Immunotherapy in ovarian cancer. Odunsi K Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology Immunological destruction of tumors is a multistep, coordinated process that can be modulated or targeted at several critical points to elicit tumor rejection. These steps in the cancer immunity cycle include: (i) generation of sufficient numbers of effector T cells with high avidity recognition of tumor antigens in vivo; (ii) trafficking and infiltration into the tumor; (iii) overcoming inhibitory networks in the tumor microenvironment; (iv) direct recognition of tumor antigens and generation of an effector anti-tumor response; and (v) persistence of the anti-tumor T cells. In an effort to understand whether the immune system plays a role in controlling ovarian cancer, our group and others demonstrated that the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with improved clinical outcome in ovarian cancer patients. Recently, we hypothesized that the quality of infiltrating T cells could also be a critical determinant of outcome in ovarian cancer patients. In the past decade, several immune-based interventions have gained regulatory approval in many solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. These interventions include immune checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and adoptive cell therapy. There are currently no approved immune therapies for ovarian cancer. Immunotherapy in ovarian cancer will have to consider the immune suppressive networks within the ovarian tumor microenvironment; therefore, a major direction is to develop biomarkers that would predict responsiveness to different types of immunotherapies, and allow for treatment selection based on the results. Moreover, such biomarkers would allow rational combination of immunotherapies, while minimizing toxicities. In this review, the current understanding of the host immune response in ovarian cancer patients will be briefly reviewed, progress in immune therapies, and future directions for exploiting immune based strategies for long lasting durable cure. 10.1093/annonc/mdx444
    White Blood Cell BRCA1 Promoter Methylation Status and Ovarian Cancer Risk. Lønning Per E,Berge Elisabet O,Bjørnslett Merete,Minsaas Laura,Chrisanthar Ranjan,Høberg-Vetti Hildegunn,Dulary Cécile,Busato Florence,Bjørneklett Silje,Eriksen Christine,Kopperud Reidun,Axcrona Ulrika,Davidson Ben,Bjørge Line,Evans Gareth,Howell Anthony,Salvesen Helga B,Janszky Imre,Hveem Kristian,Romundstad Pål R,Vatten Lars J,Tost Jörg,Dørum Anne,Knappskog Stian Annals of internal medicine Background:The role of normal tissue gene promoter methylation in cancer risk is poorly understood. Objective:To assess associations between normal tissue BRCA1 methylation and ovarian cancer risk. Design:2 case-control (initial and validation) studies. Setting:2 hospitals in Norway (patients) and a population-based study (control participants). Participants:934 patients and 1698 control participants in the initial study; 607 patients and 1984 control participants in the validation study. Measurements:All patients had their blood sampled before chemotherapy. White blood cell (WBC) BRCA1 promoter methylation was determined by using methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the percentage of methylation-positive samples was compared between population control participants and patients with ovarian cancer, including the subgroup with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Results:In the initial study, BRCA1 methylation was more frequent in patients with ovarian cancer than control participants (6.4% vs. 4.2%; age-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.83 [95% CI, 1.27 to 2.63]). Elevated methylation, however, was restricted to patients with HGSOC (9.6%; OR, 2.91 [CI, 1.85 to 4.56]), in contrast to 5.1% and 4.0% of patients with nonserous and low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC), respectively. These findings were replicated in the validation study (methylation-positive status in 9.1% of patients with HGSOC vs. 4.3% of control participants-OR, 2.22 [CI 1.40 to 3.52]-4.1% of patients with nonserous ovarian cancer, and 2.7% of those with LGSOC). The results were not influenced by tumor burden, storage time, or WBC subfractions. In separate analyses of young women and newborns, BRCA1 methylation was detected in 4.1% (CI, 1.8% to 6.4%) and 7.0% (CI, 5.0% to 9.1%), respectively. Limitations:Patients with ovarian cancer were recruited at the time of diagnosis in a hospital setting. Conclusion:Constitutively normal tissue BRCA1 promoter methylation is positively associated with risk for HGSOC. Primary Funding Source:Norwegian Cancer Society. 10.7326/M17-0101
