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    Epigenetic Histone Modifications Involved in Profibrotic Gene Regulation by 12/15-Lipoxygenase and Its Oxidized Lipid Products in Diabetic Nephropathy. Yuan Hang,Reddy Marpadga A,Deshpande Supriya,Jia Ye,Park Jung Tak,Lanting Linda L,Jin Wen,Kato Mitsuo,Xu Zhong Gao,Das Sadhan,Natarajan Rama Antioxidants & redox signaling AIMS:Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone post-translational modifications and DNA methylation, are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the mediators are not well known. Moreover, although dyslipidemia contributes to DN, epigenetic changes triggered by lipids are unclear. In diabetes, increased expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) enhances oxidized lipids such as 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE], which promote oxidant stress, glomerular and mesangial cell (MC) dysfunction, and fibrosis, and mediate the actions of profibrotic growth factors. We hypothesized that 12/15-LO and its oxidized lipid products can regulate epigenetic mechanisms mediating profibrotic gene expression related to DN. RESULTS:12(S)-HETE increased profibrotic gene expression and enrichment of permissive histone lysine modifications at their promoters in MCs. 12(S)-HETE also increased protein levels of SET7, a histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase, and promoted its nuclear translocation and enrichment at profibrotic gene promoters. Furthermore, SET7 (Setd7) gene silencing inhibited 12(S)-HETE-induced profibrotic gene expression. 12/15-LO (Alox15) gene silencing or genetic knockout inhibited transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced expression of Setd7 and profibrotic genes and histone modifications in MCs. Furthermore, 12/15-LO knockout in mice ameliorated key features of DN and abrogated increases in renal SET7 and profibrotic genes. Additionally, 12/15-LO siRNAs in vivo blocked increases in renal SET7 and profibrotic genes in diabetic mice. INNOVATION AND CONCLUSION:These novel results demonstrate for the first time that 12/15-LO-derived oxidized lipids regulate histone modifications associated with profibrotic gene expression in MCs, and 12/15-LO can mediate similar actions of TGF-β1 and diabetes. Targeting 12/15-LO might be a useful strategy to inhibit key epigenetic mechanisms involved in DN. 10.1089/ars.2015.6372
    Diabetic nephropathy induces alterations in the glomerular and tubule lipid profiles. Grove Kerri J,Voziyan Paul A,Spraggins Jeffrey M,Wang Suwan,Paueksakon Paisit,Harris Raymond C,Hudson Billy G,Caprioli Richard M Journal of lipid research Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major life-threatening complication of diabetes. Renal lesions affect glomeruli and tubules, but the pathogenesis is not completely understood. Phospholipids and glycolipids are molecules that carry out multiple cell functions in health and disease, and their role in DN pathogenesis is unknown. We employed high spatial resolution MALDI imaging MS to determine lipid changes in kidneys of eNOS(-/-) db/db mice, a robust model of DN. Phospholipid and glycolipid structures, localization patterns, and relative tissue levels were determined in individual renal glomeruli and tubules without disturbing tissue morphology. A significant increase in the levels of specific glomerular and tubular lipid species from four different classes, i.e., gangliosides, sulfoglycosphingolipids, lysophospholipids, and phosphatidylethanolamines, was detected in diabetic kidneys compared with nondiabetic controls. Inhibition of nonenzymatic oxidative and glycoxidative pathways attenuated the increase in lipid levels and ameliorated renal pathology, even though blood glucose levels remained unchanged. Our data demonstrate that the levels of specific phospho- and glycolipids in glomeruli and/or tubules are associated with diabetic renal pathology. We suggest that hyperglycemia-induced DN pathogenic mechanisms require intermediate oxidative steps that involve specific phospholipid and glycolipid species. 10.1194/jlr.M049189
    Altered renal lipid metabolism and renal lipid accumulation in human diabetic nephropathy. Herman-Edelstein Michal,Scherzer Pnina,Tobar Ana,Levi Moshe,Gafter Uzi Journal of lipid research Animal models link ectopic lipid accumulation to renal dysfunction, but whether this process occurs in the human kidney is uncertain. To this end, we investigated whether altered renal TG and cholesterol metabolism results in lipid accumulation in human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Lipid staining and the expression of lipid metabolism genes were studied in kidney biopsies of patients with diagnosed DN (n = 34), and compared with normal kidneys (n = 12). We observed heavy lipid deposition and increased intracellular lipid droplets. Lipid deposition was associated with dysregulation of lipid metabolism genes. Fatty acid β-oxidation pathways including PPAR-α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, acyl-CoA oxidase, and L-FABP were downregulated. Downregulation of renal lipoprotein lipase, which hydrolyzes circulating TGs, was associated with increased expression of angiopoietin-like protein 4. Cholesterol uptake receptor expression, including LDL receptors, oxidized LDL receptors, and acetylated LDL receptors, was significantly increased, while there was downregulation of genes effecting cholesterol efflux, including ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE. There was a highly significant correlation between glomerular filtration rate, inflammation, and lipid metabolism genes, supporting a possible role of abnormal lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of DN. These data suggest that renal lipid metabolism may serve as a target for specific therapies aimed at slowing the progression of glomerulosclerosis. 10.1194/jlr.P040501
