Amyloid Hypothesis: Is There a Role for Antiamyloid Treatment in Late-Life Depression?
Mahgoub Nahla,Alexopoulos George S
The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
Antidepressants have modest efficacy in late-life depression (LLD), perhaps because various neurobiologic processes compromise frontolimbic networks required for antidepressant response. We propose that amyloid accumulation is an etiologic factor for frontolimbic compromise that predisposes to depression and increases treatment resistance in a subgroup of older adults. In patients without history of depression, amyloid accumulation during the preclinical phase of Alzheimer disease (AD) may result in the prodromal depression syndrome that precedes cognitive impairment. In patients with early-onset depression, pathophysiologic changes during recurrent episodes may promote amyloid accumulation, further compromise neurocircuitry required for antidepressant response, and increase treatment resistance during successive depressive episodes. The findings that support the amyloid hypothesis of LLD are (1) Depression is a risk factor, a prodrome, and a common behavioral manifestation of AD; (2) amyloid deposition occurs during a long predementia period when depression is prevalent; (3) patients with lifetime history of depression have significant amyloid accumulation in brain regions related to mood regulation; and (4) amyloid deposition leads to neurobiologic processes, including vascular damage, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, and disrupted functional connectivity, that impair networks implicated in depression. The amyloid hypothesis of LLD is timely because availability of ligands allows in vivo assessment of amyloid in the human brain, a number of antiamyloid agents are relatively safe, and there is evidence that some antidepressants may reduce amyloid production. A model of LLD introducing the role of amyloid may guide the design of studies aiming to identify novel antidepressant approaches and prevention strategies of AD.
Early Manifestations of Brain Aging in Mice Due to Low Dietary Folate and Mild MTHFR Deficiency.
Bahous Renata H,Cosín-Tomás Marta,Deng Liyuan,Leclerc Daniel,Malysheva Olga,Ho Ming-Kai,Pallàs Mercè,Kaliman Perla,Bedell Barry J,Caudill Marie A,Rozen Rima
Folate is an important B vitamin required for methylation reactions, nucleotide and neurotransmitter synthesis, and maintenance of homocysteine at nontoxic levels. Its metabolism is tightly linked to that of choline, a precursor to acetylcholine and membrane phospholipids. Low folate intake and genetic variants in folate metabolism, such as the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T polymorphism, have been suggested to impact brain function and increase the risk for cognitive decline and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Our study aimed to assess the impact of genetic and nutritional disturbances in folate metabolism, and their potential interaction, on features of cognitive decline and brain biochemistry in a mouse model. Wild-type and Mthfr mice, a model for the MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism, were fed control or folate-deficient diets from weaning until 8 and 10 months of age. We observed short-term memory impairment measured by the novel object paradigm, altered transcriptional levels of synaptic markers and epigenetic enzymes, as well as impaired choline metabolism due to the Mthfr genotype in cortex or hippocampus. We also detected changes in mRNA levels of Presenillin-1, neurotrophic factors, one-carbon metabolic and epigenetic enzymes, as well as reduced levels of S-adenosylmethionine and acetylcholine, due to the folate-deficient diet. These findings shed further insights into the mechanisms by which genetic and dietary folate metabolic disturbances increase the risk for cognitive decline and suggest that these mechanisms are distinct.
Homocysteine metabolism and the associations of global DNA methylation with selected gene polymorphisms and nutritional factors in patients with dementia.
Bednarska-Makaruk Małgorzata,Graban Ałła,Sobczyńska-Malefora Agata,Harrington Dominic J,Mitchell Michael,Voong Kieran,Dai Letian,Łojkowska Wanda,Bochyńska Anna,Ryglewicz Danuta,Wiśniewska Anna,Wehr Hanna
Epigenetics (particularly DNA methylation) together with environmental and genetic factors, are key to understanding the pathogenesis of many diseases including dementia. Disturbances in DNA methylation have already been implicated in dementia. Homocysteine metabolism, with folate and vitamin B12 as essential cofactors, is integral to methylation processes. We evaluated in a case-control study the association of global DNA methylation, homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 status with dementia. Selected polymorphisms of genes previously associated with dementia development and the influence of various factors on DNA methylation were also investigated. 102 patients with dementia (53 with Alzheimer's disease, 17 with vascular dementia and 32 with mixed dementia) were recruited. The non-demented controls consisted of 45 age-matched subjects without dementia and 47 individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Global DNA methylation was determined by Imprint Methylated DNA Quantification Kit MDQ1 (Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, Dorset, UK). Plasma homocysteine, serum folate and vitamin B12 were determined by chemiluminescence. Plasma and erythrocyte 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and plasma methylmalonic acid (markers of folate and vitamin B12 status) were measured by HPLC. APOE, PON1 p.Q192R, MTHFR 677C>T (c.665C>T) and IL1B-511C>T polymorphisms were identified using PCR-RFLP methods. Patients with dementia had significantly higher concentrations of homocysteine (p=0.012) and methylmalonic acid (p=0.016) and lower folate (p=0.002) and plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (p=0.005) than non-demented subjects. There was no difference in DNA methylation between patients and controls. A non-significant tendency to higher DNA methylation in patients with vascular dementia (p=0.061) was observed. Multivariate regression analysis of all recruited individuals demonstrated a significant positive association between DNA methylation and folate (p=0.013), creatinine (p=0.003) concentrations and IL1B-511T (p=0.002) and PON1 192R (p=0.049) alleles and negative association with fasting glucose (p=0.004). The biochemical results showed significantly lower folate and vitamin B12 status in demented patients than controls. Global DNA methylation was associated with markers of folate status, creatinine, glucose and PON1 and IL1B polymorphisms.
From mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease - influence of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate on cognition over time: results from one-year follow-up.
Siuda Joanna,Gorzkowska Agnieszka,Patalong-Ogiewa Maja,Krzystanek Ewa,Czech Ewa,Wiechuła Barbara,Garczorz Wojciech,Danch Alojzy,Jasińska-Myga Barbara,Opala Grzegorz
Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have higher risk of developing dementia than the general population. Currently known risk factors for dementia include older age, low education level, gait disorders, hippocampal atrophy, and apolipoprotein E allele. Vascular risk factors may modify the neurodegenerative process. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the influence of vascular (genetic and environmental) risk factors on progression to dementia in an MCI group during a one-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Fifty-five MCI patients (30 men and 25 women) and 44 controls (25 men and 19 women) matched for age, gender and education were studied. Mild cognitive impairment was diagnosed according to Petersen criteria (Mayo Clinic Group). Neuropsychological evaluation was made. Assessed vascular risk factors included hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cigarette smoking, hyperlipidaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia with vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Genetic risk factors (APOE polymorphism, C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms) were also assessed. RESULTS:Vascular risk factors were found significantly more often in the MCI group (p = 0.041), including APOE4 allele (p = 0.018), hyperhomocysteinaemia (p = 0.012) and folate deficiency (p = 0.023). Discriminant function analysis showed that only age and hypertension are potential factors which may have an influence on progression to dementia in the MCI group within one year of prospective observation. CONCLUSION:Vascular risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment but do not have a significant influence on progression to dementia in the MCI group.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and risk of Alzheimer's disease in Koreans.
Kim Jae-Min,Stewart Robert,Kim Sung-Wan,Yang Su-Jin,Shin Il-Seon,Shin Hee-Young,Yoon Jin-Sang
International journal of geriatric psychiatry
BACKGROUND:The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c.677C>T (A222V) polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial. The objectives of the study were to investigate the association between MTHFR c.677C>T polymorphism and AD in Korean elders and to the extent to which it is modified by the major components of one-carbon metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. METHODS:Seven hundred and thirty-two community residents aged 65 or over were clinically assessed for AD. Genotyping was performed for MTHFR c.677C>T and APOE; serum levels of folate, vitamin B(12), and homocysteine were assayed. Age, gender and education were included as covariates. RESULTS:A trend of association between TT genotype of MTHFR c.677C>T and AD was found [adjusted OR (95% CI): 1.73 (0.80-3.74)]. The association was significant in the presence of below-median vitamin B(12) level [3.66 (1.14-11.71)] and in APOE e4 non-carriers [2.97 (1.00-8.55)] with significant interaction terms, and bordered on significance in the presence of above-median homocysteine level [2.73 (0.94-7.90)]. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest gene-environment and gene-gene interactions on the risk of AD in Koreans.
Association of RFC1 A80G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease.
Bi Xiu-Hua,Zhao Hua-Lu,Zhang Zhen-Xin,Zhang Jun-Wu
Neurobiology of aging
We examined polymorphisms in reduced folate carrier gene (RFC1) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) for association with sporadic AD (SAD) in Chinese population. Significant associations of RFC1 A80G G allele and GG genotype with SAD (p=0.008, OR=1.312, 95%CI=1.072-1.605, and p=0.042, OR=1.383, 95%CI=1.012-1.890) were found. Further stratification of total samples by APOE epsilon4 carrier status, age/age at onset and gender revealed that RFC1 A80G G allele was an APOE epsilon4-independent risk factor for late-onset AD, and it might increase the risk of AD in females. No significant associations of MTHFR C677T allele and genotype with AD were observed in total samples, but significant associations of T allele and TT genotype with AD (p=0.031, OR=1.586, 95%CI=1.042-2.414, and p=0.028, OR=2.250, 95%CI=1.074-4.712) were identified in APOE epsilon4 carrier subgroup, suggesting that MTHFR 677 T allele and APOE epsilon4 allele may synergistically act to increase AD risk. No significant effect of RFC1 G80A and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on plasma folate and homocysteine levels was detected.
Relationship between genetic polymorphism, serum folate and homocysteine in Alzheimer's disease.
Kageyama Mitsuyo,Hiraoka Mami,Kagawa Yasuo
Asia-Pacific journal of public health
In order to prevent Alzheimer disease (AD), relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and folate-homocysteine metabolism was studied. Subjects were 10 males and 42 females (87.9 +/- 7.7 years old) in the special nursing homes for the elderly. Their average care level was 4.2 +/- 0.9, and average cognitive ability estimated by MMSE was 6.9 +/-7.3. Dietary intake was measured by weighing method. Concentrations of serum folate and total serum homocysteine (tHcy), and genetic polymorphisms were determined. The daily nutrient intake was as follows: total energy 2.7 kcal/kg; protein, 1.0 g/kg; folic acid, 7.3 microg/kg; vitamin B12, 0.11 microg/kg. Compared with control elderly persons, serum folate was very low (4.5 ng/ml, control = 10.1 ng/ml) and serum homocysteine was very high (21.4 micromol/L, control = 10.2 microg/L), despite having an adequate folate intake (342 microg/day, mainly polyglutamyl folate). The frequency of TT homozygote of MTHFR was higher (21.1%) in Alzheimer patients than that in control (15%). TT homozygotes showed the lowest serum folate (3.5 ng/ml, 35% of control), the highest serum homocysteine 25 micromol/L, 250% of control and the lowest MMSE score (5) among all the genotypes. The bioavailability of polyglutamyl folate may be impaired in the subjects, even when their total folate intake was sufficient. The early prevention of Alzheimer's disease by monoglutamyl folate intake (400 mcg per day) is recommended especially in TT homozygote of MTHFR.
Folate, homocysteine, vitamin B12, and polymorphisms of genes participating in one-carbon metabolism in late-onset Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy controls.
Coppedè Fabio,Tannorella Pierpaola,Pezzini Ilaria,Migheli Francesca,Ricci Giulia,Caldarazzo lenco Elena,Piaceri Irene,Polini Antonio,Nacmias Benedetta,Monzani Fabio,Sorbi Sandro,Siciliano Gabriele,Migliore Lucia
Antioxidants & redox signaling
AIMS:We screened 378 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients and 308 matched controls for the presence of the common MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G, MTR 2756 A>G, and TYMS 28 bp repeat polymorphisms, searching for association with disease risk and age at onset. Moreover, we searched for correlation between each of the studied polymorphisms and available data on plasma homocysteine (Hcy), serum folate, and vitamin B12 values. RESULTS:We observed a significant increased frequency of the MTHFR 677T allele (0.48 vs. 0.42; p=0.019) and of MTHFR 677CT (OR=1.46; 95%CI=1.03-2.06) and TT genotypes (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.05-2.49) in LOAD subjects with respect to controls. We also observed a significant increased frequency of the MTRR 66G allele (0.49 vs. 0.43; p=0.044) and of the MTRR 66GG genotype (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.01-2.46) in the LOAD group. Significantly increased mean plasma Hcy levels (22.7±1.7 vs 14.5±1.7 μmol/L; p=0.037) and decreased serum folate values (5.7±0.5 vs. 7.8±0.8 ng/mL; p=0.005) were observed in LOAD subjects with respect to controls, whilst the difference in serum vitamin B12 values did not reach statistical significance. Several interactions between the studied polymorphisms and biochemical biomarkers were observed. None of the studied polymorphisms was associated with disease age at onset. INNOVATION:The present study suggests that the MTRR 66G allele might contribute to LOAD risk and confirms an increased frequency of the MTHFR 677T allele in LOAD. CONCLUSION:Overall, present results support a contribution for one-carbon metabolism to LOAD pathogenesis.
