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    miRNA and piRNA mediated Akt pathway in heart: antisense expands to survive. Rajan K Shanmugha,Velmurugan G,Pandi Gopal,Ramasamy Subbiah The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology The Akt signalling pathway is a crucial network of proteins, which plays a role in neonatal cellular proliferation, hypertrophy and cellular survival mechanism in the heart through a multifaceted system including, small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs). Despite numerous reports on the distorted expression of these proteins in various cardiovascular diseases, this review focuses on the role of miRNA and piRNA in altering Akt signalling. Nevertheless the role of these sncRNAs in the Akt pathway needs to be studied in detail, there are evidence indicating that they can play a vital function in Akt-mediated cardiac survival. Recent reports indicate that, modification of such miRNA/piRNA causes alteration in the Akt pathway during both physiology and pathology. Therefore, understanding the antisense mediated molecular mechanisms of Akt pathway can devise a new vision towards biomarkers and therapeutic approaches to various cardiovascular diseases. 10.1016/j.biocel.2014.09.001
    Exosomal piRNA sequencing reveals differences between heart failure and healthy patients. Yang J,Xue F-T,Li Y-Y,Liu W,Zhang S European review for medical and pharmacological sciences OBJECTIVE:Heart failure is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality in industrialized countries. Increasing evidence has highlighted the relationship between noncoding regulatory RNAs, especially microRNAs, and heart failure. However, few studies address the role of piRNAs in heart failure. Therefore, we compared exosomal piRNAs between heart failure patients and healthy volunteers to investigate the role of piRNAs in heart failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS:First, exosomes were isolated from the serum of heart failure patients and healthy volunteers. After confirming exosome identity by electron microscopy, nanoparticle analysis, and Western blotting, RNA was extracted from exosomes. The expression of piRNAs was then compared by RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. RESULTS:Serum exosomes from heart failure patients and healthy volunteers were successfully isolated and identified. Serum exosome presence was increased in heart failure patients compared to healthy volunteers. RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed that 585 piRNAs were upregulated in heart failure patients, and 4,623 piRNAs were downregulated. Among these piRNAs, has-piR-020009 and has-piR-006426 were the most downregulated. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, a dramatic difference in the expression of piRNAs in serum exosomes of heart failure patients was observed. Altogether, these data suggest that piRNAs are potential biomarkers of heart failure and that serum exosome isolation may provide a clinically relevant source of piRNAs for sequencing analysis. 10.26355/eurrev_201811_16423