    Niraparib in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Advanced Ovarian Cancer. González-Martín Antonio,Pothuri Bhavana,Vergote Ignace,DePont Christensen René,Graybill Whitney,Mirza Mansoor R,McCormick Colleen,Lorusso Domenica,Hoskins Paul,Freyer Gilles,Baumann Klaus,Jardon Kris,Redondo Andrés,Moore Richard G,Vulsteke Christof,O'Cearbhaill Roisin E,Lund Bente,Backes Floor,Barretina-Ginesta Pilar,Haggerty Ashley F,Rubio-Pérez Maria J,Shahin Mark S,Mangili Giorgia,Bradley William H,Bruchim Ilan,Sun Kaiming,Malinowska Izabela A,Li Yong,Gupta Divya,Monk Bradley J, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Niraparib, an inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP), has been associated with significantly increased progression-free survival among patients with recurrent ovarian cancer after platinum-based chemotherapy, regardless of the presence or absence of mutations. The efficacy of niraparib in patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer after a response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy is unknown. METHODS:In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer in a 2:1 ratio to receive niraparib or placebo once daily after a response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival in patients who had tumors with homologous-recombination deficiency and in those in the overall population, as determined on hierarchical testing. A prespecified interim analysis for overall survival was conducted at the time of the primary analysis of progression-free survival. RESULTS:Of the 733 patients who underwent randomization, 373 (50.9%) had tumors with homologous-recombination deficiency. Among the patients in this category, the median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the niraparib group than in the placebo group (21.9 months vs. 10.4 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 0.59; P<0.001). In the overall population, the corresponding progression-free survival was 13.8 months and 8.2 months (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.76; P<0.001). At the 24-month interim analysis, the rate of overall survival was 84% in the niraparib group and 77% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.11). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were anemia (in 31.0% of the patients), thrombocytopenia (in 28.7%), and neutropenia (in 12.8%). No treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer who had a response to platinum-based chemotherapy, those who received niraparib had significantly longer progression-free survival than those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of homologous-recombination deficiency. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; PRIMA/ENGOT-OV26/GOG-3012 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02655016.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1910962
    Tumor derived UBR5 promotes ovarian cancer growth and metastasis through inducing immunosuppressive macrophages. Song Mei,Yeku Oladapo O,Rafiq Sarwish,Purdon Terence,Dong Xue,Zhu Lijing,Zhang Tuo,Wang Huan,Yu Ziqi,Mai Junhua,Shen Haifa,Nixon Briana,Li Ming,Brentjens Renier J,Ma Xiaojing Nature communications Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) and ascites-derived spheroids in ovarian cancer (OC) facilitate tumor growth and progression, and also pose major obstacles for cancer therapy. The molecular pathways involved in the OC-TME interactions, how the crosstalk impinges on OC aggression and chemoresistance are not well-characterized. Here, we demonstrate that tumor-derived UBR5, an E3 ligase overexpressed in human OC associated with poor prognosis, is essential for OC progression principally by promoting tumor-associated macrophage recruitment and activation via key chemokines and cytokines. UBR5 is also required to sustain cell-intrinsic β-catenin-mediated signaling to promote cellular adhesion/colonization and organoid formation by controlling the p53 protein level. OC-specific targeting of UBR5 strongly augments the survival benefit of conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapies. This work provides mechanistic insights into the novel oncogene-like functions of UBR5 in regulating the OC-TME crosstalk and suggests that UBR5 is a potential therapeutic target in OC treatment for modulating the TME and cancer stemness. 10.1038/s41467-020-20140-0
    Niraparib monotherapy for late-line treatment of ovarian cancer (QUADRA): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial. Moore Kathleen N,Secord Angeles Alvarez,Geller Melissa A,Miller David Scott,Cloven Noelle,Fleming Gini F,Wahner Hendrickson Andrea E,Azodi Masoud,DiSilvestro Paul,Oza Amit M,Cristea Mihaela,Berek Jonathan S,Chan John K,Rimel Bobbie J,Matei Daniela E,Li Yong,Sun Kaiming,Luptakova Katarina,Matulonis Ursula A,Monk Bradley J The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Late-line treatment options for patients with ovarian cancer are few, with the proportion of patients achieving an overall response typically less than 10%, and median overall survival after third-line therapy of 5-9 months. In this study (QUADRA), we investigated the activity of niraparib monotherapy as the fourth or later line of therapy. METHODS:QUADRA was a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study that evaluated the safety and activity of niraparib in adult patients (≥18 years) with relapsed, high-grade serous (grade 2 or 3) epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who had been treated with three or more previous chemotherapy regimens. The study was done in the USA and Canada, and 56 sites screened patients (50 sites treated at least one patient). Patients received oral niraparib 300 mg once daily continuously, beginning on day 1 and every cycle (28 days) thereafter until disease progression. The primary objective was the proportion of patients achieving an investigator-assessed confirmed overall response in patients with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD)-positive tumours (including patients with BRCA and without BRCA mutations) sensitive to their last platinum-based therapy who had received three or four previous anticancer therapy regimens (primary efficacy population). Efficacy analyses were additionally done in all dosed patients with measurable disease at baseline. FINDINGS:Between April 1, 2015 and Nov 1, 2017, we screened 729 patients for eligibility and enrolled 463 patients, who were initiated on niraparib therapy. At the time of database lock (April 11, 2018), enrolment had closed and the study was ongoing, with 21 patients still on treatment. Patients had received a median of four (IQR 3-5) previous lines of therapy, and the median follow-up for overall survival was 12·2 months (IQR 3·7-22·1). 