CSB6B prevents β-amyloid-associated neuroinflammation and cognitive impairments via inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 in microglia cells.
Yan Sicheng,Xuan Zhenquan,Yang Mengxiang,Wang Chuang,Tao Tao,Wang Qinwen,Cui Wei
Pathological β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglial activation could cause chronic neuroinflammation in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and has been considered as one of the main pathological events of this disease. Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a pigment used in biochemical staining, has been reported to produce analgesic effects in neuroinflammatory-associated pain models. We have previously found that CSB6B could directly inhibit Aβ aggregation and prevent Aβ toxicity in neurons. However, it remains unclear whether this compound could prevent Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and impairments of learning and memory in the AD models. In this study, CSB6B was found to effectively inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, without affecting cell viability in BV2 microglia cells stimulated by Aβ oligomer and lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, CSB6B significantly reduced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and increased mRNA expression of arginase-1, suggesting that CSB6B might promote the polarization of BV2 cells into M2 phenotype. In Aβ oligomer-treated mice, hippocampal injection of CSB6B prevented cognitive impairments, and attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokines production. In addition, CSB6B inhibited nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), and restrainedthe activation of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) both in vitro and in vivo. According to our results, CSB6B may counteract Aβ-induced cognitive impairments and neuroinflammation by inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3. Combined with previous studies, we anticipated that CSB6B may further develop into a potential anti-AD drug with multiple functions on neurons and microglia cells, concurrently.
Comparative study of the effects of phosphatidylcholine rich in DHA and EPA on Alzheimer's disease and the possible mechanisms in CHO-APP/PS1 cells and SAMP8 mice.
Che Hongxia,Zhou Miaomiao,Zhang Tiantian,Zhang Lingyu,Ding Lin,Yanagita Teruyoshi,Xu Jie,Xue Changhu,Wang Yuming
Food & function
Metabolic stress induced by a high-fat (HF) diet leads to cognitive dysfunction and aging. In the present study, Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) (CHO-APP/PS1 cells) and SAMP8 mice fed with an HF diet were used to study the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the possible mechanisms involved in these effects. Behavior test results indicated that DHA-PC exerted better effects than EPA-PC on improving memory and cognitive deficiency. Further analysis showed that DHA-PC and EPA-PC could significantly decrease β-amyloid (Aβ) concentrations in CHO-APP/PS1 cells and SAMP8 mice by inhibiting APP, PS1, and BACE1 expression. Moreover, both DHA-PC and EPA-PC can increase the activities of the antioxidant index, including SOD, T-AOC, GSH, and GSH-PX, and inhibit levels of MDA, NO, and NOS. In addition, the expressions of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β) and apoptosis were significantly suppressed via improving the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and decreasing the expression of pro-apoptosis factors. Interestingly, only DHA-PC could improve the expression of neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, synaptophysin, and growth associated protein 43. DHA-PC and EPA-PC could ameliorate memory and cognitive function of HF diet-fed SAMP8 mice via inhibiting Aβ generation, suppressing oxidative stress and apoptosis, down-regulating inflammatory response, and improving neurotrophic activity. Therefore, DHA-PC and EPA-PC may be applied as food supplements and/or functional ingredients to relieve neurodegenerative disease.
Relationship between inflammatory markers and mild cognitive impairment in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a case-control study.
Zheng Miaoyan,Chang Baocheng,Tian Liqiang,Shan Chunyan,Chen Hui,Gao Yuxia,Huang Guowei,Zhang Meilin
BMC endocrine disorders
BACKGROUND:Several studies have indicated that inflammatory markers were associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Serum folate was related to MCI as well as inflammation. However, no studies have investigated the association between inflammatory markers and MCI taking account of serum folate level in T2D patients. This study aimed to conduct a case-control study to evaluate the association between inflammatory markers and MCI taking account of serum folate level in Chinese patients with T2D. METHODS:This study consisted of 126 T2D patients (63 cases with MCI and 63 controls without MCI). Clinical parameters, serum folate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. Spearman correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the association between the inflammatory markers and the risk of MCI in T2D patients. RESULTS:There were higher serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in T2D cases with MCI compared with the controls. Serum folate was negatively correlated with hs-CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, there were significant associations between serum IL-6 or hs-CRP and MCI after adjusting for the confounding variables, however, the association between hs-CRP and MCI disappeared after further adjusting for serum folate. Further subgroup analysis revealed that the significant association between hs-CRP and MCI only existed in the low folate subgroup (< 7.0 μg/L; OR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.05-10.64), not in the high folate subgroup (≥7.0 μg/L; OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 0.68-6.88) after adjusting for the confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS:Serum IL-6 and hs-CRP were associated with the risk of MCI in Chinese patients with T2D. Serum folate might modify the association between serum hs-CRP and MCI in T2D patients.
Folic Acid Improves the Inflammatory Response in LPS-Activated THP-1 Macrophages.
Samblas Mirian,Martínez J Alfredo,Milagro Fermín
Mediators of inflammation
DNA methylation has been suggested as a regulatory mechanism behind some inflammatory processes. The physiological actions of methyl donors, such as folic acid, choline, and vitamin B on inflammation-related disease have been associated with the synthesis of the universal methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid, choline, vitamin B, and a combination of all on preventing the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammatory response in human THP-1 monocyte/macrophage cells. Folic acid and the mixture of methyl donors reduced interleukin 1 beta and tumour necrosis factor expression as well as protein secretion by these cells. Folic acid and choline decreased C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 () mRNA levels. In addition to this, the methyl donor mixture reduced Cluster of differentiation 40 expression, but increased serpin family E member 1 expression. All methyl donors increased methylation levels in CpGs located in , , and interleukin 18 genes. However, methylation was not modified. After treatment with folic acid and the methyl donor mixture, ChIP analysis showed no change in the binding affinity of nuclear factor-B (NF-B) to and promoter regions after the treatment with folic acid and the methyl donor mixture. The findings of this study suggest that folic acid might contribute to the control of chronic inflammation in inflammatory-related disease.
A Daily Dose of 5 mg Folic Acid for 90 Days Is Associated with Increased Serum Unmetabolized Folic Acid and Reduced Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity in Healthy Brazilian Adults.
Paniz Clovis,Bertinato Juliano Felix,Lucena Maylla Rodrigues,De Carli Eduardo,Amorim Patrícia Mendonça da Silva,Gomes Guilherme Wataru,Palchetti Cecília Zanin,Figueiredo Maria Stella,Pfeiffer Christine M,Fazili Zia,Green Ralph,Guerra-Shinohara Elvira Maria
The Journal of nutrition
The effects of high-dose folic acid (FA) supplementation in healthy individuals on blood folate concentrations and immune response are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a tablet containing 5 mg FA on serum folate; number and cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells; mRNA expression of dihydrofolate reductase (), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (), interferon γ (), tumor necrosis factor α (), and interleukin 8 () genes; and concentrations of serum inflammatory markers. This prospective clinical trial was conducted in 30 healthy Brazilian adults (15 women), aged 27.7 y (95% CI: 26.4, 29.1 y), with a body mass index (in kg/m) of 23.1 (95% CI: 22.0, 24.3). Blood was collected at baseline and after 45 and 90 d of the intervention. Serum folate concentrations were measured by microbiological assay and HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry [folate forms, including unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA)]. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess mononuclear leukocyte mRNA expression and flow cytometry to measure the number and cytotoxicity of NK cells. Serum folate concentrations increased by ∼5-fold after the intervention ( < 0.001), and UMFA concentrations increased by 11.9- and 5.9-fold at 45 and 90 d, respectively, when compared with baseline ( < 0.001). UMFA concentrations increased (>1.12 nmol/L) in 29 (96.6%) participants at day 45 and in 26 (86.7%) participants at day 90. We observed significant reductions in the number ( < 0.001) and cytotoxicity ( = 0.003) of NK cells after 45 and 90 d. Compared with baseline, mRNA expression was higher at 90 d ( = 0.006) and and mRNA expressions were higher at 45 and 90 d ( = 0.001 for both). This noncontrolled intervention showed that healthy adults responded to a high-dose FA supplement with increased UMFA concentrations, changes in cytokine mRNA expression, and reduced number and cytotoxicity of NK cells. This trial was registered at www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br as RBR-2pr7zp.
Immune and Inflammatory Determinants Underlying Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.
Baulch Janet E,Acharya Munjal M,Agrawal Sudhanshu,Apodaca Lauren A,Monteiro Clarice,Agrawal Anshu
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
This study examines the link between peripheral immune changes in perpetuation of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology and cognitive deficits. Our research design using human AD patients and rodent model is supported by past evidence from genomic studies. We observed an active immune response against Aβ as indicated by the increased Aβ specific IgG antibody in the serum of AD and patients with mild cognitive impairments as compared to healthy controls. A similar increase in IgG and decrease in IgM antibody against Aβ was also confirmed in the 5xFAD mouse model of AD. More importantly, we observed a negative correlation between reduced IgM levels and cognitive dysfunction that manifested as impaired memory consolidation. Strong peripheral immune activation was supported by increased activation of microglia in the brain and macrophages in the spleen of AD mice compared to wild type control littermates. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokine IL-21 that is involved in antibody class switching was elevated in the plasma of AD patients and correlated positively with the IgG antibody levels. Concurrently, an increase in IL-21 and IL-17 was observed in spleen cells from AD mice. Further investigation revealed that proportions of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells that secrete IL-21 are increased in the spleen of AD mice. In contrast to Tfh, the frequency of B1 cells that produce IgM antibodies was reduced in AD mice. Altogether, these data indicate that in AD the immune tolerance to Aβ is compromised leading to chronic immune/inflammatory responses against Aβ that are detrimental and cause neuropathology. Graphical Abstract Healthy subjects are tolerant to Aβ and usually react weakly to it resulting the in the production of IgM class of antibodies that are efficient at clearing up self-antigens such as Aβ without causing inflammation. In contrast, Alzheimer's disease patients mount a strong immune response against Aβ probably in an effort to clear up excessive Aβ. There is enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-21 as well as an increase in Tfh cells that cause antibody class switching form IgM to IgG. The strong immune response is inefficient at clearing up Aβ and instead exacerbates inflammation that causes AD neuropathology and cognitive dysfunction.
Acute neuroimmune stimulation impairs verbal memory in adults: A PET brain imaging study.
Woodcock Eric A,Hillmer Ansel T,Sandiego Christine M,Maruff Paul,Carson Richard E,Cosgrove Kelly P,Pietrzak Robert H
Brain, behavior, and immunity
Psychiatric and neurologic disorders are often characterized by both neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. To date, however, the relationship between neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction remains understudied in humans. Preclinical research indicates that experimental induction of neuroinflammation reliably impairs memory processes. In this paradigm development study, we translated those robust preclinical findings to humans using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [C]PBR28, a marker of microglia, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent neuroimmune stimulus. In a sample of 18 healthy adults, we extended our previous findings that LPS administration increased whole-brain [C]PBR28 availability by 31-50%, demonstrating a robust neuroimmune response (Cohen's ds > 1.6). We now show that LPS specifically impaired verbal learning and recall, hippocampal memory processes, by 11% and 22%, respectively (Cohen's ds > 0.9), but did not alter attention, motor, or executive processes. The LPS-induced increase in [C]PBR28 binding was correlated with significantly greater decrements in verbal learning performance in the hippocampus (r = -0.52, p = .028), putamen (r = -0.50, p = .04), and thalamus (r = -0.55, p = .02). This experimental paradigm may be useful in investigating mechanistic relationships between neuroinflammatory signaling and cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. It may also provide a direct approach to evaluate medications designed to rescue cognitive deficits associated with neuroinflammatory dysfunction.
Resveratrol mitigates lipopolysaccharide- and Aβ-mediated microglial inflammation by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/STAT signaling cascade.