    Lipoxins Regulate the Early Growth Response-1 Network and Reverse Diabetic Kidney Disease. Brennan Eoin P,Mohan Muthukumar,McClelland Aaron,Tikellis Christos,Ziemann Mark,Kaspi Antony,Gray Stephen P,Pickering Raelene,Tan Sih Min,Ali-Shah Syed Tasadaque,Guiry Patrick J,El-Osta Assam,Jandeleit-Dahm Karin,Cooper Mark E,Godson Catherine,Kantharidis Phillip Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN The failure of spontaneous resolution underlies chronic inflammatory conditions, including microvascular complications of diabetes such as diabetic kidney disease. The identification of endogenously generated molecules that promote the physiologic resolution of inflammation suggests that these bioactions may have therapeutic potential in the context of chronic inflammation. Lipoxins (LXs) are lipid mediators that promote the resolution of inflammation. We investigated the potential of LXA and a synthetic LX analog (Benzo-LXA) as therapeutics in a murine model of diabetic kidney disease, ApoE mice treated with streptozotocin. Intraperitoneal injection of LXs attenuated the development of diabetes-induced albuminuria, mesangial expansion, and collagen deposition. Notably, LXs administered 10 weeks after disease onset also attenuated established kidney disease, with evidence of preserved kidney function. Kidney transcriptome profiling defined a diabetic signature (725 genes; false discovery rate ≤0.05). Comparison of this murine gene signature with that of human diabetic kidney disease identified shared renal proinflammatory/profibrotic signals (TNF-, IL-1, NF-B). In diabetic mice, we identified 20 and 51 transcripts regulated by LXA and Benzo-LXA, respectively, and pathway analysis identified established (TGF-1, PDGF, TNF-, NF-B) and novel (early growth response-1 [EGR-1]) networks activated in diabetes and regulated by LXs. In cultured human renal epithelial cells, treatment with LXs attenuated TNF--driven Egr-1 activation, and Egr-1 depletion prevented cellular responses to TGF-1 and TNF- These data demonstrate that LXs can reverse established diabetic complications and support a therapeutic paradigm to promote the resolution of inflammation. 10.1681/ASN.2017101112
    Oxidative stress in families of type 1 diabetic patients. Matteucci E,Giampietro O Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:The link between hyperglycemia and the complications of diabetes is unknown. It is still discussed whether oxidative stress precedes or merely reflects diabetic complications. To search for a familial predisposition to oxidative stress, we investigated indexes of glucose and lipid metabolism, markers of plasma and cell lipid oxidation, a marker of oxidant-induced protein damage, and the effects of oxygen radicals on erythrocytes (or red blood cells [RBCs]) of patients with type 1 diabetes and their relatives. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We recruited 30 type 1 diabetic subjects (10 without diabetic complications, 10 with retinopathy, and 10 with nephropathy), 36 nondiabetic siblings, 37 nondiabetic parents of type 1 diabetic subjects, and 3 control groups of healthy subjects without a family history of diabetes. Levels of blood creatinine, glucose, HbA(1c), cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), fibrinogen, malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidation protein products were determined. The RBC response to oxidative stress (3-h incubation at 37 degrees C with or without a radical generating system) was evaluated by measuring RBC glutathione (GSH), RBC-MDA, and hemolysis. RESULTS:Diabetic patients had higher levels of blood glucose (P < 0.001), HbA(1c) (P < 0.001), Lp(a) (P < 0.01), and fibrinogen (P < 0.05) than control subjects. Siblings of diabetic patients had higher Lp(a) levels (P < 0.001). Parents had higher levels of plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and Lp(a) (P < 0.01). Plasma and RBC-MDA were significantly elevated in diabetic subjects and relatives compared with control subjects. Basal RBC-GSH was lower in diabetic subjects (P < 0.01). In diabetic subjects, incubations of cells caused a decrease in RBC-GSH of a lesser degree than that in control subjects, but they caused a significant increase in hemolysis. Among relatives, hemolysis was increased both at baseline and after incubation. Plasma MDA levels were associated with blood glucose, creatinine, and fibrinogen levels (multiple r = 0.5, P < 0.001), and basal RBC-MDA levels were associated