151 (33%) of 463 patients were resistant and 161 (35%) of 463 patients were refractory to the last administered platinum therapy. 13 (28%) of 47 patients in the primary efficacy population achieved an overall response according to RECIST (95% CI 15·6-42·6; one-sided p=0·00053). The most common drug-related grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events were anaemia (113 [24%] of 463 patients) and thrombocytopenia (95 [21%] of 463 patients). The most common treatment-emergent serious adverse events were small intestinal obstruction (34 [7%] of 463 patients), thrombocytopenia (34 [7%] of 463 patients), and vomiting (27 [6%] of 463 patients). One death due to gastric haemorrhage was considered treatment related. INTERPRETATION:We observed clinically relevant activity of niraparib among women with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer, especially in patients with HRD-positive platinum-sensitive disease, which includes not only patients with a BRCA mutation but also a population with BRCA wild-type disease. We identified no new safety signals. Our data support expansion of the treatment indication for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors to include patients with HRD-positive ovarian cancer beyond those with BRCA mutations. FUNDING:Tesaro. 10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30029-4
    Association of Analgesic Use With Risk of Ovarian Cancer in the Nurses' Health Studies. Barnard Mollie E,Poole Elizabeth M,Curhan Gary C,Eliassen A Heather,Rosner Bernard A,Terry Kathryn L,Tworoger Shelley S JAMA oncology Importance:Ovarian cancer is a highly fatal malignant neoplasm with few modifiable risk factors. Case-control studies have reported a modest reduced risk of ovarian cancer among women who frequently use aspirin or regularly use low-dose aspirin. Objective:To evaluate whether regular aspirin or nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and patterns of use are associated with lower ovarian cancer risk. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study analyzed NSAID use and ovarian cancer diagnosis data from 2 prospective cohorts, 93 664 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), who were followed up from 1980 to 2014, and 111 834 in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), who were followed up from 1989 to 2015. Follow-up was completed on June 30, 2014, for the NHS and June 30, 2015, for NHSII. Data were analyzed from June 13, 2016, to September 18, 2017. Exposures:For each analgesic type (aspirin, low-dose aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen), timing, duration, frequency, and number of tablets used were evaluated; exposure information was updated every 2 to 4 years. Main Outcomes and Measures:Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for associations of aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. All statistical tests were 2-sided, with a significance level of .05. Results:In the NHS, the mean (SD) age at baseline (1980) was 45.9 (7.2) years, and 93% of participants identified as non-Hispanic white. In the NHSII, the mean age at baseline (1989) was 34.2 (4.7) years, and 92% identified as non-Hispanic white. Among the 205 498 women in both cohorts, there were 1054 cases of incident epithelial ovarian cancer. Significant associations between aspirin and ovarian cancer risk were not observed when current vs nonuse of any aspirin was evaluated regardless of dose (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.83-1.19). However, when low-dose (≤100-mg) and standard-dose (325-mg) aspirin were evaluated separately, an inverse association for low-dose aspirin (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.96), but no association for standard-dose aspirin (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.92-1.49) was observed. Current use of nonaspirin NSAIDs was positively associated with risk of ovarian cancer compared with nonuse (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.41), and significant positive trends for duration of use (P = .02 for trend) and cumulative average tablets per week (P = .03 for trend) were observed. There were no clear associations for the use of acetaminophen. Conclusions and Relevance:These results appear to be consistent with case-control studies that show a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among regular users of low-dose aspirin. An increased risk of ovarian cancer with long-term high-quantity use of other analgesics, particularly nonaspirin NSAIDs, was observed, although this finding requires confirmation. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.4149