Capiralla Hemachander,Vingtdeux Valérie,Zhao Haitian,Sankowski Roman,Al-Abed Yousef,Davies Peter,Marambaud Philippe
Journal of neurochemistry
Activation of microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, around the amyloid plaques is a key hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence in mouse models indicates that microglia are required for the neurodegenerative process of AD. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, the core components of the amyloid plaques, can trigger microglial activation by interacting with several Toll-like receptors (TLRs), including TLR4. In this study, we show that resveratrol, a natural polyphenol associated with anti-inflammatory effects and currently in clinical trials for AD, prevented the activation of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and microglial BV-2 cells treated with the TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Resveratrol preferentially inhibited nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation upon LPS stimulation by interfering with IKK and IκB phosphorylation, an effect that potently reduced the transcriptional stimulation of several NF-κB target genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Consequently, downstream phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and STAT3 upon LPS stimulation was also inhibited by resveratrol. We found that resveratrol acted upstream in the activation cascade by interfering with TLR4 oligomerization upon receptor stimulation. Resveratrol treatment also prevented the pro-inflammatory effect of fibrillar Aβ on macrophages by potently inhibiting the effect of Aβ on IκB phosphorylation, activation of STAT1 and STAT3, and on tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 secretion. Importantly, orally administered resveratrol in a mouse model of cerebral amyloid deposition lowered microglial activation associated with cortical amyloid plaque formation. Together this work provides strong evidence that resveratrol has in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects against Aβ-triggered microglial activation. Further studies in cell culture systems showed that resveratrol acted via a mechanism involving the TLR4/NF-κB/STAT signaling cascade.
Aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 stimulates alternative activation of microglia and reduces Alzheimer disease-like pathology in mice.
Medeiros Rodrigo,Kitazawa Masashi,Passos Giselle F,Baglietto-Vargas David,Cheng David,Cribbs David H,LaFerla Frank M
The American journal of pathology
Microglia play an essential role in innate immunity, homeostasis, and neurotropic support in the central nervous system. In Alzheimer disease (AD), these cells may affect disease progression by modulating the buildup of β-amyloid (Aβ) or releasing proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances. Discovering agents capable of increasing Aβ uptake by phagocytic cells is of potential therapeutic interest for AD. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an endogenous lipid mediator with potent anti-inflammatory properties directly involved in inflammatory resolution, an active process essential for appropriate host responses, tissue protection, and the return to homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate that aspirin-triggered LXA4 (15 μg/kg) s.c., twice a day, reduced NF-κB activation and levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as increased levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Such changes in the cerebral milieu resulted in recruitment of microglia in an alternative phenotype, as characterized by the up-regulation of YM1 and arginase-1 and the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Microglia in an alternative phenotype-positive cells demonstrated improved phagocytic function, promoting clearance of Aβ deposits and ultimately leading to reduction in synaptotoxicity and improvement in cognition. Our data indicate that activating LXA4 signaling may represent a novel therapeutic approach for AD.
Folic acid supplementation repressed hypoxia-induced inflammatory response via ROS and JAK2/STAT3 pathway in human promyelomonocytic cells.
Ma Jing,Zhen Xiaozhou,Huang Xiaoyan,Jiang Xinwei
Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)
Hypoxia is associated with inflammation and various chronic diseases. Folic acid is known to ameliorate inflammatory reactions, but the metabolism of folic acid protecting against hypoxia-induced injury is still unclear. In our study, we examined the inflammatory signal transduction pathway in human promyelomonocytic cells (THP-1 cells) with or without treatment with folic acid under hypoxic culture conditions. Our results indicated that supplementation with folic acid significantly reduced the levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in hypoxic conditions. Treating THP-1 cells with folic acid suppressed oxidative stress and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in a dose-dependent manner. Folic acid targeted the activation of Janus kinase 2, downregulated the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and decreased the expression of nuclear factor-κB p65 protein in cells. However, the absence of folic acid did not make cells more vulnerable under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, folic acid efficiently inhibited the inflammatory response of THP-1 cells under hypoxic conditions by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production and the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway. Our study supports a basis for treatment with folic acid for chronic inflammation, which correlated with hypoxia.
Homocysteine Induces Inflammation in Retina and Brain.
Elsherbiny Nehal M,Sharma Isha,Kira Dina,Alhusban Suhib,Samra Yara A,Jadeja Ravirajsinh,Martin Pamela,Al-Shabrawey Mohamed,Tawfik Amany
Homocysteine (Hcy) is an amino acid that requires vitamins B and folic acid for its metabolism. Vitamins B and folic acid deficiencies lead to hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, elevated Hcy), which is linked to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of the current study was to explore inflammation as an underlying mechanism of HHcy-induced pathology in age related diseases such as AMD, DR, and AD. Mice with HHcy due to a lack of the enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and wild-type mice were evaluated for microglia activation and inflammatory markers using immuno-fluorescence (IF). Tissue lysates isolated from the brain hippocampal area from mice with HHcy were evaluated for inflammatory cytokines using the multiplex assay. Human retinal endothelial cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and monocyte cell lines treated with/without Hcy were evaluated for inflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation using the multiplex assay, western blot analysis, and IF. HHcy induced inflammatory responses in mouse brain, retina, cultured retinal, and microglial cells. NFκB was activated and cytokine array analysis showed marked increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and downregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, elimination of excess Hcy or reduction of inflammation is a promising intervention for mitigating damage associated with HHcy in aging diseases such as DR, AMD, and AD.
The isolated and combined effects of folic acid and synthetic bioactive compounds against Abeta(25-35)-induced toxicity in human microglial cells.
Liew Yih-Fong,Huang Chao-Tzu,Chou Shang-Shing P,Kuo Yuh-Chi,Chou Shiu-Huey,Leu Jyh-Yih,Tzeng Woan-Fang,Wang Su-Jane,Tang Ming-Chi,Huang Rwei-Fen Syu
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Folic acid plays an important role in neuronal development. A series of newly synthesized bioactive compounds (NSCs) was reported to exhibit immunoactive and neuroprotective functions. The isolated and combined effects of folic acid and NSCs against beta-amyloid (Abeta)-induced cytotoxicity are poorly understood. These effects were tested using human microglia cells (C13NJ) subjected to Abeta(25-35) challenge. According to an MTT assay, treatment of C13NJ cells with Abeta(25-35) at 10-100 microM for 48 h induced 18%-43% cellular death in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Abeta(25-35) treatment at 25 microM induced nitrite oxide (NO) release, elevated superoxide production, and reduced the distribution of cells in the S phase. Preincubation of C13NJ with 100 microM folic acid protected against Abeta(25-35)-induced cell death, which coincided with a reduction in NO release by folic acid supplements. NSC47 at a level of 50 microM protected against Abeta(25-35)-induced cell death and reduced Abeta-promoted superoxide production (p < 0.05). Folic acid in combination with NSC47 at their cytoprotective doses did not synergistically ameliorate Abeta(25-35)-associated NO release, superoxide production, or cell cycle arrest. Taken together, folic acid or NSC treatment alone, but not the combined regimen, protected against Abeta(25-35)-induced cell death, which may partially, if not completely, be mediated by free radical-scavenging effects.
Folic acid deficiency enhanced microglial immune response via the Notch1/nuclear factor kappa B p65 pathway in hippocampus following rat brain I/R injury and BV2 cells.
Cheng Man,Yang Liu,Dong Zhiping,Wang Mengying,Sun Yan,Liu Huan,Wang Xuan,Sai Na,Huang Guowei,Zhang Xumei
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
Recent studies revealed that folic acid deficiency (FD) increased the likelihood of stroke and aggravated brain injury after focal cerebral ischaemia. The microglia-mediated inflammatory response plays a crucial role in the complicated pathologies that lead to ischaemic brain injury. However, whether FD is involved in the activation of microglia and the neuroinflammation after experimental stroke and the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess whether FD modulates the Notch1/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and enhances microglial immune response in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO) model and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated BV-2 cells. Our results exhibited that FD worsened neuronal cell death and exaggerated microglia activation in the hippocampal CA1, CA3 and Dentate gyrus (DG) subregions after cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion. The hippocampal CA1 region was more sensitive to ischaemic injury and FD treatment. The protein expressions of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 were also augmented by FD treatment in microglial cells of the post-ischaemic hippocampus and in vitro OGD-stressed microglia model. Moreover, FD not only dramatically enhanced the protein expression levels of Notch1 and NF-κB p65 but also promoted the phosphorylation of pIkBα and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Blocking of Notch1 with N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester partly attenuated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and the protein expression of neuroinflammatory cytokines in FD-treated hypoxic BV-2 microglia. These results suggested that Notch1/NF-κB p65 pathway-mediated microglial immune response may be a molecular mechanism underlying cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury worsened by FD treatment.
Folic Acid Is Able to Polarize the Inflammatory Response in LPS Activated Microglia by Regulating Multiple Signaling Pathways.
Cianciulli Antonia,Salvatore Rosaria,Porro Chiara,Trotta Teresa,Panaro Maria Antonietta
Mediators of inflammation
We investigated the ability of folic acid to modulate the inflammatory responses of LPS activated BV-2 microglia cells and the signal transduction pathways involved. To this aim, the BV-2 cell line was exposed to LPS as a proinflammatory response inducer, in presence or absence of various concentrations of folic acid. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by the Griess test. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1), and IL-10 were determined by ELISA. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS), nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-B) p65, MAPKs protein, and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS3 were analyzed by western blotting. TNF- and IL-1, as well as iNOS dependent NO production, resulted significantly inhibited by folic acid pretreatment in LPS-activated BV-2 cells. We also observed that folic acid dose-dependently upregulated both SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in BV-2 cells, leading to an increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Finally, p-IB, which indirectly reflects NF-B complex activation, and JNK phosphorylation resulted dose-dependently downregulated by folic acid pretreatment of LPS-activated cells, whereas p38 MAPK phosphorylation resulted significantly upregulated by folic acid treatment. Overall, these results demonstrated that folic acid was able to modulate the inflammatory response in microglia cells, shifting proinflammatory versus anti-inflammatory responses through regulating multiple signaling pathways.
Folic Acid Decreases Astrocyte Apoptosis by Preventing Oxidative Stress-Induced Telomere Attrition.
Li Wen,Ma Yue,Li Zhenshu,Lv Xin,Wang Xinyan,Zhou Dezheng,Luo Suhui,Wilson John X,Huang Guowei
International journal of molecular sciences
Astrocytes are the most widely distributed cells in the brain, and astrocyte apoptosis may play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Folate is required for the normal development of the nervous system, but its effect on astrocyte apoptosis is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that folic acid (the therapeutic form of folate) decreases astrocyte apoptosis by preventing oxidative stress-induced telomere attrition. Primary cultures of astrocytes were incubated for 12 days with various concentrations of folic acid (0-40 μmol/L), then cell proliferation, apoptosis, intracellular folate concentration, intracellular homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, telomeric DNA oxidative damage, and telomere length were determined. The results showed that folic acid deficiency decreased intracellular folate, cell proliferation, and telomere length, whereas it increased Hcy concentration, ROS levels, telomeric DNA oxidative damage, and apoptosis. In contrast, folic acid dose-dependently increased intracellular folate, cell proliferation, and telomere length but it decreased Hcy concentration, ROS levels, telomeric DNA oxidative damage, and apoptosis. In conclusion, folic acid inhibited apoptosis in astrocytes. The underlying mechanism for this protective effect may be that folic acid decreased oxidative stress and thereby prevented telomeric DNA oxidative damage and telomere attrition.
Selective liposome targeting of folate receptor positive immune cells in inflammatory diseases.
Poh Scott,Chelvam Venkatesh,Ayala-López Wilfredo,Putt Karson S,Low Philip S
Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine
Activated macrophages play a key role in the development and maintenance of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, lupus, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and many others. These activated macrophages, but not resting or quiescent macrophages highly up-regulate folate receptor beta (FR-β). This differential expression of FR-β provides a mechanism to selectively deliver imaging and therapeutic agents utilizing folate as a targeting molecule. In an effort to determine whether inflammatory diseases can be targeted utilizing a folate-linked nanosize carrier, a PEG-coated liposome was prepared that incorporated a folate conjugated PEG that also could transport imaging or therapeutic cargo. We demonstrate that these folate-liposomes specifically bind to folate receptor positive cells and accumulate at sites of inflammation in mouse models of colitis and atherosclerosis. These two animal models show that folate-targeted liposomes could be successfully utilized to deliver fluorescent molecules and an anti-inflammatory drug (betamethasone) for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
The cirrhotic liver is depleted of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key modulator of NF-κB and TGFβ pathways in hepatic stellate cells.