with plasma Lp(a), fibrinogen, and plasma MDA levels (r = 0.6, P < 0.001). Basal RBC-GSH content correlated with serum glucose and RBC-MDA production (r = 0.3, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Our study is the first to present evidence that markers of lipoprotein metabolism (Lp[a]), oxidative stress (plasma and RBC-MDA), and cellular fragility (hemolysis) are abnormal in nondiabetic relatives of type 1 diabetic subjects, thereby supporting the view that familial elements of diabetes even precede the onset of diabetes. It seems reasonable that the same biological markers considered major predictors of cardiovascular disease can also trace familial susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, just as they have been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. 10.2337/diacare.23.8.1182
    Immunohistochemical colocalization of glycoxidation products and lipid peroxidation products in diabetic renal glomerular lesions. Implication for glycoxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Horie K,Miyata T,Maeda K,Miyata S,Sugiyama S,Sakai H,van Ypersole de Strihou C,Monnier V M,Witztum J L,Kurokawa K The Journal of clinical investigation Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) include a variety of protein adducts whose accumulation alters the structure and function of tissue proteins and stimulates cellular responses. They have been implicated in tissue damage associated with diabetic complications. To assess the possible link between AGE accumulation and the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we have examined the immunohistochemical localization of various AGE structures postulated to date, i.e., pentosidine, Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and pyrraline, in diabetic and control kidneys. CML and pentosidine accumulate in the expanded mesangial matrix and thickened glomerular capillary walls of early DN and in nodular lesions and arterial walls of advanced DN, but were absent in control kidneys. By contrast, pyrraline was not found within diabetic glomeruli but was detected in the interstitial connective tissue of both normal and diabetic kidneys. Although the distribution of pyrraline was topographically identical to type III collagen, distribution of pentosidine and CML was not specific for collagen type, suggesting that difference in matrix protein composition per se could not explain heterogeneous AGE localization. Since oxidation is linked closely to the formation of pentosidine and CML, we also immunostained malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product whose formation is accelerated by oxidative stress, assuming that local oxidative stress may serve as a mechanism of pentosidine and CML accumulation. Consistent with our assumption, diabetic nodular lesions were stained positive for MDA. These findings show that AGE localization in DN varies according to AGE structure, and suggest that the colocalization of markers of glycoxidation (pentosidine and CML) with a marker of lipid peroxidation reflects a local oxidative stress in association with the pathogenesis of diabetic glomerular lesions. Thus, glycoxidation markers may serve as useful biomarkers of oxidative damage in DN. 10.1172/JCI119853
    Lipid biology of the podocyte--new perspectives offer new opportunities. Fornoni Alessia,Merscher Sandra,Kopp Jeffrey B Nature reviews. Nephrology In the past 15 years, major advances have been made in understanding the role of lipids in podocyte biology. First, susceptibility to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and glomerular disease is associated with an APOL1 sequence variant, is expressed in podocytes and encodes apolipoprotein L1, an important component of HDL. Second, acid sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase 3b encoded by SMPDL3b has a role in the conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide and its levels are reduced in renal biopsy samples from patients with recurrent FSGS. Furthermore, decreased SMPDL3b expression is associated with increased susceptibility of podocytes to injury after exposure to sera from these patients. Third, in many individuals with membranous nephropathy, autoantibodies against the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) receptor, which is expressed in podocytes, have been identified. Whether these autoantibodies affect the activity of PLA2, which liberates arachidonic acid from glycerophospholipids and modulates podocyte function, is unknown. Fourth, clinical and experimental evidence support a role for ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1-dependent cholesterol efflux, free fatty acids and glycerophospolipids in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. An improved understanding of lipid biology in podocytes might provide insights to develop therapeutic targets for primary and secondary glomerulopathies. 10.1038/nrneph.2014.87
