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    An independent poor-prognosis subtype of breast cancer defined by a distinct tumor immune microenvironment. Tekpli Xavier,Lien Tonje,Røssevold Andreas Hagen,Nebdal Daniel,Borgen Elin,Ohnstad Hege Oma,Kyte Jon Amund,Vallon-Christersson Johan,Fongaard Marie,Due Eldri Undlien,Svartdal Lisa Gregusson,Sveli My Anh Tu,Garred Øystein, ,Frigessi Arnoldo,Sahlberg Kristine Kleivi,Sørlie Therese,Russnes Hege G,Naume Bjørn,Kristensen Vessela N Nature communications How mixtures of immune cells associate with cancer cell phenotype and affect pathogenesis is still unclear. In 15 breast cancer gene expression datasets, we invariably identify three clusters of patients with gradual levels of immune infiltration. The intermediate immune infiltration cluster (Cluster B) is associated with a worse prognosis independently of known clinicopathological features. Furthermore, immune clusters are associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In silico dissection of the immune contexture of the clusters identified Cluster A as immune cold, Cluster C as immune hot while Cluster B has a pro-tumorigenic immune infiltration. Through phenotypical analysis, we find epithelial mesenchymal transition and proliferation associated with the immune clusters and mutually exclusive in breast cancers. Here, we describe immune clusters which improve the prognostic accuracy of immune contexture in breast cancer. Our discovery of a novel independent prognostic factor in breast cancer highlights a correlation between tumor phenotype and immune contexture. 10.1038/s41467-019-13329-5
    Immune Tumor Microenvironment in Breast Cancer and the Participation of Estrogen and Its Receptors in Cancer Physiopathology. Segovia-Mendoza Mariana,Morales-Montor Jorge Frontiers in immunology Breast cancer is characterized by cellular and molecular heterogeneity. Several molecular events are involved in controlling malignant cell process. In this sense, the importance of studying multiple cell alterations in this pathology is overriding. A well-identified fact on immune response is that it can vary depend on sex. Steroid hormones and their receptors may regulate different functions and the responses of several subpopulations of the immune system. Few reports are focused on the function of estrogen receptors (ERs) on immune cells and their roles in different breast cancer subtypes. Thus, the aim of this review is to investigate the immune infiltrating tumor microenvironment and prognosis conferred by it in different breast cancer subtypes, discuss the current knowledge and point out the roles of estrogens and its receptors on the infiltrating immune cells, as well as to identify how different immune subsets are modulated after anti-hormonal treatments in breast cancer patients. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00348