Enguita Mónica,Razquin Nerea,Pamplona Reinald,Quiroga Jorge,Prieto Jesús,Fortes Puri
Cell death & disease
Liver cirrhosis results from chronic hepatic damage and is characterized by derangement of the organ architecture with increased liver fibrogenesis and defective hepatocellular function. It frequently evolves into progressive hepatic insufficiency associated with high mortality unless liver transplantation is performed. We have hypothesized that the deficiency of critical nutrients such as essential omega-3 fatty acids might play a role in the progression of liver cirrhosis. Here we evaluated by LC-MS/MS the liver content of omega-3 docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA) in cirrhotic patients and investigated the effect of DHA in a murine model of liver injury and in the response of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (the main producers of collagen in the liver) to pro-fibrogenic stimuli. We found that cirrhotic livers exhibit a marked depletion of DHA and that this alteration correlates with the progression of the disease. Administration of DHA exerts potent anti-fibrogenic effects in an acute model of liver damage. Studies with HSCs show that DHA inhibits fibrogenesis more intensely than other omega-3 fatty acids. Data from expression arrays revealed that DHA blocks TGFβ and NF-κB pathways. Mechanistically, DHA decreases late, but not early, SMAD3 nuclear accumulation and inhibits p65/RelA-S536 phosphorylation, which is required for HSC survival. Notably, DHA increases ADRP expression, leading to the formation of typical quiescence-associated perinuclear lipid droplets. In conclusion, a marked depletion of DHA is present in the liver of patients with advanced cirrhosis. DHA displays anti-fibrogenic activities on HSCs targeting NF-κB and TGFβ pathways and inducing ADPR expression and quiescence in these cells.
G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 120 Mediates DHA-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating IP3R, ROS and, ER Stress Levels in Cisplatin-Resistant Cancer Cells.
Shin Jong-Il,Jeon Yong-Joon,Lee Sol,Lee Yoon Gyeong,Kim Ji Beom,Lee Kyungho
Molecules and cells
The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in many types of cancers. However, the roles of DHA in drug-resistant cancer cells have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of DHA in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer SNU-601/cis2 cells. DHA was found to induce ROS-dependent apoptosis in these cells. The inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IPR) blocker 2-aminoethyl diphenylboninate (2-APB) reduced DHA-induced ROS production, consequently reducing apoptosis. We also found that G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), a receptor of long-chain fatty acids, is expressed in SNU-601/cis2 cells, and the knockdown of GPR120 using specific shRNAs alleviated DHA-mediated ROS production and apoptosis. GPR120 knockdown reduced the expression of ER stress response genes, similar to the case for the pre-treatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, or 2-APB. Indeed, the knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a transcription factor that functions under ER stress conditions, markedly reduced DHA-mediated apoptosis, indicating that CHOP plays an essential role in the anti-cancer activity of DHA. These results suggest that GPR120 mediates DHA-induced apoptosis by regulating IPR, ROS, and ER stress levels in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells, and that GPR120 is an effective chemotherapeutic target for cisplatin resistance.
Mechanisms of DHA-enriched phospholipids in improving cognitive deficits in aged SAMP8 mice with high-fat diet.
Zhou Miao-Miao,Ding Lin,Wen Min,Che Hong-Xia,Huang Jia-Qi,Zhang Tian-Tian,Xue Chang-Hu,Mao Xiang-Zhao,Wang Yu-Ming
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
Recent studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) is involved in both metabolic dysfunction and cognitive deficiency and that docosahexaenoic-acid-enriched phospholipids (DHA-PLs) have beneficial effects on obesity and cognitive impairment. However, there are only a few studies comparing differences between DHA-PC and DHA-PS in HFD-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) models. After 8 weeks feeding with HFD, 10-month-old SAMP8 mice were fed with 1% (w/w) DHA-PC or 1% DHA-PS (biosynthesized from DHA-PC) for 8 weeks; we then tested the behavioral performances in the Barnes maze test and Morris maze test. The changes of the generation and accumulation of Aβ, oxidative stress, apoptosis, neuroinflammation and neurotrophic factors were also measured. The results indicated that both DHA-PC and DHA-PS significantly improved the metabolic disorders and cognitive deficits. Both DHA-PC and DHA-PS could ameliorate oxidative stress, and DHA-PS presented more notable benefits than DHA-PC on Aβ pathology, mitochondrial damage, neuroinflammation and neurotrophic factors; DHA-PS was for the first time found to increase the production of insoluble Aβ (less pathogenic) in this AD model. These data suggest that DHA-PLs can significantly improve cognitive deficiency, and the molecular mechanisms for this closely relate to the phospholipid polar groups.
Impairment of systemic DHA synthesis affects macrophage plasticity and polarization: implications for DHA supplementation during inflammation.
Talamonti Emanuela,Pauter Anna M,Asadi Abolfazl,Fischer Alexander W,Chiurchiù Valerio,Jacobsson Anders
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid obtained from the diet or synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid through the action of fatty acid elongases (ELOVL) and desaturases. DHA plays important roles in the central nervous system as well as in peripheral organs and is the precursor of several molecules that regulate resolution of inflammation. In the present study, we questioned whether impaired synthesis of DHA affected macrophage plasticity and polarization both in vitro and in vivo models. For this we investigated the activation status and inflammatory response of bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages obtained from mice deficient of Elovl2 (Elovl2), a key enzyme for DHA synthesis in mammals. Although both wild type and Elovl2 mice were able to generate efficient M1 and M2 macrophages, M1 cells derived from Elovl2 mice showed an increased expression of key markers (iNOS, CD86 and MARCO) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-12 and IL-23). However, M2 macrophages exhibited upregulated M1-like markers like CD80, CD86 and IL-6, concomitantly with a downregulation of their signature marker CD206. These effects were counteracted in cells obtained from DHA-supplemented animals. Finally, white adipose tissue of Elovl2 mice presented an M1-like pro-inflammatory phenotype. Hence, impairment of systemic DHA synthesis delineates an alteration of M1/M2 macrophages both in vitro and in vivo, with M1 being hyperactive and more pro-inflammatory while M2 less protective, supporting the view that DHA has a key role in controlling the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes.
Effects of EPA and DHA on blood pressure and inflammatory factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Guo Xiao-Fei,Li Ke-Lei,Li Jiao-Mei,Li Duo
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition
The present study aimed to clarify whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have differential effects on blood pressure and inflammatory mediators. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus updated to Apr. 2018. The mean changes in risk factors of chronic diseases were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) by using a random-effects model. Twenty randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The summary estimate showed that EPA intervention significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-2.6 mmHg; 95%confident interval (CI): -4.6, -0.5 mmHg), especially in subjects with dyslipidemia (-3.8 mmHg; 95%CI: -6.7, -0.8 mmHg). The pooled effect indicated that supplemental DHA exerted a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in subjects with dyslipidemia (-3.1 mmHg; 95%CI: -5.9, -0.2 mmHg). Both EPA (-0.56 mg/L; 95%CI: -1.13, 0.00) and DHA (-0.5 mg/L; 95%CI: -1.0, -0.03) significantly reduced the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), respectively, especially in subjects with dyslipidemia and higher baseline CRP concentrations. Given that limited trials have focused on EPA or DHA intervention on concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, further RCTs should be explored on these inflammatory factors. The present meta-analysis provides substantial evidence that EPA and DHA have independent (blood pressure) and shared (CRP concentration) effects on risk factors of chronic diseases, and high-quality RCTs with multi-center and large simple-size should be performed to confirm the present findings.
DHA and its derived lipid mediators MaR1, RvD1 and RvD2 block TNF-α inhibition of intestinal sugar and glutamine uptake in Caco-2 cells.
Castilla-Madrigal Rosa,Gil-Iturbe Eva,López de Calle Marta,Moreno-Aliaga María J,Lostao María Pilar
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
Tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine highly-involved in intestinal inflammation. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) show anti-inflammatory actions. We previously demonstrated that the n3-PUFA EPA prevents TNF-α inhibition of sugar uptake in Caco-2 cells. Here, we investigated whether the n3-PUFA DHA and its derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) MaR1, RvD1 and RvD2, could block TNF-α inhibition of intestinal sugar and glutamine uptake. DHA blocked TNF-α-induced inhibition of α-methyl-D-glucose (αMG) uptake and SGLT1 expression in the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells, through a pathway independent of GPR120. SPMs showed the same preventive effect but acting at concentrations 1000 times lower. In diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, oral gavage of MaR1 reversed the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines found in intestinal mucosa of these mice. However, MaR1 treatment was not able to counteract the reduced intestinal transport of αMG and SGLT1 expression in the DIO mice. In Caco-2 cells, TNF-α also inhibited glutamine uptake being this inhibition prevented by EPA, DHA and the DHA-derived SPMs. Interestingly, TNF-α increased the expression in the apical membrane of the glutamine transporter BAT1. This increase was partially blocked by the n-3 PUFAs. These data reveal DHA and its SPMs as promising biomolecules to restore intestinal nutrients transport during intestinal inflammation.
The immunomodulatory activity and mechanism of docosahexenoic acid (DHA) on immunosuppressive mice models.
Han Lirong,Lei Huanna,Tian Ziwei,Wang Xu,Cheng Dai,Wang Chunling
Food & function
In this study, the immunomodulatory activity of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the immunosuppressive BALB/c mice model and its molecular mechanism are elucidated. It was found that the weight indexes of the spleen and thymus were significantly increased by DHA (44.0 mg kg-1 and 88.0 mg kg-1) treatment in the prevention or cure groups. The result of macrophages showed that DHA (44.0 mg kg-1 and 88.0 mg kg-1) could promote the proliferation and phagocytosis activity of macrophages in the prevention or cure groups. In addition, DHA could activate macrophages by the G-protein coupled cell membrane receptor GPR120- Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs)-nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 pathway in vivo. The result of the spleen showed that DHA (44.0 mg kg-1 and 88.0 mg kg-1) could promote the proliferation of spleen cells and the natural killer (NK) cells activity in vivo. In the prevention or cure groups, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results revealed that DHA (44.0 mg kg-1 and 88.0 mg kg-1) could enhance the production of cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the spleen of immunosuppressive mice. The HE (hematoxylin and eosin) stained histopathological images showed that DHA could repair the damage induced by CTX in the spleen cells of the prevention or cure groups. These results suggested that DHA has a remarkable immunomodulatory activity on the immunosuppressive mice model in the prevention or cure groups.
DHA Selectively Protects SAMP-8-Associated Cognitive Deficits Through Inhibition of JNK.
Vela S,Sainz Neira,Moreno-Aliaga María J,Solas M,Ramirez María J
A potential role of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has been suggested in memory, learning, and cognitive processes. Therefore, ω-3 PUFAs might be a promising treatment option, albeit controversial, for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the different mechanisms that have been proposed as responsible for the beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFAs, inhibition of JNK stands as a particularly interesting candidate. In the present work, it has been studied whether the administration of two different PUFAs (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and a DHA-derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator (MaR1) is able to reverse cognitive deficits in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse model of sporadic AD. The novel object recognition test (NORT) test showed that recognition memory was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, as shown by a significantly decreased discrimination index that was reversed by MaR1 and DHA. In the retention phase of the Morris water maze (MWM) task, SAMP8 mice showed memory deficit that only DHA treatment was able to reverse. pJNK levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice compared to SAMR1 mice, and only DHA treatment was able to significantly reverse these increased pJNK levels. Similar results were found when measuring c-Jun, the main JNK substrate. Consequently to the increases in tau phosphorylation after increased pJNK, it was checked that tau phosphorylation (PHF-1) was increased in SAMP mice, and this effect was reversed after DHA treatment. Altogether, DHA could represent a new approach for the treatment of AD through JNK inhibition.
EPA and DHA attenuate deoxynivalenol-induced intestinal porcine epithelial cell injury and protect barrier function integrity by inhibiting necroptosis signaling pathway.