    Weekly platinum-based chemotherapy versus 3-weekly platinum-based chemotherapy for newly diagnosed ovarian cancer (ICON8): quality-of-life results of a phase 3, randomised, controlled trial. Blagden Sarah P,Cook Adrian D,Poole Christopher,Howells Lesley,McNeish Ian A,Dean Andrew,Kim Jae-Weon,O'Donnell Dearbhaile M,Hook Jane,James Elizabeth C,White Ian R,Perren Timothy,Lord Rosemary,Dark Graham,Earl Helena M,Hall Marcia,Kaplan Richard,Ledermann Jonathan A,Clamp Andrew R The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:The ICON8 study reported no significant improvement in progression-free survival (a primary endpoint) with weekly chemotherapy compared with standard 3-weekly treatment among patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. All ICON8 patients were eligible to take part in the accompanying health-related quality-of-life study, which measured the effect of treatment on self-reported wellbeing, reported here. METHODS:In this open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3, three-arm, Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) trial done at 117 hospital sites in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Korea, and Republic of Ireland, women (aged at least 18 years) with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IC-IV ovarian cancer and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were randomly assigned (1:1:1) centrally using minimisation to group 1 (intravenous carboplatin area under the curve [AUC]5 or AUC6 and 175 mg/m intravenous paclitaxel every 3 weeks), group 2 (carboplatin AUC5 or AUC6 every 3 weeks and 80 mg/m paclitaxel weekly), or group 3 (carboplatin AUC2 weekly and 80 mg/m paclitaxel weekly). Randomisation was stratified by GCIG group, disease stage, and outcome and timing of surgery. Patients and clinicians were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients underwent immediate or delayed primary surgery according to clinicians' choice. Patients were asked to complete European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OV28 questionnaires at enrolment, before each chemotherapy cycle, then 6-weekly up to 9 months, 3-monthly up to 2 years, and 6-monthly up to 5 years. Quality of life was a prespecified secondary outcome of the ICON8 study. Within the quality-of-life study, the co-primary endpoints were QLQ-C30 global health score at 9 months (cross-sectional analysis) and mean QLQ-C30 global health score from randomisation to 9 months (longitudinal analysis). Data analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01654146 and ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN10356387, and is currently in long-term follow up. FINDINGS:Between June 6, 2011, and Nov 28, 2014, 1566 patients were recruited into ICON8 (522 were included in group 1, 523 in group 2, and 521 in group 3). Baseline quality-of-life questionnaires were completed by 1438 (92%) of 1566 patients and 9-month questionnaires by 882 (69%) of 1280 patients. We observed no significant difference in global health score at 9 months (cross-sectional analysis) between study groups (group 2 vs group 1, difference in mean score 2·3, 95% CI -0·4 to 4·9, p=0·095; group 3 vs group 1, -0·8, -3·8 to 2·2, p=0·61). Using longitudinal analysis, we found lower global health scores for those receiving weekly paclitaxel than for those receiving 3-weekly chemotherapy (group 2 vs group 1, mean difference -1·8, 95% CI -3·6 to -0·1, p=0·043; group 3 vs group 1, -2·9, -4·7 to -1·1, p=0·0018). INTERPRETATION:We found no evidence of a difference in global quality of life between treatment groups at 9 months; however, patients receiving weekly treatment reported lower mean quality of life across the 9-month period after randomisation. Taken together with the lack of progression-free survival benefit, these findings do not support routine use of weekly paclitaxel-containing regimens in the management of newly diagnosed ovarian cancer. FUNDING:Cancer Research UK, Medical Research Council, Health Research Board Ireland, Irish Cancer Society, and Cancer Australia. 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30218-7
    Estimating Cost-effectiveness of a Multimodal Ovarian Cancer Screening Program in the United States: Secondary Analysis of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS). Moss Haley A,Berchuck Andrew,Neely Megan L,Myers Evan R,Havrilesky Laura J JAMA oncology Importance:The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) is the largest randomized clinical trial to evaluate screening's impact on ovarian cancer mortality, assigning women to multimodal screening (MMS) with serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) interpreted using a risk algorithm. If the MMS screening method is eventually shown to reduce mortality and be cost-effective, then it may be accepted by the medical community as a feasible screening tool. Objective:To estimate the cost-effectiveness of an MMS screening program in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants:A Markov simulation model was constructed using data from UKCTOCS to compare MMS with no screening in the United States. Screening would begin at the age of 50 years for women in the general population. Published estimates of the long-term effect of MMS screening on ovarian cancer mortality and the trial's published hazard ratios were used to simulate mortality estimates up to 40 years from start of screening. Base-case costs included CA-125, ultrasound, and false-positive work-up results, in addition to a risk algorithm cost estimate of $100. The utility and costs of ovarian cancer treatment were incorporated into the model. Interventions:Screening strategies varied by costs of the algorithm and treatment for advanced ovarian cancer, rates of screening compliance, ovarian