The effect of gammadelta T cell depletion on cytokine gene expression in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.
Rajan A J,Klein J D,Brosnan C F
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis, we showed previously that depletion of gammadelta T cells using the mAb GL3 immediately before disease onset, or during the chronic phase, significantly ameliorated clinical severity. We now report on the effect of gammadelta T cell depletion on expression of five cytokine genes, IL-1, IL-6, TNF, lymphotoxin, and IFN-gamma in spinal cords of mice during the pre-onset, onset, height, and recovery phases of EAE, and on expression of type II nitric oxide synthase. In control animals, the mRNAs for IL-1 and IL-6 rose dramatically at disease onset and peaked before disease height, whereas the mRNAs for TNF, lymphotoxin, and IFN-gamma rose more slowly and peaked with peak of disease. In GL3-treated animals, a dramatic reduction in all five cytokines was noted at disease onset, but only IFN-gamma remained significantly reduced at a time point equivalent to height of disease in control animals. ELISA data confirmed the reduced levels of IL-1 and IL-6 at disease onset in GL3-treated animals, and pathologic analysis demonstrated a marked reduction in meningeal infiltrates at the same time point. Studies of type II NOS also demonstrated a significant reduction in both mRNA and protein expression at the height of disease in GL3-treated animals. These results suggest that gammadelta T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of EAE by regulating the influx of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and by augmenting the proinflammatory cytokine profile of the inflammatory infiltrates.