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    Localized Non-melanoma Skin Cancer: Risk Factors of Post-surgical Relapse and Role of Postoperative Radiotherapy. Caparrotti Francesca,Troussier Idriss,Ali Abdirahman,Zilli Thomas Current treatment options in oncology OPINION STATEMENT:The mainstay treatment of localized non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is surgical excision or Mohs surgery. However, approximately 5% of patients with NMSC harbor high-risk clinicopathologic features for loco-regional recurrence, and distant metastasis. Prognostic factors such as close or positive margins, tumor size ≥ 2 cm, poor tumor differentiation, perineural invasion, depth of invasion, and immunosuppression have all been associated with increased loco-regional recurrence and impaired survival rates. In these patients more aggressive treatments are needed and radiotherapy (RT) is often discussed as adjuvant therapy after surgical resection. Due to the retrospective setting and the heterogeneity of the available studies, indications for adjuvant RT in patients with localized resected NMSC harboring high-risk features remain debated. Studies highlighting the limitations of our current understanding of the independent prognosis of each risk factor are needed to better define the role of adjuvant RT on outcome of localized NMSC and standardize its indications in the clinical setting. 10.1007/s11864-020-00792-2
    Risk factors of postoperative recurrence and potential candidate of adjuvant radiotherapy in lung adenosquamous carcinoma. Ni Jianjiao,Zheng Zhiqin,Li Juan,Li Yuan,Fan Min,Liu Liang Journal of thoracic disease Background:Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is a rare and aggressive histologic subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Little is known about the prognostic significance of routine immunohistochemical (IHC) markers and clinical value of adjuvant radiotherapy in completely resected lung ASC. Methods:Consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed lung ASC receiving curative resection from January 2007 to December 2017 at our center were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic significance of 14 routine IHC markers and potential candidate of adjuvant radiotherapy were investigated. Results:With a median follow up of 35 (range, 3.0-138) months, 95 out of the 176 enrolled patients had disease recurrence. The 1-, 3- and 5-year cumulative rate of recurrence was 25.8%, 55.8% and 63.1%, respectively. Using the Cox proportional hazard regression model, T stage, N stage, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), expression of CEA, expression of p53, but not EGFR mutations or expression of the other 12 IHC markers (CK20, CK5/6, PE10, ERCC1, Napsin A, RRM1, Ki67, CK7, P63, EGFR, HER2, TTF1), were significantly associated with postoperative recurrence. N stage, expression of CEA and LVI were identified as independent prognosticators of overall recurrence. Using competing risk methodology and distant recurrence chosen as a competing risk, T stage and N stage were identified as significant risk factors of loco-regional recurrence. Moreover, adjuvant radiotherapy significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.002) and was associated with non-significant longer overall survival (OS) (P=0.078) among 95 patients with either pathological T3-4 or N disease (collectively defined as pT/N disease). Conclusions:This study provides the proof of concept for using routine IHC markers, along with common clinic-pathological parameters, in predicting postoperative recurrence and identifying potential candidate for adjuvant radiotherapy in completely resected lung ASC. 10.21037/jtd-20-1979
    The risk factors of upgrading in prostate cancer. Çeker Gökhan,Çalışkan Selahattin Cancer 10.1002/cncr.33087
    The incidence and risk factors of osteoarthritis following osteochondritis dissecans of the knees: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Tan Si Heng Sharon,Tan Beverly Shu Wen,Tham Wei Yang Wilson,Lim Andrew Kean Seng,Hui James Hoipo Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA PURPOSE:The current systematic review and meta-analysis aim to pool together the incidence and risk factors of osteoarthritis following osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. METHODS:The systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. A search was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane Library with the keywords being "knee" and "osteochondritis dissecans" or "osteochondral lesion". All original human studies that reported the incidence or risk factors of osteoarthritis following osteochondritis dissecans of the knee were included. RESULTS:Nine studies with 496 patients were included. The incidence of osteoarthritis following osteochondritis dissecans is 0.39 (95% CI 0.19-0.59). Patients with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m had a significantly increased risk of osteoarthritis. Fragment excision had an increased relative risk of 1.89 (95% CI 1.19-3.01) of osteoarthritis as compared to fragment preservation. Significant heterogeneity was identified when comparing between juvenile and adult osteochondritis dissecans. The size of the lesions moderated the between-study heterogeneity with regards to the incidence of osteoarthritis, with the relative risk of osteoarthritis in lesions bigger than 4 cm being 2.29 (95% CI 1.24-4.23). No other risk factors, including gender of the patient, location of osteochondritis dissecans, stability of osteochondritis dissecans, and surgical versus non-surgical management were significant risk factors. CONCLUSION:Significant risk factors for osteoarthritis were increased body mass index and fragment excision. Probable but inconclusive risk factors were the age of the patients and the size of the osteochondritis dissecans. The gender of the patient, location of osteochondritis dissecans, the stability of osteochondritis dissecans, and surgical versus non-surgical management of osteochondritis dissecans when appropriate were not significant risk factors. 10.1007/s00167-020-06365-y