cancer incidence, and extrapolation of ovarian cancer mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures:Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and mortality reduction of ovarian cancer screening. Results:Multimodal screening is both more expensive and more effective in reducing ovarian cancer mortality over a lifetime than no screening. After accounting for uncertainty in the underlying parameters, screening women starting at age 50 years with MMS is cost-effective 70% of the time, when decision makers are willing to pay $150 000 per QALY. Screening reduced mortality by 15%, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) ranging from $106 187 (95% CI, $97 496-$127 793) to $155 256 (95% CI, $150 369-$198 567). Conclusions and Relevance:Ovarian cancer screening is potentially cost-effective in the United States depending on final significance of mortality reduction and cost of the CA-125 risk algorithm. These results are limited by uncertainty around the effect of screening on ovarian cancer mortality beyond the 11 years of UKCTOCS. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.4211
    Risk of Malignant Ovarian Cancer Based on Ultrasonography Findings in a Large Unselected Population. Smith-Bindman Rebecca,Poder Liina,Johnson Eric,Miglioretti Diana L JAMA internal medicine Importance:The risk of malignant ovarian cancer associated with simple cysts is unknown. Objective:To quantify the risk of ovarian cancer based on ultrasonographic characteristics of ovarian masses, including simple cysts, in a large unselected population. Design, Setting, and Participants:This was a nested case-control study of patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Washington, a large integrated health care system in Washington State. Participants were 72 093 women who underwent pelvic ultrasonography between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2008. Analysis was completed in April 2017. Exposures:Ultrasonographic characteristics of ovarian masses measured in 1043 women, and also, using weights derived from the sampling strategy, estimated frequencies for the entire cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures:Malignant ovarian cancer, identified through December 31, 2011, by cancer registry linkage. Results:Among 210 women who were diagnosed as having ovarian cancer, 49 were younger than 50 years, and 161 were 50 years or older. Ultrasonography findings were predictive of cancer (C statistic, 0.89). The risk of cancer was significantly elevated in women with complex cysts or solid masses, with likelihood ratios relative to women with normal ovaries ranging from 8 to 74 and the 3-year risk of cancer ranging from 9 to 430 cases per 1000 women based on patient age and ultrasonography findings. In contrast, the 23.8% of women younger than 50 years and the 13.4% of women 50 years or older with simple cysts were not at a significantly increased risk of ovarian cancer compared with women with normal ovaries. Likelihood ratios associated with the detection of a simple cyst were 0.00 in women younger than 50 years (no cancers were identified) and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.01-0.48) in women 50 years or older, and the absolute 3-year risk of cancer ranged from 0 to 0.5 cases per 1000 women. Conclusions and Relevance:According to this study, the ultrasonographic appearance of ovarian masses is strongly associated with a woman's risk of ovarian cancer. Simple cysts are not associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, whereas complex cysts or solid masses are associated with a significantly increased risk of ovarian cancer. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.5113
    Genetic Testing and Results in a Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Patients and Ovarian Cancer Patients. Kurian Allison W,Ward Kevin C,Howlader Nadia,Deapen Dennis,Hamilton Ann S,Mariotto Angela,Miller Daniel,Penberthy Lynne S,Katz Steven J Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:Genetic testing for cancer risk has expanded rapidly. We examined clinical genetic testing and results among population-based patients with breast and ovarian cancer. METHODS:The study included all women 20 years of age or older diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer in California and Georgia between 2013 and 2014 and reported to the SEER registries covering the entire state populations. SEER data were linked to results from four laboratories that performed nearly all germline cancer genetic testing. Testing use and results were analyzed at the gene level. RESULTS:There were 77,085 patients with breast cancer and 6,001 with ovarian cancer. Nearly one quarter of those with breast cancer (24.1%) and one third of those with ovarian cancer (30.9%) had genetic test results. Among patients with ovarian cancer, testing was lower in blacks (21.6%; 95% CI, 18.1% to 25.4%; whites, 33.8%; 95% CI, 32.3% to 35.3%) and uninsured patients (20.8%; 95% CI, 15.5% to 26.9%; insured patients, 35.3%; 95% CI, 33.8% to 36.9%). Prevalent pathogenic variants in patients with breast cancer were (3.2%), (3.1%), (1.6%), (1.0%), (0.7%), and (0.4%); in patients with ovarian cancer, prevalent pathogenic variants were (8.7%), (5.8%), (1.4%), (0.9%), (0.8%), and (0.6%). Racial/ethnic differences in pathogenic variants included (ovarian cancer: whites, 7.2%; 95% CI, 5.9% to 8.8%; Hispanics, 16.1%; 95% CI, 11.8% to 21.2%) and (breast cancer: whites, 2.3%; 95% CI, 1.8% to 2.8%; blacks, 0.1%; 95% CI, 0% to 0.8%). When tested for all genes that current guidelines designate as associated with their cancer type, 7.8% of patients with breast cancer and 14.5% of patients with ovarian cancer had pathogenic variants. CONCLUSION:Clinically-tested patients with breast and ovarian cancer in two large, diverse states had 8% to 15% prevalence of actionable pathogenic variants. Substantial testing gaps and disparities among patients with ovarian cancer are targets for improvement. 10.1200/JCO.18.01854