Xiao Kan,Liu Congcong,Qin Qin,Zhang Yang,Wang Xiuying,Zhang Jing,Odle Jack,Lin Xi,Hu Chien-An Andy,Liu Yulan
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins that contaminates food or feed and cause intestinal damage. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as EPA and DHA exert beneficial effects on intestinal integrity in animal models and clinical trials. Necroptosis signaling pathway plays a critical role in intestinal cell injury. This study tested the hypothesis that EPA and DHA could alleviate DON-induced injury to intestinal porcine epithelial cells through modulation of the necroptosis signaling pathway. Intestinal porcine epithelial cell 1 (IPEC-1) cells were cultured with or without EPA or DHA (6.25-25 μg/mL) in the presence or absence of 0.5 μg/mL DON for indicated time points. Cell viability, cell number, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, cell necrosis, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran 4kDa (FD4) flux, tight junction protein distribution, and protein abundance of necroptosis related signals were determined. EPA and DHA promoted cell growth indicated by higher cell viability and cell number, and inhibited cell injury indicated by lower LDH activity in the media. EPA and DHA also improved intestinal barrier function, indicated by higher TEER and lower permeability of FD4 flux as well as increased proportions of tight junction proteins located in the plasma membrane. Moreover, EPA and DHA decreased cell necrosis demonstrated by live cell imaging and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, EPA and DHA downregulated protein expressions of necroptosis related signals including tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1), receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), RIP3, phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase-like protein (MLKL), phosphoglycerate mutase family 5 (PGAM5), dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), and high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1). EPA and DHA also inhibited protein expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8. These results suggest that EPA and DHA prevent DON-induced intestinal cell injury and enhance barrier function, which is associated with inhibition of the necroptosis signaling pathway.
Impairment of DHA synthesis alters the expression of neuronal plasticity markers and the brain inflammatory status in mice.
Talamonti Emanuela,Sasso Valeria,To Hoi,Haslam Richard P,Napier Johnathan A,Ulfhake Brun,Pernold Karin,Asadi Abolfazl,Hessa Tara,Jacobsson Anders,Chiurchiù Valerio,Viscomi Maria Teresa
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a ω-3 fatty acid typically obtained from the diet or endogenously synthesized through the action of elongases (ELOVLs) and desaturases. DHA is a key central nervous system constituent and the precursor of several molecules that regulate the resolution of inflammation. In the present study, we questioned whether the impaired synthesis of DHA affected neural plasticity and inflammatory status in the adult brain. To address this question, we investigated neural and inflammatory markers from mice deficient for ELOVL2 (Elovl2 ), the key enzyme in DHA synthesis. From our findings, Elovl2 mice showed an altered expression of markers involved in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory formation such as Egr-1, Arc1, and BDNF specifically in the cerebral cortex, impacting behavioral functions only marginally. In parallel, we also found that DHA-deficient mice were characterized by an increased expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, namely TNF, IL-1β, iNOS, caspase-1 as well as the activation and morphologic changes of microglia in the absence of any brain injury or disease. Reintroducing DHA in the diet of Elovl2 mice reversed such alterations in brain plasticity and inflammation. Hence, impairment of systemic DHA synthesis can modify the brain inflammatory and neural plasticity status, supporting the view that DHA is an essential fatty acid with an important role in keeping inflammation within its physiologic boundary and in shaping neuronal functions in the central nervous system.
Macrophage inflammatory state in type 1 diabetes: triggered by NLRP3/iNOS pathway and attenuated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
Davanso Mariana Rodrigues,Crisma Amanda Rabello,Braga Tárcio Teodoro,Masi Laureane Nunes,do Amaral Cátia Lira,Leal Vinícius Nunes Cordeiro,de Lima Dhêmerson Souza,Patente Thiago Andrade,Barbuto José Alexandre,Corrêa-Giannella Maria Lucia,Lauterbach Mario,Kolbe Carl Christian,Latz Eicke,Camara Niels O S,Pontillo Alessandra,Curi Rui
Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by insulin-producing pancreatic β-cell destruction and hyperglycemia. While monocytes and NOD-like receptor family-pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) are associated with T1D onset and development, the specific receptors and factors involved in NLRP3 inflammasome activation remain unknown. Herein, we evaluated the inflammatory state of resident peritoneal macrophages (PMs) from genetically modified non-obese diabetic (NOD), NLRP3-KO, wild type (WT) mice and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human T1D patients. We also assessed the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the inflammatory status. Macrophages from STZ-induced T1D mice exhibited increased inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels, nitric oxide (NO) secretion, NLRP3 and iNOS protein levels, and augmented glycolytic activity compared to control animals. In PMs from NOD and STZ-induced T1D mice, DHA reduced NO production and attenuated the inflammatory state. Furthermore, iNOS and IL-1β protein expression levels and NO production were lower in the PMs from diabetic NLRP3-KO mice than from WT mice. We also observed increased IL-1β secretion in PBMCs from T1D patients and immortalized murine macrophages treated with advanced glycation end products and palmitic acid. The present study demonstrated that the resident PMs are in a proinflammatory state characterized by increased NLRP3/iNOS pathway-mediated NO production, upregulated proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine receptor expression and altered glycolytic activity. Notably, ex-vivo treatment with DHA reverted the diabetes-induced changes and attenuated the macrophage inflammatory state. It is plausible that DHA supplementation could be employed as adjuvant therapy for treating individuals with T1D.
DHA/EPA-Enriched Phosphatidylcholine Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis via Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in Lewis Lung Cancer Mice.
Liu Yuanyuan,Tian Yingying,Cai Weizhen,Guo Yao,Xue Changhu,Wang Jingfeng
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
In the present study, the antitumor effects of docosahexaenoic acid-phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) and eicosapentanoic acid-phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) in Lewis lung cancer mice were investigated. As observed, DHA-PC and EPA-PC obviously inhibited the transplanted tumor growth and the positive expression of Ki67. The metastatic nodules and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining of the lung indicated that DHA-PC and EPA-PC suppressed lung metastasis. PPARγ has a key role in cell survival, which may be a target for cancer therapy. Further mechanism research indicated that DHA-PC and EPA-PC significantly enhanced the levels of PPARγ and subsequently downregulated the NF-κB pathway. DHA-PC and EPA-PC accelerate cancer cell apoptosis by decreasing NF-κB-mediated antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. In addition, DHA-PC and EPA-PC significantly decreased the levels of NF-κB-mediated matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) and heparanase (HPA), which block the extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, thereby suppressing lung metastasis. These findings suggested that DHA-PC and EPA-PC could be used as food supplements and/or functional ingredients for cancer patients.
Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Impedes Silica-Induced Macrophage Corpse Accumulation by Attenuating Cell Death and Potentiating Efferocytosis.
Rajasinghe Lichchavi D,Chauhan Preeti S,Wierenga Kathryn A,Evered Augustus O,Harris Shamya N,Bates Melissa A,Gavrilin Mikhail A,Pestka James J
Frontiers in immunology
Airway exposure of lupus-prone NZBWF1 mice to crystalline silica (cSiO), a known trigger of human autoimmune disease, elicits sterile inflammation and alveolar macrophage death in the lung that, in turn, induces early autoimmune onset and accelerates lupus progression to fatal glomerulonephritis. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), markedly ameliorates cSiO-triggered pulmonary, systemic, and renal manifestations of lupus. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DHA influences both cSiO-induced death and efferocytotic clearance of resultant cell corpses using three murine macrophage models: (i) primary alveolar macrophages (AM) isolated from NZBWF1 mice; (ii) self-renewing AM-like Max Planck Institute (MPI) cells isolated from fetuses of C57BL/6 mice, and (iii) RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, a virus-transformed cell line derived from BALB/c mice stably transfected with the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC (RAW-ASC). Incubation with cSiO at 25 and 50 μg/ml for 6 h was found to dose-dependently induce cell death ( < 0.05) in all three models as determined by both acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and release of lactate dehydrogenase into cell culture supernatant. Pre-incubation with DHA at a physiologically relevant concentration (25 μM) significantly reduced cSiO-induced death ( < 0.05) in all three models. Cell death induction by cSiO alone and its suppression by DHA were primarily associated with caspase-3/7 activation, suggestive of apoptosis, in AM, MPI, and RAW-ASC cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that all three macrophage models were similarly capable of efferocytosing RAW-ASC target cell corpses. Furthermore, MPI effector cells could likewise engulf RAW-ASC target cell corpses elicited by treatment with staurosporine (apoptosis), LPS, and nigericin (pyroptosis), or cSiO. Pre-incubation of RAW-ASC target cells with 25 μM DHA prior to death induced by these agents significantly enhanced their efferocytosis ( < 0.05) by MPI effector cells. In contrast, pre-incubating MPI effector cells with DHA did not affect engulfment of RAW-ASC target cells pre-incubated with vehicle. Taken together, these findings indicate that DHA at a physiologically relevant concentration was capable of attenuating macrophage death and could potentiate efferocytosis, with the net effect of reducing accumulation of cell corpses capable of eliciting autoimmunity.
DHA attenuates Aβ-induced necroptosis through the RIPK1/RIPK3 signaling pathway in THP-1 monocytes.
Yuan Shiqi,Li Huan,Yang Canhong,Xie Wenyi,Wang Yuanyuan,Zhang Jiafa,Cai Zibo,Mao Zhenlin,Xie Weibing,Lü Tianming
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Monocytes play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has a neuroprotective effect for many neurodegenerative diseases. However, mechanisms that regulate monocyte and Aβ protein interaction in AD and the effects of DHA on monocytes in the context of AD are not fully understood. The experiments were designed to further explore possible mechanisms of interaction between monocytes and Aβ plaques. Another objective of this study was to investigate a potential mechanism for Aβ-induced necroptosis involving the activation of MAPK and NF-kB signaling pathways in human THP-1 monocytes, as well as how these pathways might be modulated by DHA. Our findings indicate that Aβ25-35 has a "Hormesis" effect on cell viability and necroptosis in THP-1 cells, and Aβ25-35 influences THP-1 cells differentiation as analyzed by flow cytometry. Pretreatment of THP-1 monocytes with DHA effectively inhibited Aβ-induced activation and markedly suppressed protein expression of necroptosis (RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6). Moreover, our findings indicate that Aβ25-35 activated the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, but not NF-κB/p65 signaling, while pre-treatment with DHA followed by Aβ25-35 treatment suppressed only ERK1/2 signaling. Further study revealed that the expression level of RIPK3 is reduced much more during coadministration with DHA and necrostatin-1 (NEC-1) than administration alone with either of them, indicating that DHA may have additional targets. Meanwhile, this finding indicates that DHA can prevent Aβ-induced necroptosis of THP-1 cells via the RIPK1/RIPK3 signaling pathway. Our results also indicate that DHA treatment restored migration of THP-1 monocytes induced by Aβ25-35, and DHA treatment could be a promising new therapy for AD management.
Brain delivery of supplemental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Arellanes Isabella C,Choe Nicholas,Solomon Victoria,He Xulei,Kavin Brian,Martinez Ashley E,Kono Naoko,Buennagel David P,Hazra Nalini,Kim Giselle,D'Orazio Lina M,McCleary Carol,Sagare Abhay,Zlokovic Berislav V,Hodis Howard N,Mack Wendy J,Chui Helena C,Harrington Michael G,Braskie Meredith N,Schneider Lon S,Yassine Hussein N
BACKGROUND:Past clinical trials of docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) supplements for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia have used lower doses and have been largely negative. We hypothesized that larger doses of DHA are needed for adequate brain bioavailability and that APOE4 is associated with reduced delivery of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the brain before the onset of cognitive impairment. METHODS:33 individuals were provided with a vitamin B complex (1 mg vitamin B12, 100 mg of vitamin B6 and 800 mcg of folic acid per day) and randomized to 2,152 mg of DHA per day or placebo over 6 months. 26 individuals completed both lumbar punctures and MRIs, and 29 completed cognitive assessments at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome was the change in CSF DHA. Secondary outcomes included changes in CSF EPA levels, MRI hippocampal volume and entorhinal thickness; exploratory outcomes were measures of cognition. FINDINGS:A 28% increase in CSF DHA and 43% increase in CSF EPA were observed in the DHA treatment arm compared to placebo (mean difference for DHA (95% CI): 0.08 µg/mL (0.05, 0.10), p<0.0001; mean difference for EPA: 0.008 µg/mL (0.004, 0.011), p<0.0001). The increase in CSF EPA in non-APOE4 carriers after supplementation was three times greater than APOE4 carriers. The change in brain volumes and cognitive scores did not differ between groups. INTERPRETATION:Dementia prevention trials using omega-3 supplementation doses equal or lower to 1 g per day may have reduced brain effects, particularly in APOE4 carriers. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02541929. FUNDING:HNY was supported by R01AG055770, R01AG054434, R01AG067063 from the National Institute of Aging and NIRG-15-361854 from the Alzheimer's Association, and MGH by the L. K. Whittier Foundation. This work was also supported by P50AG05142 (HCC) from the National Institutes of Health. Funders had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, or writing of the report.
