires including demographic characteristics, neglect, maltreatment, loneliness, resilience, social support and emotional management ability. NSSI was defined by suggested DSM-5 criteria, according to which the engagement in self-injury took place more than 5 times a year. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between risk factors and NSSI. RESULTS:There were 12.2% of adolescents (n = 1908) met the suggested DSM-5 criteria. Approximately 29% reported a history of NSSI at least once during the last year. Significant differences were found in several demographic factors including gender, ethnicity, grade, and family structure between adolescents with and without experiencing NSSI. The top three NSSI behaviors among adolescents with NSSI experience were hitting self, pinching, and pulling hair, with a prevalence rate of 16.7%, 14.1% and 11.2%, respectively. Female, Han ethnicity, fathers' education level, neglect, maltreatment, loneliness, social support, suicidal behaviors and emotional management ability were significantly associated with NSSI by multivariate analysis. No significant relationship was found between resilience and risk of NSSI. LIMITATION:The DSM-5 has proposed 6 groups of criteria for NSSI, we only used criteria on frequency given its more accepted feasibility and pragmatic application. Consequently, it may different from other prevalence that estimated by other criteria. CONCLUSION:To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting prevalence of NSSI defined by suggested DSM-5 criteria among adolescent in rural China. In comparison to finding from the similar samples of adolescents, Chinese rural adolescents seem to have a relative higher prevalence. The potential risk factors for NSSI include female, father's education, Han ethnicity, psychosocial factors and suicide behaviors. More evidence for further understanding of context of the occurrence, improving access to health care utilization, and identifying the role of psychosocial factors and family relationship, is needed for the prevention and management of NSSI. 10.1016/j.jad.2017.09.051
    Prevalence of Frailty and Associated Factors in the Community-Dwelling Population of China. Ma Lina,Tang Zhe,Zhang Li,Sun Fei,Li Yun,Chan Piu Journal of the American Geriatrics Society BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Frailty in older adults predicts dependence and mortality and is a major challenge for healthcare systems in countries with rapidly aging populations. Little is known about frailty in China. We investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of frailty in older adults in China. DESIGN:Cross-sectional. SETTING:Data were obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study, conducted in 2011-12, which was the first uniform comprehensive assessment system adopted in China. PARTICIPANTS:Older adults from 7 cities were selected based on well-established cluster, stratification, and random selection statistical sampling techniques (N = 5,844). MEASUREMENTS:The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment-Frailty Index was measured based on demographic characteristics, physical health, physical function, living behavior and social function, mental health, and cognitive function. RESULTS:The overall weighted prevalence of frailty was 9.9%: 12.7% in southwestern China, 11.0% in northern China, 5.9% in northwestern China, 5.0% in south-central China, 2.5% in eastern China, and 2.3% in northeastern China. The prevalence of frailty increased with age and was significantly higher in women and those living in rural areas. After adjusting for sex, age, area, region, and education, activity of daily living impairment was the strongest risk factor for frailty. Chronic diseases, depression, poor lifestyle, and geriatric syndromes were also independent risk factors. CONCLUSION:Our study provides epidemiological characteristics and the risk factors of frailty in China; the findings indicate greater regional disparities. Efforts to promote physical, psychological, and social health in older adults are a core objective of health policy, especially in women and those living in rural areas. 10.1111/jgs.15214