    Association Between Genetically Proxied Inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Yarmolinsky James,Bull Caroline J,Vincent Emma E,Robinson Jamie,Walther Axel,Smith George Davey,Lewis Sarah J,Relton Caroline L,Martin Richard M JAMA Importance:Preclinical and epidemiological studies indicate a potential chemopreventive role of statins in epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Objective:To evaluate the association of genetically proxied inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (ie, genetic variants related to lower function of HMG-CoA reductase, target of statins) with epithelial ovarian cancer among the general population and in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants:Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HMGCR, NPC1L1, and PCSK9 associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis (N ≤196 475) were used to proxy therapeutic inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), respectively. Summary statistics were obtained for these SNPs from a GWAS meta-analysis of case-control analyses of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC; N = 63 347) and from a GWAS meta-analysis of retrospective cohort analyses of epithelial ovarian cancer among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA; N = 31 448). Across the 2 consortia, participants were enrolled between 1973 and 2014 and followed up through 2015. OCAC participants came from 14 countries and CIMBA participants came from 25 countries. SNPs were combined into multi-allelic models and mendelian randomization estimates representing lifelong inhibition of targets were generated using inverse-variance weighted random-effects models. Exposures:Primary exposure was genetically proxied inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and secondary exposures were genetically proxied inhibition of NPC1L1 and PCSK9 and genetically proxied circulating LDL cholesterol levels. Main Outcomes and Measures:Overall and histotype-specific invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (general population) and epithelial ovarian cancer (BRCA1/2 mutation carriers), measured as ovarian cancer odds (general population) and hazard ratio (BRCA1/2 mutation carriers). Results:The OCAC sample included 22 406 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 40 941 control individuals and the CIMBA sample included 3887 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 27 561 control individuals. Median ages for the cohorts ranged from 41.5 to 59.0 years and all participants were of European ancestry. In the primary analysis, genetically proxied HMG-CoA reductase inhibition equivalent to a 1-mmol/L (38.7-mg/dL) reduction in LDL cholesterol was associated with lower odds of epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.60 [95% CI, 0.43-0.83]; P = .002). In BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, genetically proxied HMG-CoA reductase inhibition was associated with lower ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.51-0.93]; P = .01). In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations of genetically proxied inhibition of NPC1L1 (OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.53-1.75]; P = .91), PCSK9 (OR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.85-1.13]; P = .80), or circulating LDL cholesterol (OR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.91-1.05]; P = .55) with epithelial ovarian cancer. Conclusions and Relevance:Genetically proxied inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase was significantly associated with lower odds of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, these findings do not indicate risk reduction from medications that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase; further research is needed to understand whether there is a similar association with such medications. 10.1001/jama.2020.0150
    The Repertoire of Serous Ovarian Cancer Non-genetic Heterogeneity Revealed by Single-Cell Sequencing of Normal Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells. Hu Zhiyuan,Artibani Mara,Alsaadi Abdulkhaliq,Wietek Nina,Morotti Matteo,Shi Tingyan,Zhong Zhe,Santana Gonzalez Laura,El-Sahhar Salma,KaramiNejadRanjbar Mohammad,Mallett Garry,Feng Yun,Masuda Kenta,Zheng Yiyan,Chong Kay,Damato Stephen,Dhar Sunanda,Campo Leticia,Garruto Campanile Riccardo,Soleymani Majd Hooman,Rai Vikram,Maldonado-Perez David,Jones Stephanie,Cerundolo Vincenzo,Sauka-Spengler Tatjana,Yau Christopher,Ahmed Ahmed Ashour Cancer cell The inter-differentiation between cell states promotes cancer cell survival under stress and fosters non-genetic heterogeneity (NGH). NGH is, therefore, a surrogate of tumor resilience but its quantification is confounded by genetic heterogeneity. Here we show that NGH in serous ovarian cancer (SOC) can be accurately measured when informed by the molecular signatures of the normal fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) cells, the cells of origin of SOC. Surveying the transcriptomes of ∼6,000 FTE cells, predominantly from non-ovarian cancer patients, identified 6 FTE subtypes. We used subtype signatures to deconvolute SOC expression data and found substantial intra-tumor NGH. Importantly, NGH-based stratification of ∼1,700 tumors robustly correlated with survival. Our findings lay the foundation for accurate prognostic and therapeutic stratification of SOC. 10.1016/j.ccell.2020.01.003