    Simultaneous metabolomics and lipidomics analysis based on novel heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Wang Shuangyuan,Zhou Lina,Wang Zhichao,Shi Xianzhe,Xu Guowang Analytica chimica acta Increasing metabolite coverage by combining data from different platforms or methods can improve understanding of related metabolic mechanisms and the identification of biomarkers. However, no one method can obtain metabolomic and lipidomic information in a single analysis. In this work, aiming at collecting comprehensive information on metabolome and lipidome in a single analytical run, we developed an on-line heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS) method. Complex metabolites from biological samples are divided into two fractions by using a precolumn. The first fraction is directly transferred and subjected to metabolomics analysis. Most lipids are retained on the precolumn until the mobile phases for lipidomics flow through; then they are subjected to lipidomics analysis. Up to 447 and 289 metabolites in plasma, including amino acids, carnitines, bile acids, free fatty acids, lyso-phospholipids, phospholipids, sphingomyelins etc. were identified within 30 min in the positive mode and negative mode, respectively. A comparison of the newly developed method with the conventional metabolomic and lipidomic approaches showed that approximately 99% features obtained by the two conventional methods can be covered with this 2D-LC method. Analytical characteristics evaluation showed the method had a wide linearity range, high sensitivity, satisfactory recovery and repeatability. These results demonstrate that this method is reliable, stable and well qualified in metabolomics analysis, particularly for large-scale metabolomics studies with small amount of samples. 10.1016/j.aca.2017.03.004
    Database-Assisted Globally Optimized Targeted Mass Spectrometry (dGOT-MS): Broad and Reliable Metabolomics Analysis with Enhanced Identification. Shi Xiaojian,Wang Shuai,Jasbi Paniz,Turner Cassidy,Hrovat Jonathan,Wei Yiping,Liu Jingping,Gu Haiwei Analytical chemistry Targeted mass spectrometry (MS) is an important measurement approach in metabolomics with strong analytical performance, given its specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capacity. However, traditional targeted-MS relies heavily on chemical standards for the development of various detection panels; thus, its metabolite coverage is often limited to those well-known and commercially available compounds. To address this fundamental gap, we previously developed a novel approach [ H. Gu et al. 2015 , 87 , 12355 - 12362 ], globally optimized targeted (GOT)-MS, which enables reliable metabolic analysis with broad coverage using a single triple quadrupole instrument. In the present study, we further developed and optimized an innovative targeted MS approach, database-assisted globally optimized targeted (dGOT)-MS, which utilizes the HMDB and METLIN databases to significantly improve both identification and metabolite coverage. As it is well-known, these metabolomics databases have a comprehensive collection of metabolites and their tandem MS spectra; therefore, in this study, multiple reaction monitoring transitions (MRMs) were directly obtained from the databases and, after optimizing MS parameters for those MRMs, 927 metabolites were measured from a plasma aqueous extract sample with high reliability by dGOT-MS. Of these, 310 were confirmed using pure chemical standards while the rest were annotated by identification level using database entries. Furthermore, using breast cancer diagnosis as a proof-of-principle metabolomics application, we showed dGOT-MS to significantly outperform a traditional large-scale targeted MS assay for potential biomarker discovery. In principle, dGOT-MS is able to cover all metabolites (including lipids) that have been characterized in these comprehensive metabolomics databases from various types of biological samples. Therefore, dGOT-MS opens a novel avenue for MS measurements and may play an important role in many future metabolomics studies. 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b03107
    Probing the application range and selectivity of a differential mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry platform for metabolomics. Wernisch Stefanie,Afshinnia Farsad,Rajendiran Thekkelnaycke,Pennathur Subramaniam Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry Metabolomics applications of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS)-mass spectrometry (MS) have largely concentrated on targeted assays and the removal of isobaric or chemical interferences from the signals of a small number of analytes. In the work reported here, we systematically investigated the application range of a DMS-MS method for metabolomics using more than 800 authentic metabolite standards as the test set. The coverage achieved with the DMS-MS platform was comparable to that achieved with chromatographic methods. High orthogonality was observed between hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and the 2-propanol-mediated DMS separation, and previously observed similarities were confirmed for the DMS platform and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. We describe the chemical selectivity observed for selected subsets of the metabolite test set, such as lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, and organic acids. Furthermore, we rationalize the behavior and separation of isomeric aromatic acids, bile acids, and other metabolites. Graphical abstract Differential mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) facilitates rapid separation of metabolites of similar mass-to-charge ratio by distributing them across the compensation voltage range on the basis of their different molecular structures. 10.1007/s00216-018-0978-x
