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    Treatment of type 2 diabetes in childhood using a very-low-calorie diet. Willi Steven M,Martin Kelley,Datko Farrah M,Brant Bethany P Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:Pharmacologic agents currently approved for use in children with type 2 diabetes (metformin and insulin) are less than optimal for some patients. We evaluated the use of a ketogenic, very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We conducted a chart review of 20 children (mean age 14.5 +/- 0.4 years) who consumed a ketogenic VLCD in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Several response variables (BMI, blood pressure, HbA(1c), blood glucose, and treatment regimens) were examined before, during, and up to 2 years after the diet and compared with a matched diabetic control group. RESULTS:Before starting the diet, 11 of 20 patients were treated with insulin and 6 with metformin. Mean daily blood glucose values fell from 8.9 +/- 1.1 to 5.5 +/- 0.38 mmol/l (P < 0.0001) in the first 3 days of the VLCD, allowing insulin and oral agents to be discontinued in all but one subject. BMI fell from 43.5 +/- 1.8 to 39.3 +/- 1.8 kg/m(2) (P < 0.0001) and HbA(1c) dropped from 8.8 +/- 0.6 to 7.4 +/- 0.6% (P < 0.005) as the diet was continued for a mean of 60 +/- 8 days (range 4-130 days), and none required resumption of antidiabetic medications. Sustained decreases in BMI and insulin requirements were observed in patients remaining on the VLCD for at least 6 weeks when compared with those of the control group. CONCLUSIONS:The ketogenic VLCD is an effective short-term, and possibly long-term, therapy for pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood glucose control and BMI improve, allowing the discontinuation of exogenous insulin and other antidiabetic agents. This diet, although strict, has potential as an alternative to pharmacologic therapies for this emerging subset of diabetic individuals. 10.2337/diacare.27.2.348
    Adults with type 1 diabetes eat a high-fat atherogenic diet that is associated with coronary artery calcium. Snell-Bergeon J K,Chartier-Logan C,Maahs D M,Ogden L G,Hokanson J E,Kinney G L,Eckel R H,Ehrlich J,Rewers M Diabetologia AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality among people with type 1 diabetes. Diet is an important lifestyle factor that relates to risk of CHD. The aim of this study was to examine how diet and adherence to dietary guidelines differ between adults with and without type 1 diabetes, and their correlation with CHD risk factors and coronary artery calcium (CAC). METHODS:The study involved 571 people with type 1 diabetes and 696 controls, aged 19 to 56 years, who were asymptomatic for CHD. CAC was measured by electron-beam computed tomography. RESULTS:Compared with the controls, adults with type 1 diabetes reported a diet higher in fat, saturated fat and protein but lower in carbohydrates. Fewer than half of those with type 1 diabetes met dietary guidelines for fat and carbohydrate intake, and only 16% restricted saturated fat to less than 10% of daily energy intake. Adults with type 1 diabetes were significantly less likely to meet dietary guidelines than controls. Fat and saturated fat intakes were positively correlated, but carbohydrate intake was negatively correlated with CHD risk factors and HbA(1c). A high-fat diet and higher intake of protein were associated with greater odds of CAC, while higher carbohydrate intake was associated with reduced odds of CAC. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Adults with type 1 diabetes reported consuming higher than recommended levels of fat and saturated fat. High fat intake was associated with increased CHD risk factors, worse glycaemic control and CAC. An atherogenic diet may contribute to the risk of CHD in adults with type 1 diabetes. 10.1007/s00125-009-1280-4
    Effects of a Personalized VLCKD on Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in the Reversal of Diabetes to Prevent Complications. Romano Lorenzo,Marchetti Marco,Gualtieri Paola,Di Renzo Laura,Belcastro Meriann,De Santis Gemma Lou,Perrone Marco Alfonso,De Lorenzo Antonino Nutrients The reversion of diabetes and the treatment of long-term obesity are difficult challenges. The failure mechanisms of rapid weight loss are mainly related to the wasting of lean mass. This single-arm study aims to evaluate the effects of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) on body composition and resting energy expenditure in the short term reversal of diabetes mellitus Type 2. For eight weeks, subjects were administered a personalized VLCKD with protein intake based on lean mass and synthetic amino acidic protein supplementation. Each subject was assessed by anthropometry, Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DXA), bioimpedentiometric analysis (BIA), indirect calorimetry, and biochemical analysis. The main findings were the saving of lean mass, the reduction of abdominal fat mass, restored metabolic flexibility, the maintenance of resting energy expenditure, and the reversion of diabetes. These results highlight how the application of preventive, predictive, personalized, and participative medicine to nutrition may be promising for the prevention of diabetes and enhancement of obesity treatment. 10.3390/nu11071526
    Low-carbohydrate diet in diabetes mellitus treatment. Krejčí Hana,Vyjídák Jan,Kohutiar Matej Vnitrni lekarstvi There has been an increasing amount of information about the positive results of low-carbohydrate diet in the treatment of diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity in the form of randomized trials, their meta-analysis and case studies. Many of these indicate that low carbohydrate diets are safe, could significantly improve the compensation of both types of diabetes and the overall health of the diabetic patients. In successful therapy, this diet leads to weight loss, lower medication doses or prescribing, and in some cases of type 2 diabetes also to remission. However, the low carbohydrate diet is not recognized in Czech diabetology, and concerns remain particularly about its safety. This article is a summary of the current knowledge about low-carbohydrate diet, its benefits, risks and contraindications, and aims to initiate a discussion about its use as one of the options for dietary treatment of diabetics. Key words: diabetes mellitus - ketogenic diet - low-carbohydrate diet - metabolic syndrome - obesity.
    Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects. Dashti Hussein M,Mathew Thazhumpal C,Khadada Mousa,Al-Mousawi Mahdi,Talib Husain,Asfar Sami K,Behbahani Abdulla I,Al-Zaid Naji S Molecular and cellular biochemistry OBJECTIVE:Obesity is closely linked to the incidence of type II diabetes. It is found that effective management of body weight and changes to nutritional habits especially with regard to the carbohydrate content and glycemic index of the diet have beneficial effects in obese subjects with glucose intolerance. Previously we have shown that ketogenic diet is quite effective in reducing body weight. Furthermore, it favorably alters the cardiac risk factors even in hyperlipidemic obese subjects. In this study the effect of ketogenic diet in obese subjects with high blood glucose level is compared to those with normal blood glucose level for a period of 56 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 64 healthy obese subjects with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30, having high blood glucose level and those subjects with normal blood glucose level were selected in this study. The body weight, body mass index, blood glucose level, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, urea and creatinine were determined before and at 8, 16, 24, 48, and 56 weeks after the administration of the ketogenic diet. RESULTS:The body weight, body mass index, the level of blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea showed a significant decrease from week 1 to week 56 (P < 0.0001), whereas the level of HDL-cholesterol increased significantly (P < 0.0001). Interestingly these changes were more significant in subjects with high blood glucose level as compared to those with normal blood glucose level. The changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION:This study shows the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects following its long-term administration. Furthermore, it demonstrates that in addition to its therapeutic value, low carbohydrate diet is safe to use for a longer period of time in obese diabetic subjects. 10.1007/s11010-007-9448-z
    Treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications with a ketogenic diet. Mobbs Charles V,Mastaitis Jason,Isoda Fumiko,Poplawski Michal Journal of child neurology Accumulating evidence suggests that low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are safe and effective to reduce glycemia in diabetic patients without producing significant cardiovascular risks. Most of these studies have been carried out specifically restricting carbohydrates, which tends to lead to increased protein intake, thus reducing the ketosis. However, diets that limit protein as well as carbohydrates, entailing a composition very high in fat, appear even more effective to reduce glucose and whole-body glucose metabolism in humans. In animal models, low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets do not produce ketosis or reduce glycemia but rather cause obesity. However, limiting both protein and carbohydrates as in a classic ketogenic diet remarkably reduces blood glucose in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and reverses diabetic nephropathy. Future studies should assess if ketogenic diets would be effective to reverse diabetic complications in humans. 10.1177/0883073813487596
    Euglycaemic ketoacidosis from an SGLT2 inhibitor exacerbated by a ketogenic diet. Sinha Shampa,Gavaghan Daniel,Yew Steven The Medical journal of Australia 10.5694/mja2.50434
    Effects of ketogenic diet and ketone bodies on the cardiovascular system: Concentration matters. Nasser Souad,Vialichka Varvara,Biesiekierska Marta,Balcerczyk Aneta,Pirola Luciano World journal of diabetes Ketone bodies have emerged as central mediators of metabolic health, and multiple beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet, impacting metabolism, neuronal pathologies and, to a certain extent, tumorigenesis, have been reported both in animal models and clinical research. Ketone bodies, endogenously produced by the liver, act pleiotropically as metabolic intermediates, signaling molecules, and epigenetic modifiers. The endothelium and the vascular system are central regulators of the organism's metabolic state and become dysfunctional in cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications. As physiological circulating ketone bodies can attain millimolar concentrations, the endothelium is the first-line cell lineage exposed to them. While in diabetic ketoacidosis high ketone body concentrations are detrimental to the vasculature, recent research revealed that ketone bodies in the low millimolar range may exert beneficial effects on endothelial cell (EC) functioning by modulating the EC inflammatory status, senescence, and metabolism. Here, we review the long-held evidence of detrimental cardiovascular effects of ketoacidosis as well as the more recent evidence for a positive impact of ketone bodies-at lower concentrations-on the ECs metabolism and vascular physiology and the subjacent cellular and molecular mechanisms. We also explore arising controversies in the field and discuss the importance of ketone body concentrations in relation to their effects. At low concentration, endogenously produced ketone bodies upon uptake of a ketogenic diet or supplemented ketone bodies (or their precursors) may prove beneficial to ameliorate endothelial function and, consequently, pathologies in which endothelial damage occurs. 10.4239/wjd.v11.i12.584