    Association between the cervicovaginal microbiome, BRCA1 mutation status, and risk of ovarian cancer: a case-control study. Nené Nuno R,Reisel Daniel,Leimbach Andreas,Franchi Dorella,Jones Allison,Evans Iona,Knapp Susanne,Ryan Andy,Ghazali Shohreh,Timms John F,Paprotka Tobias,Bjørge Line,Zikan Michal,Cibula David,Colombo Nicoletta,Widschwendter Martin The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Various factors-including age, family history, inflammation, reproductive factors, and tubal ligation-modulate the risk of ovarian cancer. In this study, our aim was to establish whether women with, or at risk of developing, ovarian cancer have an imbalanced cervicovaginal microbiome. METHODS:We did a case-control study in two sets of women aged 18-87 years in the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Norway, and the UK. The ovarian cancer set comprised women with epithelial ovarian cancer and controls (both healthy controls and those diagnosed with benign gynaecological conditions). The BRCA set comprised women with a BRCA1 mutation but without ovarian cancer and controls who were wild type for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (both healthy controls and those with benign gynaecological conditions). Cervicovaginal samples were gathered from all participants with the ThinPrep system and then underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing. For each sample, we calculated the proportion of lactobacilli species (ie, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus jensenii), which are essential for the generation of a protective low vaginal pH, in the cervicovaginal microbiota. We grouped samples into those in which lactobacilli accounted for at least 50% of the species present (community type L) and those in which lactobacilli accounted for less than 50% of the species present (community type O). We assessed the adjusted association between BRCA1 status and ovarian cancer status and cervicovaginal microbiota community type, using a logistic regression model with a bias reduction method. FINDINGS:Participants were recruited between Jan 2, 2016, and July 21, 2018. The ovarian cancer set (n=360) comprised 176 women with epithelial ovarian cancer, 115 healthy controls and 69 controls with benign gynaecological conditions. The BRCA set (n=220) included 109 women with BRCA1 mutations, 97 healthy controls wild type for BRCA1 and BRCA2 and 14 controls with a benign gynaecological condition wild type for BRCA1 and BRCA2. On the basis of two-dimensional density plots, receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, and age thresholds used previously, we divided the cohort into those younger than 50 years and those aged 50 years or older. In the ovarian cancer set, women aged 50 years or older had a higher prevalence of community type O microbiota (81 [61%] of 133 ovarian cancer cases and 84 [59%] of 142 healthy controls) than those younger than 50 years (23 [53%] of 43 cases and 12 [29%] of 42 controls). In the ovarian cancer set, women younger than 50 years with ovarian cancer had a significantly higher prevalence of community type O microbiota than did age-matched controls under a logistic regression model with bias correction (odds ratio [OR] 2·80 [95% CI 1·17-6·94]; p=0·020). In the BRCA set, women with BRCA1 mutations younger than 50 years were also more likely to have community type O microbiota than age-matched controls (OR 2·79 [95% CI 1·25-6·68]; p=0·012), after adjustment for pregnancy (ever). This risk was increased further if more than one first-degree family member was affected by any cancer (OR 5·26 [95% CI 1·83-15·30]; p=0·0022). In both sets, we noted that the younger the participants, the stronger the association between community type O microbiota and ovarian cancer or BRCA1 mutation status (eg, OR for community type O for cases aged <40 years in the ovarian cancer set 7·00 [95% CI 1·27-51·44], p=0·025; OR for community type O for BRCA1 mutation carriers aged <35 years in the BRCA set 4·40 [1·14-24·36], p=0·031). INTERPRETATION:The presence of ovarian cancer, or factors known to affect risk for the disease (ie, age and BRCA1 germline mutations), were significantly associated with having a community type O cervicovaginal microbiota. Whether re-instatement of a community type L microbiome by using, for example, vaginal suppositories containing live lactobacilli, would alter the microbiomial composition higher up in the female genital tract and in the fallopian tubes (the site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer), and whether such changes could translate into a reduced incidence of ovarian cancer, needs to be investigated. FUNDING:EU Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, EU Horizon 2020 European Research Council Programme, and The Eve Appeal. 10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30340-7