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Involving Δ8 Desaturation and Differential DNA Methylation of Regulates Proliferation of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.
Sibbons Charlene M,Irvine Nicola A,Pérez-Mojica J Eduardo,Calder Philip C,Lillycrop Karen A,Fielding Barbara A,Burdge Graham C
Frontiers in immunology
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for immune function. Limited evidence indicates that immune cell activation involves endogenous PUFA synthesis, but this has not been characterised. To address this, we measured metabolism of 18:3n-3 in quiescent and activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and in Jurkat T cell leukaemia. PBMCs from men and women ( = 34) were incubated with [1-C]18:3n-3 with or without Concanavalin A (Con. A). 18:3n-3 conversion was undetectable in unstimulated PBMCs, but up-regulated when stimulated. The main products were 20:3n-3 and 20:4n-3, while 18:4n-3 was undetectable, suggesting initial elongation and Δ8 desaturation. PUFA synthesis was 17.4-fold greater in Jurkat cells than PBMCs. The major products of 18:3n-3 conversion in Jurkat cells were 20:4n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:5n-3. C Enrichment of 18:4n-3 and 20:3n-3 suggests parallel initial elongation and Δ6 desaturation. The FADS2 inhibitor SC26196 reduced PBMC, but not Jurkat cell, proliferation suggesting PUFA synthesis is involved in regulating mitosis in PBMCs. Con. A stimulation increased and mRNA expression in PBMCs. A single transcript corresponding to the major isoform of , FADS20001, was detected in PBMCs and Jurkat cells. PBMC activation induced hypermethylation of a 470bp region in the FADS2 5'-regulatory sequence. This region was hypomethylated in Jurkat cells compared to quiescent PBMCs. These findings show that PUFA synthesis involving initial elongation and Δ8 desaturation is involved in regulating PBMC proliferation and is regulated transcription possibly by altered DNA methylation. These processes were dysregulated in Jurkat cells. This has implications for understanding the regulation of mitosis in normal and transformed lymphocytes.
The future of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy.
Davidson Michael H,Benes Lane B
Current opinion in lipidology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This article focuses on the potential role by which a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3-FAs) may beneficially modify cardiovascular risk by modifying the cholesterol composition of atherogenic lipoproteins. This hypothesis is being tested in the STRENGTH trial, which is enrolling 13 000 patients on statins at high cardiovascular risk with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) treated with an OM3-carboxylic acid. RECENT FINDINGS:Complex mixtures of OM3-FAs containing predominately eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid in combination with statins lowers non-HDL by reducing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) while shifting small LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to large LDL-C. Recent genomic and epidemiological studies have implicated TRL-C and small LDL-C as causal for cardiovascular disease. Therefore OM3-FAs containing both eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid in combination with statins may beneficially modify the high residual risk for patients with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C. SUMMARY:Although outcome trials are underway, subgroup analyses of data from previous randomized controlled trials are suggestive of a reduction in coronary artery disease and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease event rates with triglyceride and TRL-C lowering therapies, particularly if accompanied by low HDL-C. Although the limitations of such data are acknowledged, clinicians must make treatment decisions while awaiting more definitive results from well-designed large-scale randomized controlled trials.
Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid normalizes hippocampal omega-3 and 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid profile, attenuates glial activation and regulates BDNF function in a rodent model of neuroinflammation induced by central interleukin-1β administration.
Dong Yilong,Xu Min,Kalueff Allan V,Song Cai
European journal of nutrition
PURPOSE:Interleukin (IL)-1β can activate glial cells to trigger neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Lower omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios occur in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously reported that an n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can improve memory and attenuate neurodegeneration-like changes in animal models of AD. However, whether and how EPA modulates glial cell activity and functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that EPA may attenuate neuroinflammation by inhibiting microglial activation and microglia-produced proinflammatory cytokines, and by enhancing the expression of astrocytes-produced neurotrophins and their receptors. METHODS:Male Long-Evans rats were fed either palm oil supplemented diet or EPA supplemented diet for 42 days. On day 36 of diet feeding, rats received an intracerebroventricular injection of IL-1β or saline for 7 days. The glial activation, the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), calcium-dependent phospholipase (cPL) A2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, and PUFA profile in the hippocampus were analyzed. RESULTS:IL-1β elevated biomarkers of microglial CD11b and astrocyte GFAP expression, increased the expression of APP, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but reduced BDNF and its receptor (TrKB). IL-1β also lowered n-3 EPA and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations but increased n-6 PUFAs and cPLA2 activity in the hippocampus. EPA supplement normalized the n-3 and n-6 PUFA profiles and cPLA2 levels, inhibited glial activation, reduced APP and TNF-α expression, as well as up-regulated BDNF and TrKB. CONCLUSION:Supplementation with EPA appear to have potential effects on improving glial over-activation, n3/n6 imbalance and BDNF down-regulation, which contribute to anti-inflammatory and may provide beneficial effects on inflammation-associated disease such as AD.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency affects sulfatides and other sulfated glycans in lysosomes through autophagy-mediated degradation.
Wang Yaping,Nakajima Takero,Diao Pan,Yamada Yosuke,Nakamura Kozo,Nakayama Jun,Tanaka Naoki,Aoyama Toshifumi,Kamijo Yuji
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Metabolic changes in sulfatides and other sulfated glycans have been related to various diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in sulfated lysosomal substrate metabolism and its related disorders is currently unknown. We investigated the effects of deficiency or supplementation of PUFA on the metabolism of sulfatides and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) in sulfatide-rich organs (brain and kidney) of mice. A PUFA-deficient diet for over 5 weeks significantly reduced the sulfatide expression by increasing the sulfatide degradative enzymes arylsulfatase A and galactosylceramidase in brain and kidney. This sulfatide degradation was clearly associated with the activation of autophagy and lysosomal hyperfunction, the former of which was induced by suppression of the Erk/mTOR pathway. A PUFA-deficient diet also activated the degradation of sGAGs in the brain and kidney and that of amyloid precursor proteins in the brain, indicating an involvement in general lysosomal function and the early developmental process of AD. PUFA supplementation prevented all of the above abnormalities. Taken together, a PUFA deficiency might lead to sulfatide and sGAG degradation associated with autophagy activation and general lysosomal hyperfunction and play a role in many types of disease development, suggesting a possible benefit of prophylactic PUFA supplementation.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse microglia by activating SIRT1 pathways.
Inoue Takayuki,Tanaka Masashi,Masuda Shinya,Ohue-Kitano Ryuji,Yamakage Hajime,Muranaka Kazuya,Wada Hiromichi,Kusakabe Toru,Shimatsu Akira,Hasegawa Koji,Satoh-Asahara Noriko
Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for dementia, and it is speculated that chronic neuroinflammation contributes to this increased risk. Microglia are brain-resident immune cells modulating the neuroinflammatory state. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of fish oil, exhibit various effects, which include shifting microglia to the anti-inflammatory phenotype. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved, we examined the impact of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine profiles and the associated signaling pathways in the mouse microglial line MG6. Both EPA and DHA suppressed the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated MG6 cells, and this was also observed in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells, the other microglial line. Moreover, the EPA+DHA mixture activated SIRT1 signaling by enhancing mRNA level of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), cellular NAD level, SIRT1 protein deacetylase activity, and SIRT1 mRNA levels in LPS-stimulated MG6. EPA+DHA also inhibited phosphorylation of the stress-associated transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65 at Ser536, which is known to enhance NF-κB nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, including cytokine gene activation. Further, EPA+DHA increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, an indicator of autophagy. Suppression of TNF-α and IL-6 production, inhibition of p65 phosphorylation, and autophagy induction were abrogated by a SIRT1 inhibitor. On the other hand, NAMPT inhibition reversed TNF-α suppression but not IL-6 suppression. Accordingly, these ω-3 PUFAs may suppress neuroinflammation through SIRT1-mediated inhibition of the microglial NF-κB stress response and ensue pro-inflammatory cytokine release, which is implicated in NAMPT-related and -unrelated pathways.
ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid) activate both autophagy and antioxidation in a synergistic feedback loop via TOR-dependent and TOR-independent signaling pathways.
Yang Bo,Zhou Yan,Wu Mengjiao,Li Xueshan,Mai Kangsen,Ai Qinghui
Cell death & disease
ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids that participate in macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) and the Kelch ECH-associating protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant system in organisms. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ω-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid) regulate autophagy and Keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant system are not completely understood. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to explore the molecular mechanisms by which ω-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid) regulate autophagy and antioxidant system and to investigate the potential relationship between autophagy and antioxidant system through transcriptomic analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) in vivo and in vitro. The results of the present study indicated that ω-6 PUFAs in diets induced autophagy but decrease antioxidant ability in vivo. However, the results also provided evidence, for the first time, that ω-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid) induced autophagy and increased antioxidant ability through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and the AMPK-target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway in hepatocytes in vitro. Interestingly, the findings revealed a ω-6 PUFA-induced synergistic feedback loop between autophagy and antioxidant system, which are connected with each other through the P62 and Keap1 complex. These results suggested that ω-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid) could be useful for activating a synergistic feedback loop between autophagy and antioxidant system and could greatly aid in the prevention and treatment of multiple pathologies.
Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins promote M1/M2 microglia polarization in a fatty-acid-dependent manner.
Toscano Rocio,Millan-Linares Maria C,Lemus-Conejo Ana,Claro Carmen,Sanchez-Margalet Victor,Montserrat-de la Paz Sergio
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
Inhibiting M1 microglia phenotype while stimulating the M2 microglia has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. Our hypothesis is that the type of dietary fatty acids (FAs) into human postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) could modulate the plasticity of microglia. We isolated TRLs at the postprandial hypertriglyceridemic peak from blood samples of healthy volunteers after the ingestion of a meal rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs. We observed that postprandial TRL-MUFAs enhance M2 microglia polarization, whereas postprandial TRL-SFAs made polarized microglia prone to an M1 phenotype. In addition, in contrast to dietary SFAs, dietary MUFAs primed for a reduced proinflammatory profile in the brain of mice fed with the different FA-enriched diets. Our study underlines a role of postprandial TRLs as a metabolic entity in regulating the plasticity of microglia and brings an understanding of the mechanisms by which dietary FAs are environmental factors fostering the innate immune responsiveness. These exciting findings open opportunities for developing nutraceutical strategies with olive oil as the principal source of MUFAs, notably oleic acid, to prevent development and progression of neuroinflammation-related diseases.
N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Resolution of Neuroinflammation.
Joffre Corinne,Rey Charlotte,Layé Sophie
Frontiers in pharmacology
In the past few decades, as a result of their anti-inflammatory properties, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), have gained greater importance in the regulation of inflammation, especially in the central nervous system (in this case known as neuroinflammation). If sustained, neuroinflammation is a common denominator of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and major depression, and of aging. Hence, limiting neuroinflammation is a real strategy for neuroinflammatory disease therapy and treatment. Recent data show that n-3 LC-PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory properties in part through the synthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) such as resolvins, maresins and protectins. These SPMs are crucially involved in the resolution of inflammation. They could be good candidates to resolve brain inflammation and to contribute to neuroprotective functions and could lead to novel therapeutics for brain inflammatory diseases. This review presents an overview 1) of brain n-3 LC-PUFAs as precursors of SPMs with an emphasis on the effect of n-3 PUFAs on neuroinflammation, 2) of the formation and action of SPMs in the brain and their biological roles, and the possible regulation of their synthesis by environmental factors such as inflammation and nutrition and, in particular, PUFA consumption.
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Resolution of Inflammation: Novel Therapeutic Opportunities for Aortic Valve Stenosis?
Artiach Gonzalo,Bäck Magnus
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
Inflammation is well-established in cardiovascular disease, including valvular heart disease. Inflammation is a key process in the fibrosis and calcification of the aortic valve leaflets, which ultimately clinically manifest as aortic valve stenosis characterized by valve dysfunction and cardiac obstruction. In the absence of pharmacological treatment, either surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement is currently the only available therapeutic strategy for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which exert beneficial effects in several cardiovascular diseases, serve as the substrate for several bioactive lipid mediators that regulate inflammation. Recent findings point to the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiac valves, being inversely associated with aortic valve calcification and contributing to the resolution of valvular inflammation by means of the pro-resolving mediator resolvin E1 and downstream signaling through its receptor ChemR23.
NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition is disrupted in a group of auto-inflammatory disease CAPS mutations.