    High-Throughput Measure of Bioactive Lipids Using Non-targeted Mass Spectrometry. Lagerborg Kim A,Watrous Jeramie D,Cheng Susan,Jain Mohit Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Bioactive lipids represent critical intra- and intercellular signaling molecules, and have been implicated in both physiologic homeostasis and disease pathology. Measurement of bioactive lipids is vital toward understanding the role of these signaling intermediates in human biology. Current analytical methods for assessment of bioactive lipids in human biosamples are limited, however, in breath of analytes assayed as well as robustness and time required for measures across thousands of samples. Herein, we describe in comprehensive detail a rapid and robust analytical method using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for non-targeted measurement of over 7000 bioactive lipids, including eicosanoids and eicosanoid-related metabolites, in human biosamples. These methods may be applied to the study of population scale cohorts to uncover previously unrecognized roles for bioactive lipid species in human biology. 10.1007/978-1-4939-8769-6_2
    Orange juice affects acylcarnitine metabolism in healthy volunteers as revealed by a mass-spectrometry based metabolomics approach. Moreira Vanessa,Brasili Elisa,Fiamoncini Jarlei,Marini Federico,Miccheli Alfredo,Daniel Hannelore,Lee Jennifer Ji Hye,Hassimotto Neuza Mariko Aymoto,Lajolo Franco Maria Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) Citrus juices, especially orange juice, constitute rich sources of bioactive compounds with a wide range of health-promoting activities. Data from epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest that orange juice (OJ) may have a positive impact on lipid metabolism. However, the effect of orange juice intake on blood lipid profile is still poorly understood. We have used two different blood samples, Dried Blood Spots (DBS) and plasma, to assess the effect of two-week orange juice consumption in healthy volunteers by a mass-spectrometry based metabolomics approach. DBS were analysed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and plasma samples were analysed by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). One hundred sixty-nine lipids including acylcarnitines (AC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPC), (diacyl- and acyl-alkyl-) phosphatidylcholines (PC aa and PC ae) and sphingomyelins (SM) were identified and quantified in DBS. Eighteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in plasma. Multivariate analysis allowed to identify an increase in C3:1, C5-DC(C6-OH), C5-M-DC, C5:1-DC, C8, C12-DC, lysoPC18:3, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitoleic and palmitic acid and a decrease in nervonic acid, C0, C2, C10, C10:1, C16:1, C16-OH, C16:1-OH, C18-OH, PC aa C40:4, PC ae C38:4, PC ae C42:3, PC ae C42:4 and cholesterol levels after orange juice intake. A two-week period of orange juice intake could affect fatty acids β-oxidation through mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways, leading to an increase of short-chain acylcarnitines and a decrease of medium and long-chain acylcarnitines. This is the first report analyzing the effect of orange juice intake in healthy volunteers using a dried blood spot-based metabolomics approach. 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.046
    Systemic and Local Metabolic Alterations in Sleep-Deprivation-Induced Stress: A Multiplatform Mass-Spectrometry-Based Lipidomics and Metabolomics Approach. Yoon Sang Jun,Long Nguyen Phuoc,Jung Kyung-Hee,Kim Hyung Min,Hong Yu Jin,Fang Zhenghuan,Kim Sun Jo,Kim Tae Joon,Anh Nguyen Hoang,Hong Soon-Sun,Kwon Sung Won Journal of proteome research Sleep deprivation (SD) is known to be associated with metabolic disorders and chronic diseases. Complex metabolic alterations induced by SD at omics scale and the associated biomarker candidates have been proposed. However, in vivo systemic and local metabolic shift patterns of the metabolome and lipidome in acute and chronic partial SD models remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the serum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus CA1 of sleep-deprived rats (SD rats) from acute and chronic sleep restriction models were analyzed using three different omics platforms for the discovery and mechanistic assessment of systemic and local SD-induced dysregulated metabolites. We found a similar pattern of systemic metabolome alterations between two models, for which the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curves was AUC = 0.847 and 0.930 with the pseudotargeted and untargeted metabolomics approach, respectively. However, SD-induced systemic lipidome alterations were significantly different and appeared to be model-dependent (AUC = 0.374). Comprehensive pathway analysis of the altered lipidome and metabolome in the hypothalamus indicated the abnormal behavior of eight metabolic and lipid metabolic pathways. The metabolic alterations of the hippocampus CA1 was subtle in two SD models. Collectively, these results extend our understanding of the quality of sleep and suggest metabolic targets in developing diagnostic biomarkers for better SD control. 10.1021/acs.jproteome.9b00234