    Olaparib and α-specific PI3K inhibitor alpelisib for patients with epithelial ovarian cancer: a dose-escalation and dose-expansion phase 1b trial. Konstantinopoulos Panagiotis A,Barry William T,Birrer Michael,Westin Shannon N,Cadoo Karen A,Shapiro Geoffrey I,Mayer Erica L,O'Cearbhaill Roisin E,Coleman Robert L,Kochupurakkal Bose,Whalen Christin,Curtis Jennifer,Farooq Sarah,Luo Weixiu,Eismann Julia,Buss Mary K,Aghajanian Carol,Mills Gordon B,Palakurthi Sangeetha,Kirschmeier Paul,Liu Joyce,Cantley Lewis C,Kaufmann Scott H,Swisher Elizabeth M,D'Andrea Alan D,Winer Eric,Wulf Gerburg M,Matulonis Ursula A The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Based on preclinical work, we found that combination of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors with drugs that inhibit the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway (such as PI3K inhibitors) might sensitise HRR-proficient epithelial ovarian cancers to PARP inhibitors. We aimed to assess the safety and identify the recommended phase 2 dose of the PARP inhibitor olaparib in combination with the PI3K inhibitor alpelisib in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and in patients with breast cancer. METHODS:In this multicentre, open-label, phase 1b trial following a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with the following key eligibility criteria: confirmed diagnosis of either recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer of high-grade serous histology; confirmed diagnosis of either recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer of any histology with known germline BRCA mutations; confirmed diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer of triple-negative histology; or confirmed diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer of any histology with known germline BRCA mutations. Additional patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were enrolled in a dose-expansion cohort. Four dose levels were planned: the starting dose level of alpelisib 250 mg once a day plus olaparib 100 mg twice a day (dose level 0); alpelisib 250 mg once a day plus olaparib 200 mg twice a day (dose level 1); alpelisib 300 mg once a day plus olaparib 200 mg twice a day (dose level 2); and alpelisib 200 mg once a day plus olaparib 200 mg twice a day (dose level 3). Both drugs were administered orally, in tablet formulation. The primary objective was to identify the maximum tolerated dose and the recommended phase 2 dose of the combination of alpelisib and olaparib for patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and patients with breast cancer. Analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of the study drugs. The trial is active, but closed to enrolment; follow-up for patients who completed treatment is ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01623349. FINDINGS:Between Oct 3, 2014, and Dec 21, 2016, we enrolled 34 patients (28 in the dose-escalation cohort and six in the dose-expansion cohort); two in the dose-escalation cohort were ineligible at the day of scheduled study initiation. Maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose were identified as alpelisib 200 mg once a day plus olaparib 200 mg twice a day (dose level 3). Considering all dose levels, the most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were hyperglycaemia (five [16%] of 32 patients), nausea (three [9%]), and increased alanine aminotransferase concentrations (three [9%]). No treatment-related deaths occurred. Dose-limiting toxic effects included hyperglycaemia and fever with decreased neutrophil count. Of the 28 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, ten (36%) achieved a partial response and 14 (50%) had stable disease according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1. INTERPRETATION:Combining alpelisib and olaparib is feasible with no unexpected toxic effects. The observed activity provides preliminary clinical evidence of synergism between olaparib and alpelisib, particularly in epithelial ovarian cancer, and warrants further investigation. FUNDING:Ovarian Cancer Dream Team (Stand Up To Cancer, Ovarian Cancer Research Alliance, National Ovarian Cancer Coalition), Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Novartis. 10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30905-7
    ITLN1 modulates invasive potential and metabolic reprogramming of ovarian cancer cells in omental microenvironment. Au-Yeung Chi-Lam,Yeung Tsz-Lun,Achreja Abhinav,Zhao Hongyun,Yip Kay-Pong,Kwan Suet-Ying,Onstad Michaela,Sheng Jianting,Zhu Ying,Baluya Dodge L,Co Ngai-Na,Rynne-Vidal Angela,Schmandt Rosemarie,Anderson Matthew L,Lu Karen H,Wong Stephen T C,Nagrath Deepak,Mok Samuel C Nature communications Advanced ovarian cancer usually spreads to the omentum. However, the omental cell-derived molecular determinants modulating its progression have not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we show that circulating ITLN1 has prognostic significance in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Further studies demonstrate that ITLN1 suppresses lactotransferrin's effect on ovarian cancer cell invasion potential and proliferation by decreasing MMP1 expression and inducing a metabolic shift in metastatic ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, ovarian cancer-bearing mice treated with ITLN1 demonstrate marked decrease in tumor growth rates. These data suggest that downregulation of mesothelial cell-derived ITLN1 in the omental tumor microenvironment facilitates ovarian cancer progression. 10.1038/s41467-020-17383-2