Mortimer Leanne,Moreau France,MacDonald Justin A,Chadee Kris
Inflammasomes are positioned to rapidly escalate the intensity of inflammation by activating interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and cell death by pyroptosis. However, negative regulation of inflammasomes remains poorly understood, as is the signaling cascade that dampens inflammasome activity. We found that rapid NLRP3 inflammasome activation was directly inhibited by protein kinase A (PKA), which was induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling via the PGE2 receptor E-prostanoid 4 (EP4). PKA directly phosphorylated the cytoplasmic receptor NLRP3 and attenuated its ATPase function. We found that Ser295 in human NLRP3 was critical for rapid inhibition and PKA phosphorylation. Mutations in NLRP3-encoding residues adjacent to Ser295 have been linked to the inflammatory disease CAPS (cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes). NLRP3-S295A phenocopied the human CAPS mutants. These data suggest that negative regulation at Ser295 is critical for restraining the NLRP3 inflammasome and identify a molecular basis for CAPS-associated NLRP3 mutations.
Caspase-1 Inflammasome Activation Mediates Homocysteine-Induced Pyrop-Apoptosis in Endothelial Cells.
Xi Hang,Zhang Yuling,Xu Yanjie,Yang William Y,Jiang Xiaohua,Sha Xiaojin,Cheng Xiaoshu,Wang Jingfeng,Qin Xuebin,Yu Jun,Ji Yong,Yang Xiaofeng,Wang Hong
RATIONALE:Endothelial injury is an initial mechanism mediating cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE:Here, we investigated the effect of hyperhomocysteinemia on programed cell death in endothelial cells (EC). METHODS AND RESULTS:We established a novel flow-cytometric gating method to define pyrotosis (Annexin V(-)/Propidium iodide(+)). In cultured human EC, we found that: (1) homocysteine and lipopolysaccharide individually and synergistically induced inflammatory pyroptotic and noninflammatory apoptotic cell death; (2) homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide induced caspase-1 activation before caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activations; (3) caspase-1/caspase-3 inhibitors rescued homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide-induced pyroptosis/apoptosis, but caspase-8/caspase-9 inhibitors had differential rescue effect; (4) homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide-induced nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, and leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) protein caused NLRP3-containing inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation, and interleukin (IL)-1β cleavage/activation; (5) homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species, (6) intracellular oxidative gradient determined cell death destiny as intermediate intracellular reactive oxygen species levels are associated with pyroptosis, whereas high reactive oxygen species corresponded to apoptosis; (7) homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and cytochrome-c release, and increased B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 ratio which were attenuated by antioxidants and caspase-1 inhibitor; and (8) antioxidants extracellular superoxide dismutase and catalase prevented homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide -induced caspase-1 activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and pyroptosis/apoptosis. In cystathionine β-synthase-deficient (Cbs(-/-)) mice, severe hyperhomocysteinemia-induced caspase-1 activation in isolated lung EC and caspase-1 expression in aortic endothelium, and elevated aortic caspase-1, caspase-9 protein/activity and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 ratio in Cbs(-/-) aorta and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Finally, homocysteine-induced DNA fragmentation was reversed in caspase-1(-/-) EC. Hyperhomocysteinemia-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction was rescued in caspase-1(-/-) and NLRP3(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS:Hyperhomocysteinemia preferentially induces EC pyroptosis via caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation leading to endothelial dysfunction. We termed caspase-1 responsive pyroptosis and apoptosis as pyrop-apoptosis.
Systemic inflammation impairs microglial Aβ clearance through NLRP3 inflammasome.
Tejera Dario,Mercan Dilek,Sanchez-Caro Juan M,Hanan Mor,Greenberg David,Soreq Hermona,Latz Eicke,Golenbock Douglas,Heneka Michael T
The EMBO journal
Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent type of dementia and is caused by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta and abnormal tau phosphorylation. Neuroinflammation has emerged as an additional pathological component. Microglia, representing the brain's major innate immune cells, play an important role during Alzheimer's. Once activated, microglia show changes in their morphology, characterized by a retraction of cell processes. Systemic inflammation is known to increase the risk for cognitive decline in human neurogenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Here, we assess for the first time microglial changes upon a peripheral immune challenge in the context of aging and Alzheimer's in vivo, using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy. Microglia were monitored at 2 and 10 days post-challenge by lipopolysaccharide. Microglia exhibited a reduction in the number of branches and the area covered at 2 days, a phenomenon that resolved at 10 days. Systemic inflammation reduced microglial clearance of amyloid-beta in APP/PS1 mice. NLRP3 inflammasome knockout blocked many of the observed microglial changes upon lipopolysaccharide, including alterations in microglial morphology and amyloid pathology. NLRP3 inhibition may thus represent a novel therapeutic target that may protect the brain from toxic peripheral inflammation during systemic infection.
The role of NLRP3-CASP1 in inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation and autophagy dysfunction in manganese-induced, hippocampal-dependent impairment of learning and memory ability.
Wang Diya,Zhang Jianbin,Jiang Wenkai,Cao Zipeng,Zhao Fang,Cai Tongjian,Aschner Michael,Luo Wenjing
Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and autophagy dysfunction are known to be involved in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Manganese (Mn), a neurotoxic metal, has the potential to induce microglia-mediated neuroinflammation as well as autophagy dysfunction. NLRP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3)- CASP1 (caspase 1) inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation in microglia has specific relevance to neurological diseases. However, the mechanism driving these phenomena remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that Mn activates the NLRP3-CASP1 inflammasome pathway in the hippocampus of mice and BV2 cells by triggering autophagy-lysosomal dysfunction. The autophagy-lysosomal dysfunction is induced by lysosomal damage caused by excessive Mn accumulation, damaging the structure and normal function of these organelles. Additionally, we show that the release of lysosomal CTSB (cathepsin B) plays an important role in Mn-induced NLRP3-CASP1 inflammasome activation, and that the increased autophagosomes in the cytoplasm are not the main cause of NLRP3-CASP1 inflammasome activation. The accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL1B (interleukin 1 β) and IL18 (interleukin 18), as well as the dysfunctional autophagy pathway may damage hippocampal neuronal cells, thus leading to hippocampal-dependent impairment in learning and memory, which is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Is Alzheimer's disease an inflammasomopathy?
Pereira Claudia F,Santos Armanda E,Moreira Paula I,Pereira Ana Catarina,Sousa Fabio J,Cardoso Sandra M,Cruz M Teresa
Ageing research reviews
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly and, despite the tremendous efforts researchers have put into AD research, there are no effective options for prevention and treatment of the disease. The best way to reach this goal is to clarify the mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of AD. In the last few years the views about the drivers of AD have been changing and nowadays it is believed that neuroinflammation takes center stage in disease pathogenesis. Herein, we provide an overview about the role of neuroinflammation in AD describing the role of microglia and astroglia is this process. Then, we will debate the NLRP3 inflammasome putting the focus on its activation through the canonical, non-canonical and alternative pathways and the triggers involved herein namely endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species and amyloid β peptide. Data supporting the hypothesis that inflammasome-mediated peripheral inflammation may contribute to AD pathology will be presented. Finally, a brief discussion about the therapeutic potential of NLRP3 inflammasome modulation is also provided.
The NLRP3 and NLRP1 inflammasomes are activated in Alzheimer's disease.
Saresella Marina,La Rosa Francesca,Piancone Federica,Zoppis Martina,Marventano Ivana,Calabrese Elena,Rainone Veronica,Nemni Raffaello,Mancuso Roberta,Clerici Mario
BACKGROUND:Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and its key regulator, the inflammasome, are suspected to play a role in the neuroinflammation observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD); no conclusive data are nevertheless available in AD patients. RESULTS:mRNA for inflammasome components (NLRP1, NLRP3, PYCARD, caspase 1, 5 and 8) and downstream effectors (IL-1β, IL-18) was up-regulated in severe and MILD AD. Monocytes co-expressing NLRP3 with caspase 1 or caspase 8 were significantly increased in severe AD alone, whereas those co-expressing NLRP1 and NLRP3 with PYCARD were augmented in both severe and MILD AD. Activation of the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes in AD was confirmed by confocal microscopy proteins co-localization and by the significantly higher amounts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 being produced by monocytes. In MCI, the expression of NLRP3, but not the one of PYCARD or caspase 1 was increased, indicating that functional inflammasomes are not assembled in these individuals: this was confirmed by lack of co-localization and of proinflammatory cytokines production. CONCLUSIONS:The activation of at least two different inflammasome complexes explains AD-associated neuroinflammation. Strategies targeting inflammasome activation could be useful in the therapy of AD.
Inflammasome-derived cytokine IL18 suppresses amyloid-induced seizures in Alzheimer-prone mice.
Tzeng Te-Chen,Hasegawa Yuto,Iguchi Risa,Cheung Amy,Caffrey Daniel R,Thatcher Elizabeth Jeanne,Mao Wenjie,Germain Gail,Tamburro Nelsy DePaula,Okabe Shigeo,Heneka Michael T,Latz Eicke,Futai Kensuke,Golenbock Douglas T
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the progressive destruction and dysfunction of central neurons. AD patients commonly have unprovoked seizures compared with age-matched controls. Amyloid peptide-related inflammation is thought to be an important aspect of AD pathogenesis. We previously reported that NLRP3 inflammasome KO mice, when bred into APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mice, are completely protected from amyloid-induced AD-like disease, presumably because they cannot produce mature IL1β or IL18. To test the role of IL18, we bred IL18KO mice with APP/PS1 mice. Surprisingly, IL18KO/APP/PS1 mice developed a lethal seizure disorder that was completely reversed by the anticonvulsant levetiracetam. IL18-deficient AD mice showed a lower threshold in chemically induced seizures and a selective increase in gene expression related to increased neuronal activity. IL18-deficient AD mice exhibited increased excitatory synaptic proteins, spine density, and basal excitatory synaptic transmission that contributed to seizure activity. This study identifies a role for IL18 in suppressing aberrant neuronal transmission in AD.
NLRP3 inflammasome activation drives tau pathology.
Ising Christina,Venegas Carmen,Zhang Shuangshuang,Scheiblich Hannah,Schmidt Susanne V,Vieira-Saecker Ana,Schwartz Stephanie,Albasset Shadi,McManus Róisín M,Tejera Dario,Griep Angelika,Santarelli Francesco,Brosseron Frederic,Opitz Sabine,Stunden James,Merten Maximilian,Kayed Rakez,Golenbock Douglas T,Blum David,Latz Eicke,Buée Luc,Heneka Michael T
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-beta in plaques, aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles and neuroinflammation, together resulting in neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. The NLRP3 inflammasome assembles inside of microglia on activation, leading to increased cleavage and activity of caspase-1 and downstream interleukin-1β release. Although the NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to be essential for the development and progression of amyloid-beta pathology in mice, the precise effect on tau pathology remains unknown. Here we show that loss of NLRP3 inflammasome function reduced tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation by regulating tau kinases and phosphatases. Tau activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and intracerebral injection of fibrillar amyloid-beta-containing brain homogenates induced tau pathology in an NLRP3-dependent manner. These data identify an important role of microglia and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the pathogenesis of tauopathies and support the amyloid-cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease, demonstrating that neurofibrillary tangles develop downstream of amyloid-beta-induced microglial activation.
Microglia-derived ASC specks cross-seed amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease.
Venegas Carmen,Kumar Sathish,Franklin Bernardo S,Dierkes Tobias,Brinkschulte Rebecca,Tejera Dario,Vieira-Saecker Ana,Schwartz Stephanie,Santarelli Francesco,Kummer Markus P,Griep Angelika,Gelpi Ellen,Beilharz Michael,Riedel Dietmar,Golenbock Douglas T,Geyer Matthias,Walter Jochen,Latz Eicke,Heneka Michael T
The spreading of pathology within and between brain areas is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, deposition of amyloid-β is accompanied by activation of the innate immune system and involves inflammasome-dependent formation of ASC specks in microglia. ASC specks released by microglia bind rapidly to amyloid-β and increase the formation of amyloid-β oligomers and aggregates, acting as an inflammation-driven cross-seed for amyloid-β pathology. Here we show that intrahippocampal injection of ASC specks resulted in spreading of amyloid-β pathology in transgenic double-mutant APPPSEN1 mice. By contrast, homogenates from brains of APPPSEN1 mice failed to induce seeding and spreading of amyloid-β pathology in ASC-deficient APPPSEN1 mice. Moreover, co-application of an anti-ASC antibody blocked the increase in amyloid-β pathology in APPPSEN1 mice. These findings support the concept that inflammasome activation is connected to seeding and spreading of amyloid-β pathology in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Aggregated Tau activates NLRP3-ASC inflammasome exacerbating exogenously seeded and non-exogenously seeded Tau pathology in vivo.
