Mitochondrial autophagy: Origins, significance, and role of BNIP3 and NIX.
Ney Paul A
Biochimica et biophysica acta
Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is a core cellular activity. In this review, we consider mitophagy and related cellular processes and discuss their significance for human disease. Strong parallels exist between mitophagy and xenophagy employed in host defense. These mechanisms converge on receptors in the innate immune system in clinically relevant scenarios. Mitophagy is part of a cellular quality control mechanism, which is implicated in degenerative disease, especially neurodegenerative disease. Furthermore, mitophagy is an aspect of cellular remodeling, which is employed during development. BNIP3 and NIX are related multi-functional outer mitochondrial membrane proteins. BNIP3 regulates mitophagy during hypoxia, whereas NIX is required for mitophagy during development of the erythroid lineage. Recent advances in the field of BNIP3- and NIX-mediated mitophagy are discussed.
A nucleus-targeted alternately spliced Nix/Bnip3L protein isoform modifies nuclear factor κB (NFκB)-mediated cardiac transcription.
Chen Yun,Decker Keith F,Zheng Dali,Matkovich Scot J,Jia Li,Dorn Gerald W
The Journal of biological chemistry
Several Bcl2 family proteins are expressed both as mitochondrial-targeted full-length and as cytosolic truncated alternately spliced isoforms. Recombinantly expressed shorter Bcl2 family isoforms can heterotypically bind to and prevent mitochondrial localization of their full-length analogs, thus suppressing their activity by sequestration. This "sponge" role requires 1:1 expression stoichiometry; absent this an alternate role is suggested. Here, RNA sequencing revealed coordinate regulation of BH3-only protein Nix/Bnip3L (Nix) and its alternately spliced soluble form (sNix) in hearts, but relative sNix/Nix expression of ∼1:10. Accordingly, we examined other putative functions of sNix. Although Nix expressed in H9c2 rat myoblasts localized to mitochondria, sNix showed variable cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced rapid and complete sNix nucleoplasmic translocation concomitant with nuclear translocation of the p65/RelA subunit of NFκB. sNix co-localized and co-precipitated with p65/RelA after TNFα stimulation; TNFα-induced sNix nuclear translocation did not occur in p65/RelA null murine embryonic fibroblasts. ChIP sequencing of TNFα-stimulated H9c2 cells revealed sNix suppression of p65/RelA binding to a subset of weaker DNA binding sites, accounting for its ability to alter gene expression in cultured cells and in vivo mouse hearts. These findings reveal TNFα-stimulated cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling of the alternately spliced non-mitochondrial Nix isoform and uncover a role for sNix as a modulator of TNFα/NFκB-stimulated cardiac gene expression. Transcriptional co-regulation of sNix and Nix, combined with sNix posttranslational regulation by TNFα, comprises a previously unknown mechanism for molecular cross-talk between extrinsic death receptor and intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathways.
Dimerization of mitophagy receptor BNIP3L/NIX is essential for recruitment of autophagic machinery.
Marinković Mija,Šprung Matilda,Novak Ivana
Mitophagy is a conserved intracellular catabolic process responsible for the selective removal of dysfunctional or superfluous mitochondria to maintain mitochondrial quality and need in cells. Here, we examine the mechanisms of receptor-mediated mitophagy activation, with the focus on BNIP3L/NIX mitophagy receptor, proven to be indispensable for selective removal of mitochondria during the terminal differentiation of reticulocytes. The molecular mechanisms of selecting damaged mitochondria from healthy ones are still very obscure. We investigated BNIP3L dimerization as a potentially novel molecular mechanism underlying BNIP3L-dependent mitophagy. Forming stable homodimers, BNIP3L recruits autophagosomes more robustly than its monomeric form. Amino acid substitutions of key transmembrane residues of BNIP3L, BNIP3L or BNIP3L, led to the abolishment of dimer formation, resulting in the lower LC3A-BNIP3L recognition and subsequently lower mitophagy induction. Moreover, we identified the serine 212 as the main amino acid residue at the C-terminal of BNIP3L, which extends to the intermembrane space, responsible for dimerization. In accordance, the phosphomimetic mutation BNIP3L leads to a complete loss of BNIP3L dimerization. Thus, the interplay between BNIP3L phosphorylation and dimerization indicates that the combined mechanism of LIR phosphorylation and receptor dimerization is needed for proper BNIP3L-dependent mitophagy initiation and progression. AMBRA1: autophagy and beclin 1 regulator 1; Baf A1: bafilomycin A; BH3: BCL2 homology 3; BNIP3: BCL2 interacting protein 3; BNIP3L/NIX: BCL2 interacting protein 3 like; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone; CoCl: cobalt (II) chloride; FKBP8: FKBP prolyl isomerase 8; FUNDC1: FUN14 domain containing 1; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GST: glutathione S-transferase; IMM: inner mitochondrial membrane; LIR: LC3-interacting region; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; PHB2: prohibitin 2; PI: propidium iodide; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; TM: transmembrane domain; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20.