    Incidence and risk factors of symptomatic thrombosis related to peripherally inserted central catheter in patients with lung cancer. Chen Pei,Wan Guangming,Zhu Bingqian Journal of advanced nursing AIMS:To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with peripherally inserted central catheter-related thrombosis (PICC-RT) in patients with lung cancer. DESIGN:A retrospective cross-sectional design. METHODS:Patients with lung cancer receiving PICC insertion during 1 March 2014-31 May 2019 at a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China were enrolled (N = 748). Symptomatic PICC-RT was confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography in the presence of clinical symptoms and signs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors of symptomatic PICC-RT. RESULTS:Among the patients (mean age, 60.7 years; males, 67.1%), 55 (7.35%) had symptomatic PICC-RT. Based on the multivariate analysis, history of smoking [OR 2.49 (1.13-5.46), p < .05], use of Carboplatin [OR 2.23 (1.19-4.17), p < .05] or Docetaxel [OR 7.23 (1.65-31.56), p < .05], PICC size [OR 3.52 (1.78-6.99), p < .001], and level of D-dimer [OR 5.32 (2.39-11.83), p < .001] were significant risk factors of PICC-RT. CONCLUSION:Several modifiable factors (e.g., PICC size and level of D-dimer) were related to PICC-RT. In the future, prospective studies are warranted to examine whether those factors could increase the risk of PICC-RT. Meanwhile, healthcare professionals are recommended to perform a comprehensive assessment of the patients receiving PICC insertion. Close attention should be paid to those at risk for PICC-RT. IMPACT:Identification of risk factors associated with PICC-RT is an important step towards individualizing the care plan for patients receiving PICC. Our findings provided evidence for the management of PICC-RT in patients with lung cancer. In clinical practice, nurses could deliver appropriate interventions against modifiable risk factors to reduce the risk of PICC-RT. 10.1111/jan.14666
    Risk factors of progression to endometrial cancer in women with endometrial hyperplasia: A retrospective cohort study. Jeong Jin Young,Hwang Sung Ook,Lee Banghyun,Kim Kidong,Kim Yong Beom,Park Sung Hye,Choi Hwa Yeon PloS one OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate risk factors of progression to endometrial cancer (EC) in women with non-atypical and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (EH). METHODS:The data of 62,333 women with EH diagnostic codes from 2007 to 2018 were sourced from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service databases. The data from 11,525 women with non-atypical EH and 2,219 women with atypical EH who met the selection criteria were extracted for analysis. RESULTS:Risk of EC in women with EH decreased in 40-49 year olds compared to other ages (non-atypical EH: [≤39 vs. 40-49 years] HR, 0.557; 95% CI, 0.439-0.708; P<0.001; [≤39 vs. ≥50 years] P = 0.739; atypical EH: [≤39 vs. 40-49 years] HR, 0.391; 95% CI, 0.229-0.670; P = 0.001; [≤39 vs. ≥50 years] P = 0.712). Risk of EC increased with increase in number of follow-up biopsies in women with non-atypical EH (1 biopsy: HR, 1.835; 95% CI, 1.282-2.629; P = 0.001; ≥2 biopsies: HR, 3.644; 95% CI, 2.585-5.317; P<0.001) and in women receiving ≥2 follow-up biopsies with atypical EH (HR, 3.827; 95% CI, 1.924-7.612; P = 0.001). Time of progression to EC decreased in women ≥50 years old with non-atypical EH compared to other ages (P = 0.004) and showed no differences among ages in women with atypical EH (P = 0.576). Progestational agents were a protective factor for EC in women with non-atypical EH (HR, 0.703; 95% CI, 0.565-0.876; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS:In this claim data analysis, women ≤39 and ≥50 years old with EH were at a high risk for progression to EC, and repeat follow-up biopsy after a diagnosis of EH increased detection of EC. Progestational agents were an effective modality to prevent EC in women with non-atypical EH. 10.1371/journal.pone.0243064
    Incidence and risk factors of surgical site infection after intertrochanteric fracture surgery: A prospective cohort study. Zhao Kuo,Zhang Junzhe,Li Junyong,Meng Hongyu,Wang Zhongzheng,Zhu Yanbin,Hou Zhiyong,Zhang Yingze International wound journal Surgical site infection (SSI) is a challenging complication after intertrochanteric fracture surgery but without a large-sample size study to investigate the incidence and risk factors of it. The present study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of SSI after intertrochanteric fracture surgery. A total of 1941 patients underwent intertrochanteric fracture surgery between October 2014 and December 2018 were included. Demographic data, surgical variables, and preoperative laboratory indexes were obtained from a prospective database and reviewed by hospital records. The optimum cut-off value for quantitative data was detected by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The univariate analysis and multivariable analysis were conducted to analyse the risk factors. In total, 25 patients (1.3%) developed SSI, including 22(1.1%) superficial infection and 3(0.2%) deep infection. After adjustment of multiple variables, gender (odds ratio[OR] 2.64, P = .024), time to surgery>4 days (OR 2.41, P = .046), implant (intramedullary or extramedullary devices) (OR 2.96, P = .036), ALB<35 g/L (OR 2.88, P = .031) remained significant factors. In conclusion, the incidence of SSI after intertrochanteric fractures surgery was 1.3%, with 1.1% for superficial and 0.2% for deep infection. Gender, time to surgery>4 days, the implant (intramedullary or extramedullary devices), and ALB<35 g/L were independent risk factors for the rate of SSI. 10.1111/iwj.13477