Stancu Ilie-Cosmin,Cremers Niels,Vanrusselt Hannah,Couturier Julien,Vanoosthuyse Alexandre,Kessels Sofie,Lodder Chritica,Brône Bert,Huaux François,Octave Jean-Noël,Terwel Dick,Dewachter Ilse
Brains of Alzheimer's disease patients are characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, both invariably associated with neuroinflammation. A crucial role for NLRP3-ASC inflammasome [NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3)-Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)] in amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced microgliosis and Aβ pathology has been unequivocally identified. Aβ aggregates activate NLRP3-ASC inflammasome (Halle et al. in Nat Immunol 9:857-865, 2008) and conversely NLRP3-ASC inflammasome activation exacerbates amyloid pathology in vivo (Heneka et al. in Nature 493:674-678, 2013), including by prion-like ASC-speck cross-seeding (Venegas et al. in Nature 552:355-361, 2017). However, the link between inflammasome activation, as crucial sensor of innate immunity, and Tau remains unexplored. Here, we analyzed whether Tau aggregates acting as prion-like Tau seeds can activate NLRP3-ASC inflammasome. We demonstrate that Tau seeds activate NLRP3-ASC-dependent inflammasome in primary microglia, following microglial uptake and lysosomal sorting of Tau seeds. Next, we analyzed the role of inflammasome activation in prion-like or templated seeding of Tau pathology and found significant inhibition of exogenously seeded Tau pathology by ASC deficiency in Tau transgenic mice. We furthermore demonstrate that chronic intracerebral administration of the NLRP3 inhibitor, MCC950, inhibits exogenously seeded Tau pathology. Finally, ASC deficiency also decreased non-exogenously seeded Tau pathology in Tau transgenic mice. Overall our findings demonstrate that Tau-seeding competent, aggregated Tau activates the ASC inflammasome through the NLRP3-ASC axis, and we demonstrate an exacerbating role of the NLRP3-ASC axis on exogenously and non-exogenously seeded Tau pathology in Tau mice in vivo. The NLRP3-ASC inflammasome, which is an important sensor of innate immunity and intensively explored for its role in health and disease, hence presents as an interesting therapeutic approach to target three crucial pathogenetic processes in AD, including prion-like seeding of Tau pathology, Aβ pathology and neuroinflammation.
Blood-derived plasminogen drives brain inflammation and plaque deposition in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Baker Sarah K,Chen Zu-Lin,Norris Erin H,Revenko Alexey S,MacLeod A Robert,Strickland Sidney
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Two of the most predominant features of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain are deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and inflammation. The mechanism behind these pathologies remains unknown, but there is evidence to suggest that inflammation may predate the deposition of Aβ. Furthermore, immune activation is increasingly being recognized as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of the disease, and disorders involving systemic inflammation, such as infection, aging, obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and depression are risk factors for the development of AD. Plasminogen (PLG) is primarily a blood protein synthesized in the liver, which when cleaved into its active form, plasmin (PL), plays roles in fibrinolysis, wound healing, cell signaling, and inflammatory regulation. Here we show that PL in the blood is a regulator of brain inflammatory action and AD pathology. Depletion of PLG in the plasma of an AD mouse model through antisense oligonucleotide technology dramatically improved AD pathology and decreased glial cell activation in the brain, whereas an increase in PL activity through α-2-antiplasmin (A2AP) antisense oligonucleotide treatment exacerbated the brain's immune response and plaque deposition. These studies suggest a crucial role for peripheral PL in mediating neuroimmune cell activation and AD progression and could provide a link to systemic inflammatory risk factors that are known to be associated with AD development.
NeurimmiRs: microRNAs in the neuroimmune interface.
Soreq Hermona,Wolf Yochai
Trends in molecular medicine
Recent reports of microRNA (miR) modulators of both neuronal and immune processes (here termed NeurimmiRs) predict therapeutic potential for manipulating NeurimmiR levels in diseases affecting both the immune system and higher brain functions, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and anxiety-related disorders. In our opinion, NeurimmiRs that function within both the nervous and the immune systems, such as miR-132 and miR-124, may act as 'negotiators' between these two interacting compartments. We suggest that NeurimmiRs primarily target transcriptional or other regulatory genes, which enables modulation of both immune and cognitive processes through direct or indirect alterations of neuron-glia and/or brain-to-body signaling. Thus, manipulating NeurimmiR control over the immune contributions to cognitive pathways may offer new therapeutic targets.
TREM2 and the neuroimmunology of Alzheimer's disease.
Hickman Suzanne E,El Khoury Joseph
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a sporadic disorder with increasing prevalence in aging. The ɛ4 allele of Apolipoprotein E(ApoEɛ4) was the only known major risk factor for late onset AD. Recently, two groups of investigators independently identified variants of the TREM2 gene, encoding triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 as causing increased susceptibility to late onset AD with an odds ratio similar to that of ApoEɛ4. TREM2 is a receptor expressed on innate immune cells. Using a novel technology called Direct RNA Sequencing wedetermined the quantitative transcriptome of microglia, the principal innate neuroimmune cells and confirmed that TREM2 is a major microglia-specific gene in the central nervous system. Over the past several years we have shown that microglia play a dichotomous role in AD. Microglia can be protective and promote phagocytosis, degradation and ultimately clearance of Aβ, the pathogenic protein deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. However, with disease progression, microglia become dysfunctional, release neurotoxins, lose their ability to clear Aβ and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that promote Aβ production and accumulation. TREM2 has been shown to regulate the phagocytic ability of myeloid cells and their inflammatory response. Here we propose that the mechanism(s) by which TREM2 variants cause Alzheimer's disease are via down regulation of the Aβ phagocytic ability of microglia and by dysregulation of the pro-inflammatory response of these cells. Based on our discussion we propose that TREM2 is a potential therapeutic target for stopping ordelaying progression of AD.
The Evolving Dialogue of Microglia and Neurons in Alzheimer's Disease: Microglia as Necessary Transducers of Pathology.
Simon E,Obst J,Gomez-Nicola D
The understanding of the contribution of microglial cells to the onset and/or progression chronic neurodegenerative diseases is key to identify disease-modifying therapies, given the strong neuroimmune component of these disorders. In this review, we dissect the different pathways by which microglia can affect, directly or indirectly, neuronal function and dysfunction associated with diseases like Alzheimer's. We here present the rationale for proposing a model to explain the contribution of microglia to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, defining microglial cells as necessary transducers of pathology and ideal targets for intervention.
Alzheimer's disease: pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapeutics.
Tiwari Sneham,Atluri Venkata,Kaushik Ajeet,Yndart Adriana,Nair Madhavan
International journal of nanomedicine
Currently, 47 million people live with dementia globally, and it is estimated to increase more than threefold (~131 million) by 2050. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major causative factors to induce progressive dementia. AD is a neurodegenerative disease, and its pathogenesis has been attributed to extracellular aggregates of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles made of hyperphosphorylated τ-protein in cortical and limbic areas of the human brain. It is characterized by memory loss and progressive neurocognitive dysfunction. The anomalous processing of APP by β-secretases and γ-secretases leads to production of Aβ and Aβ monomers, which further oligomerize and aggregate into senile plaques. The disease also intensifies through infectious agents like HIV. Additionally, during disease pathogenesis, the presence of high concentrations of Aβ peptides in central nervous system initiates microglial infiltration. Upon coming into vicinity of Aβ, microglia get activated, endocytose Aβ, and contribute toward their clearance via TREM2 surface receptors, simultaneously triggering innate immunoresponse against the aggregation. In addition to a detailed report on causative factors leading to AD, the present review also discusses the current state of the art in AD therapeutics and diagnostics, including labeling and imaging techniques employed as contrast agents for better visualization and sensing of the plaques. The review also points to an urgent need for nanotechnology as an efficient therapeutic strategy to increase the bioavailability of drugs in the central nervous system.
Neuroimmune nexus of depression and dementia: Shared mechanisms and therapeutic targets.
Herman Francis J,Simkovic Sherry,Pasinetti Giulio M
British journal of pharmacology
Dysfunctional immune activity is a physiological component of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The extent to which altered immune activity influences the development of their respective cognitive symptoms and neuropathologies remains under investigation. It is evident, however, that immune activity affects neuronal function and circuit integrity. In both disorders, alterations are present in similar immune networks and neuroendocrine signalling pathways, immune responses persist in overlapping neuroanatomical locations, and morphological and structural irregularities are noted in similar domains. Epidemiological studies have also linked the two disorders, and their genetic and environmental risk factors intersect along immune-activating pathways and can be synonymous with one another. While each of these disorders individually contains a large degree of heterogeneity, their shared immunological components may link distinct phenotypes within each disorder. This review will therefore highlight the shared immune pathways of AD and MDD, their overlapping neuroanatomical features, and previously applied, as well as novel, approaches to pharmacologically manipulate immune pathways, in each neurological condition. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Therapeutics for Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease: New Directions for Precision Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v176.18/issuetoc.
Neuroimmune Crosstalk through Extracellular Vesicles in Health and Disease.
Delpech Jean-Christophe,Herron Shawn,Botros Mina B,Ikezu Tsuneya
Trends in neurosciences
The dynamics of CNS function rely upon omnidirectional communication among CNS cell types. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key mediators of this communication and are actively involved in response to CNS injury, mediating inflammatory response and inflammation-related neuroprotection as they display dual beneficial and detrimental roles. Neuroimmune interactions include communication between neurons and microglia, the resident macrophages within the CNS, and these interactions are a critical mediator of healthy brain functions, mounting an inflammatory response, and disease pathogenesis. This review aims to organize recent research highlighting the role of EVs in health and neurodegenerative disorders, with a specific focus on neuroimmune interactions between neurons and glia in Alzheimer's disease.
Dynamic Neuroimmune Profile during Mid-life Aging in the Female Brain and Implications for Alzheimer Risk.
Mishra Aarti,Shang Yuan,Wang Yiwei,Bacon Eliza R,Yin Fei,Brinton Roberta D
Aging and endocrine transition states can significantly impact inflammation across organ systems. Neuroinflammation is well documented in Alzheimer disease (AD). Herein, we investigated neuroinflammation that emerges during mid-life aging, chronological and endocrinological, in the female brain as an early initiating mechanism driving AD risk later in life. Analyses were conducted in a translational rodent model of mid-life chronological and endocrinological aging followed by validation in transcriptomic profiles from women versus age-matched men. In the translational model, the neuroinflammatory profile of mid-life aging in females was endocrine and chronological state specific, dynamic, anatomically distributed, and persistent. Microarray dataset analyses of aging human hippocampus indicated a sex difference in neuroinflammatory profile in which women exhibited a profile comparable to the pattern discovered in our translational rodent model, whereas age-matched men exhibited a profile consistent with low neuroimmune activation. Translationally, these findings have implications for therapeutic interventions during mid-life to decrease late-onset AD risk.
Inflammatory pathology markers (activated microglia and reactive astrocytes) in early and late onset Alzheimer disease: a post mortem study.
Taipa R,Ferreira V,Brochado P,Robinson A,Reis I,Marques F,Mann D M,Melo-Pires M,Sousa N
Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
AIMS:The association between the pathological features of AD and dementia is stronger in younger old persons than in older old persons suggesting that additional factors are involved in the clinical expression of dementia in the oldest old. Cumulative data suggests that neuroinflammation plays a prominent role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and different studies reported an age-associated dysregulation of the neuroimmune system. Consequently, we sought to characterize the pattern of microglial cell activation and astrogliosis in brain post mortem tissue of pathologically confirmed cases of early and late onset AD (EOAD and LOAD) and determine their relation to age. METHODS:Immunohistochemistry (CD68 and glial fibrillary acidic protein) with morphometric analysis of astroglial profiles in 36 cases of AD and 28 similarly aged controls. RESULTS:Both EOAD and LOAD groups had higher microglial scores in CA1, entorhinal and temporal cortices, and higher astroglial response in CA1, dentate gyrus, entorhinal and temporal cortices, compared to aged matched controls. Additionally, EOAD had higher microglial scores in subiculum, entorhinal and temporal subcortical white matter, and LOAD higher astrogliosis in CA2 region. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, we found that the neuroinflammatory pathological markers in late stage AD human tissue to have a similar pattern in both EOAD and LOAD, though the severity of the pathological markers in the younger group was higher. Understanding the age effect in AD will be important when testing modifying agents that act on the neuroinflammation.