    Effect of low-calorie versus low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes. Hussain Talib A,Mathew Thazhumpal C,Dashti Ali A,Asfar Sami,Al-Zaid Naji,Dashti Hussein M Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) OBJECTIVE:Effective diabetic management requires reasonable weight control. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown the beneficial effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes after its long term administration. Furthermore, it favorably alters the cardiac risk factors even in hyperlipidemic obese subjects. These studies have indicated that, in addition to decreasing body weight and improving glycemia, LCKD can be effective in decreasing antidiabetic medication dosage. Similar to the LCKD, the conventional low-calorie, high nutritional value diet is also used for weight loss. The purpose of this study was to understand the beneficial effects of LCKD compared with the low-calorie diet (LCD) in improving glycemia. METHODS:Three hundred and sixty-three overweight and obese participants were recruited from the Al-Shaab Clinic for a 24-wk diet intervention trial; 102 of them had type 2 diabetes. The participants were advised to choose LCD or LDKD, depending on their preference. Body weight, body mass index, changes in waist circumference, blood glucose level, changes in hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, urea and creatinine were determined before and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 wk after the administration of the LCD or LCKD. The initial dose of some antidiabetic medications was decreased to half and some were discontinued at the beginning of the dietary program in the LCKD group. Dietary counseling and further medication adjustment were done on a biweekly basis. RESULTS:The LCD and LCKD had beneficial effects on all the parameters examined. Interestingly, these changes were more significant in subjects who were on the LCKD as compared with those on the LCD. Changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION:This study shows the beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet over the conventional LCD in obese diabetic subjects. The ketogenic diet appears to improve glycemic control. Therefore, diabetic patients on a ketogenic diet should be under strict medical supervision because the LCKD can significantly lower blood glucose levels. 10.1016/j.nut.2012.01.016
    Acid-base safety during the course of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet. Gomez-Arbelaez Diego,Crujeiras Ana B,Castro Ana I,Goday Albert,Mas-Lorenzo Antonio,Bellon Ana,Tejera Cristina,Bellido Diego,Galban Cristobal,Sajoux Ignacio,Lopez-Jaramillo Patricio,Casanueva Felipe F Endocrine BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD:Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis. Results were compared with 51 patients that had an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis as well as with a group that underwent a similar VLCK diet in real life conditions of treatment. RESULTS:Visit C1 blood pH (7.37 ± 0.03); plasma bicarbonate (24.7 ± 2.5 mmol/l); plasma glucose (96.0 ± 11.7 mg/l) as well as anion gap or osmolarity were not statistically modified at four months after a total weight reduction of 20.7 kg in average and were within the normal range throughout the study. Even at the point of maximum ketosis all variables measured were always far from the cut-off points established to diabetic ketoacidosis. CONCLUSION:During the course of a VLCK diet there were no clinically or statistically significant changes in glucose, blood pH, anion gap and plasma bicarbonate. Hence the VLCK diet can be considered as a safe nutritional intervention for the treatment of obesity in terms of acid-base equilibrium. 10.1007/s12020-017-1405-3
    Long-term ketogenic diet contributes to glycemic control but promotes lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice. Zhang Xiaoyu,Qin Juliang,Zhao Yihan,Shi Jueping,Lan Rong,Gan Yunqiu,Ren Hua,Zhu Bing,Qian Min,Du Bing Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) The ketogenic diet (KD) has been widely used in weight and glycemic control, although potential side effects of long-term KD treatment have caused persistent concern. In this study, we hypothesized that the KD would ameliorate the progression of diabetes but lead to disruptions in lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of diabetes. In type 2 diabetic mouse model, mice were fed a high-fat diet and administered streptozotocin treatment before given the test diets for 8 weeks. Subsequently, ameliorated glucose and insulin tolerance in KD-fed diabetic mice was found, although the body weight of high-fat diet- and KD-fed mice was similar. Interestingly, the weight of adipose tissue in KD mice was greater than in the other groups. The KD diet resulted in higher serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in diabetic mice. Moreover, the KD-fed mice showed greater hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice fed the KD showed significant changes in several key genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein, fibroblast growth factor 21, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which are all important in metabolism. In summary, KD ameliorates glucose and insulin tolerance in a mouse model of diabetes, but severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis were observed, which should be considered carefully in the long-term application of KD. 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.12.002