    Ultrahigh-Performance capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry at 35 kpsi for separation of lipids. Sorensen Matthew J,Miller Kelsey E,Jorgenson James W,Kennedy Robert T Journal of chromatography. A Improvements in sample preparation, separation, and mass spectrometry continue to expand the coverage in LC-MS based lipidomics. While longer columns packed with smaller particles in theory give higher separation performance compared to shorter columns, the implementation of this technology above commercial limits has been sparse due to difficulties in packing long columns and successfully operating instruments at ultrahigh pressures. In this work, a liquid chromatograph that operates up to 35 kpsi was investigated for the separation and identification of lipid species from human plasma. Capillary columns between 15-50 cm long were packed with 1.7 µm BEH C18 particles and evaluated for their ability to separate lipid isomers and complex lipid extracts from human plasma. Putative lipid class identifications were assigned using accurate mass and relative retention time data of the eluting peaks. Our findings indicate that longer columns packed and operated at 35 kpsi outperform shorter columns packed and run at lower pressures in terms of peak capacity and numbers of features identified. Packing columns with relatively high concentration slurries (200 mg/mL) while sonicating the column resulted in 6-34% increase in peak capacity for 50 cm columns compared to lower slurry concentrations and no sonication. For a given analysis time, 50 cm long columns operated at 35 kpsi provided a 20-95% increase in chromatographic peak capacity compared with 15 cm columns operated at 15 kpsi. Analysis times up to 4 h were evaluated, generating peak capacities up to 410 ± 5 (n = 3, measured at 4σ) and identifying 480 ± 85 lipids (n = 2). Importantly, the results also show a correlation between the peak capacity and the number of lipids identified from a human plasma extract. This correlation indicates that ionization suppression is a limiting factor in obtaining sufficient signal for identification by mass spectrometry. The result also shows that the higher resolution obtained by shallow gradients overcomes possible signal reduction due to broader, more dilute peaks in long gradients for improving detection of lipids in LC-MS. Lastly, longer columns operated at shallow gradients allowed for the best separation of both regional and geometrical isomers. These results demonstrate a system that enables the advantages of using longer columns packed and run at ultrahigh pressure for improving lipid separations and lipidome coverage. 10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460575
    Short-term high-fat diet exacerbates insulin resistance and glycolipid metabolism disorders in young obese men with hyperlipidemia, as determined by metabolomics analysis using ultra-HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Feng Rennan,Sun Guozhang,Zhang Yunbo,Sun Qintong,Ju Liyan,Sun Changhao,Wang Cheng Journal of diabetes BACKGROUND:The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide, and dietary intake is strongly associated with obesity-related chronic diseases. However, key metabolic perturbations in obese young men with hyperlipidemia after high-fat diet (HFD) intervention are not yet clear, and remain to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term HFD on glycolipid metabolism, insulin resistance (IR), and urinary metabolomic profiling in young obese men with hyperlipidemia. METHODS:Sixty young men (19-25 years; 30 normal weight, 30 obese with hyperlipidemia) were enrolled in the study. Differences in metabolomic profiling of urine between normal-weight and obese young men before and after 3 days intake of the HFD were investigated using ultra-HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. RESULTS:After the HFD intervention, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly increased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased in obese men, but only TC was significantly increased in normal-weight subjects. Based on metabolic differences, normal-weight and obese men, and obese men before and after the HFD intervention could be separated into distinct clusters. Seventeen major metabolites were identified that were associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycolipid metabolism and IR; the changes in these metabolites suggest metabolic changes in young obese males after short-term HFD intake. CONCLUSIONS:The findings of this study may contribute to increased understanding of the early biological adaptations of obesity with hyperlipidemia to HFD for the early prevention and control of diabetes and IR. 10.1111/1753-0407.12828