    Risk factors of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: a prospective cohort study (YCOG1301). Takei Shogo,Ishibe Atsushi,Watanabe Jun,Watanabe Kazuteru,Suwa Yusuke,Suzuki Shinsuke,Nakagawa Kazuya,Suwa Hirokazu,Ota Mitsuyoshi,Ichikawa Yasushi,Kunisaki Chikara,Yamanaka Takeharu,Endo Itaru International journal of colorectal disease PURPOSE:Although the effectiveness of antiemetic therapy for colorectal cancer chemotherapy has improved with further drug development, some patients still suffer from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) even with only 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. The present study investigated the risk factors of CINV in patients who received chemotherapy for colorectal cancer and clarified which patients need additional neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. METHODS:Patients with colorectal cancer receiving moderate-emetic-risk chemotherapy (MEC) were enrolled in this prospective single-arm study with intravenous palonosetron 0.75 mg and dexamethasone 9.9 mg before chemotherapy and with paroral dexamethasone 8 mg on days 2 and 3. The primary endpoint was the complete response (CR) rate for delayed-phase CINV. RESULTS:A total of 179 patients were eligible for this study. The delayed CR rate was 84.9% (152/179). There were no significant differences in any risk factors, but women with a low body mass index (BMI) (a combination of "female sex" and "BMI < 20") showed a significantly lower rate of CC (complete control) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17-1.13; p = 0.039), and young patients with a low BMI (combination of "age < 65" and "BMI < 20") showed a significantly lower rate of CR (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.13-0.88; p = 0.022) than the other patients. CONCLUSIONS:This study failed to identify any single risk factors associated with delayed CINV in patients who received chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. However, combinations of "thin and women" or "young and thin patients" might be possible predictive conditions, thus, candidates for NK1 receptor antagonist administration in MEC. Further investigations are required to develop criteria for the supplementation of NK1 receptor antagonist. 10.1007/s00384-020-03731-7
    Risk factors of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma that predispose patients to local recurrence. Kaliszewski Krzysztof,Diakowska Dorota,Rzeszutko Marta,Nowak Łukasz,Aporowicz Michał,Wojtczak Beata,Sutkowski Krzysztof,Rudnicki Jerzy PloS one BACKGROUND:Currently, less aggressive treatment or even active surveillance of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is widely accepted and recommended as a therapeutic management option. However, there are some concerns about these approaches. We investigated whether there are any demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics of PTMC patients that are easy to obtain and clinically available before surgery to help clinicians make proper therapeutic decisions. METHODS:We performed a retrospective chart review of 5,021 patients with thyroid tumors surgically treated in one center in 2008-2018. Finally, 182 (3.62%) PTMC patients were selected (158 (86.8%) females and 24 (13.2%) males, mean age 48.8±15.4 years). We analyzed the disease-free survival (DFS) time of the PTMC patients according to demographic and histopathological parameters. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationships of demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics with aggressive histopathological features. RESULTS:Age ≥55 years, hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular tumor shape, smooth margins and high vascularity significantly increased the risk for minimal extrathyroidal extension (minETE), lymph node metastasis (LNM), and capsular and vascular invasion (p<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant risk of LNM (OR = 5.98, 95% CI: 2.32-15.38, p = 0.0002) and trends toward significantly higher rates of minETE and capsular and vascular invasion (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 0.97-5.19, p = 0.056) in patients ≥55 years than in their younger counterparts. The DFS time was significantly shorter in patients ≥55 years (p = 0.015), patients with minETE and capsular and vascular invasion (p = 0.001 for all), patients with tumor size >5 mm (p = 0.021), and patients with LNM (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS:The absence of microcalcifications, irregular tumor shape, blunt margins, hypoechogenicity and high vascularity in PTMC patients below 55 years and with tumor diameters below 5 mm may allow clinicians to select individuals with a low risk of local recurrence so that they can receive less aggressive management. 10.1371/journal.pone.0244930