    Impact of a Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Obesity or Overweight and with or without Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Choi Yeo Jin,Jeon Sang-Min,Shin Sooyoung Nutrients The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy of a ketogenic diet in metabolic control in patients with overweight or obesity and with or without type 2 diabetes. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials that enrolled patients with overweight or obesity on a ketogenic diet for metabolic control. Fourteen studies were included in meta-analysis. The effects of ketogenic diets on glycemic control were greater for diabetic patients relative to those of low-fat diets, indicated by lower glycated hemoglobin (SMD, -0.62; < 0.001) and homeostatic model assessment index (SMD, -0.29; = 0.02), while comparable effects were observed for nondiabetic patients. Ketogenic diets led to substantial weight reduction (SMD, -0.46; = 0.04) irrespective of patients' diabetes status at baseline and improved lipid profiles in terms of lower triglyceride (SMD, -0.45; = 0.01) and greater high-density lipoprotein (SMD, 0.31; = 0.005) for diabetic patients. Other risk markers showed no substantial between-group difference post intervention. Our study findings confirmed that ketogenic diets were more effective in improving metabolic parameters associated with glycemic, weight, and lipid controls in patients with overweight or obesity, especially those with preexisting diabetes, as compared to low-fat diets. This effect may contribute to improvements in metabolic dysfunction-related morbidity and mortality in these patient populations. 10.3390/nu12072005
    Implicating the effect of ketogenic diet as a preventive measure to obesity and diabetes mellitus. Kumar Sachin,Behl Tapan,Sachdeva Monika,Sehgal Aayush,Kumari Shilpa,Kumar Arun,Kaur Gagandeep,Yadav Harlokesh Narayan,Bungau Simona Life sciences Obesity and diabetes are the two major metabolic complications linked with bad eating habits and the sedentary (lazy) lifestyle. In the worst-case situation, metabolic problems are a causative factor for numerous other conditions. There is also an increased demand to control the emergence of such diseases. Dietary and lifestyle improvements contribute to their leadership at an elevated level. The present review, therefore, recommends the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) in obesity and diabetes treatment. The KD involves a diet that replaces glucose sugar with ketone bodies and is effective in numerous diseases, such as metabolic disorders, epileptic seizures, autosomal dominant polycystic disease of the kidney, cancers, peripheral neuropathy, and skeletal muscle atrophy. A lot of high profile pathways are available for KD action, including sustaining the metabolic actions on glucose sugar, suppressing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, altering homeostasis of the systemic ketone bodies, contributing to lowering diabetic hyperketonemia, and others. The KD regulates the level of glucose sugar and insulin and can thus claim to be an effective diabetes approach. Thus, a stopgap between obesity and diabetes treatment can also be evidenced by KD. 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118661
    Effects of the Ketogenic Diet on Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients: Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Alarim Raghad A,Alasmre Faris A,Alotaibi Hammam A,Alshehri Mohammed A,Hussain Sara A Cureus Introduction The ketogenic diet is a diet that relies on reducing carbohydrate intake to a minimum while increasing fat intake. This induces a state of ketosis where it is hypothesized to favor fat metabolism for energy instead of carbohydrates. The diet is used to treat pediatric patients with seizures to control their symptoms. Today, it is used by many to help in weight loss. Extensive research is being conducted on the benefits of the diet, as it gains popularity among patients with diabetes and obesity, to evaluate its effects on glycemic control. Methods This review looks at the published literature and summarizes the interventional trials that use the ketogenic diet for glycemic control. Emphasis was on pooling the results of selected variables such as weight, glycemic control, and lipid profile. The meta-analysis was conducted by a trained statistician using the Cochrane software review manager (Revman version 5.4; Cochrane, London, UK). Results were reviewed by an independent reviewer adhering to the Cochrane Collaboration's guidelines. Results The findings of this review show a significant effect of the ketogenic diet as compared to controls in terms of weight reduction, glycemic control, and improved lipid profile. A noticeable improvement was seen in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), favoring the ketogenic diet as compared to control. Conclusion This review concludes that the ketogenic diet is superior to controls in terms of glycemic control and lipid profile improvements, and the results are significant enough to recommend it as an adjunctive treatment for type two diabetes. 10.7759/cureus.10796