Cumulative Effect of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Regulation of AMPK/SIRT1-PGC-1-SIRT3 Pathway in the Human Erectile Tissue.
Pereira Andressa S,Gouveia Alexandra M,Tomada Nuno,Rodrigues Adriana R,Neves Delminda
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF), especially diabetes mellitus (DM), disrupt oxidative stress response. This condition underlies endothelial dysfunction, early manifested in men as erectile dysfunction. The current study is aimed at elucidating the impact of CVDRF in the oxidation responsive AMPK/SIRT1-PGC-1-SIRT3 pathway and related miRNAs in the human corpus cavernosum. Human penile tissue fragments from individuals submitted to programmed urological surgeries ( = 27), aged 43-63 years, were clustered depending on the presence of CVDRF; the control group included samples from patients without CVDRF, and groups A and B included samples from patients with DM and additional CVDRF, totalizing ≤2 CVDRF (group A) and ≥3 CVDRF (group B). Dual-immunolabelling of SIRT3, SOD2, or GPX1 with -actin in tissue sections was carried out. The assessment of expression levels of NOX1, phospho-AMPK, total AMPK, SIRT1, PGC-1, SIRT3, SOD2, and GPX1 was performed by western blotting and of miR-200a, miR-34a, miR-421, and miR-206 by real-time PCR. Phospho-AMPK and SIRT3 expression was found significantly increased in group B relative to other groups, suggesting a marked influence of CVDRF, additional to DM, in the regulation of these enzymes. NOX1 was also increased in group B relative to controls. Only an increasing tendency was observed in the phospho-AMPK/total AMPK ratio, SIRT1, and PGC-1 expression in groups A and B when compared with controls. Concerning antioxidant enzymes, GPX1 expression was found incremented in group A, but SOD2 expression was decreased in groups A and B, comparative with controls. Group B presented significantly diminished levels of miR-421 and miR-200a, but only a decreasing trend on miR-34 and miR-206 expression was observed. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that besides DM, additional CVDRF presented a cumulative effect in the cellular response to oxidative unbalance, contributing to AMPK/SIRT1-PGC-1-SIRT3 pathway activation. SOD2, a major mitochondrial antioxidant defence, did not follow the same variation.
Weight Loss Is Associated With Increased NAD(+)/SIRT1 Expression But Reduced PARP Activity in White Adipose Tissue.
Rappou Elisabeth,Jukarainen Sakari,Rinnankoski-Tuikka Rita,Kaye Sanna,Heinonen Sini,Hakkarainen Antti,Lundbom Jesper,Lundbom Nina,Saunavaara Virva,Rissanen Aila,Virtanen Kirsi A,Pirinen Eija,Pietiläinen Kirsi H
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
CONTEXT:Sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are 2 important nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+)-dependent enzyme families with opposing metabolic effects. Energy shortage increases NAD(+) biosynthesis and SIRT activity but reduces PARP activity in animals. Effects of energy balance on these pathways in humans are unknown. OBJECTIVE:We compared NAD(+)/SIRT pathway expressions and PARP activities in sc adipose tissue (SAT) between lean and obese subjects and investigated their change in the obese subjects during a 12-month weight loss. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:SAT biopsies were obtained from 19 clinically healthy obese subjects (mean ± SE body mass index, 34.6 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) during a weight-loss intervention (0, 5, and 12 mo) and from 19 lean reference subjects (body mass index, 22.7 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:SAT mRNA expressions of SIRTs 1-7 and the rate-limiting gene in NAD(+) biosynthesis, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) were measured by Affymetrix, and total PARP activity by ELISA kit. RESULTS:SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT7, and NAMPT expressions were significantly lower, whereas total PARP activity was increased in obese compared with lean subjects. SIRT1 and NAMPT expressions increased in obese subjects between 0 and 5 months, after a mean weight loss of 11.7%. In subjects who continued to lose weight between 5 and 12 months, SIRT1 expression increased progressively, whereas in subjects with weight regain, SIRT1 reverted to baseline levels. PARP activity significantly decreased in all subjects upon weight loss. CONCLUSIONS:Calorie restriction is an attractive strategy to improve the NAD(+)/SIRT pathway and decrease PARPs in SAT in human obesity.
The Selective Sirtuin 1 Activator SRT2104 Reduces Endotoxin-Induced Cytokine Release and Coagulation Activation in Humans.
van der Meer Anne J,Scicluna Brendon P,Moerland Perry D,Lin Jiang,Jacobson Eric W,Vlasuk George P,van der Poll Tom
Critical care medicine
OBJECTIVES:Sirtuin 1 influences gene expression and other cellular functions through deacetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins. We here sought to determine the effects of a small molecule sirtuin 1 activator, SRT2104, on inflammation and coagulation induced by lipopolysaccharide in humans. DESIGN:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING:An academic hospital. SUBJECTS:Twenty-four healthy humans. INTERVENTIONS:All subjects received an intravenous injection with lipopolysaccharide. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups (n=8 per group): 1) pretreatment with oral SRT2104 for 7 days (2 g/d), 2) pretreatment with a single SRT2104 dose (2 g), or 3) placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:SRT2104 attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced release of the cytokines interleukin-6 (mean peak levels of 58.8% [p<0.05] and 80.9% [p=0.078] after single and repeated SRT2104 administration, respectively, relative to those measured after placebo treatment) and interleukin-8 (mean peak levels of 57.0% [p<0.05 vs placebo] and 77.1% [p<0.05 vs placebo] after single and repeated SRT2104 ingestion, respectively, while not affecting tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 release). SRT2104 also reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced acute phase protein response (C-reactive protein). SRT2104 inhibited activation of coagulation, as reflected by lower plasma levels of the prothrombin fragment F1+2 (mean peak levels 57.9% [p<0.05] and 64.2% [p<0.05] after single and repeated SRT2104 administration, respectively, relative to those measured after placebo treatment). Activation of the vascular endothelium (plasma von Willebrand levels) and the fibrinolytic system (plasma tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type I) was not influenced by SRT2104. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first human study to demonstrate biological anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant responses consistent with the activation of sirtuin 1 by a small molecule.
Gene Expression of Sirtuin-1 and Endogenous Secretory Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Healthy and Slightly Overweight Subjects after Caloric Restriction and Resveratrol Administration.
Roggerio Alessandra,Strunz Célia M Cassaro,Pacanaro Ana Paula,Leal Dalila Pinheiro,Takada Julio Y,Avakian Solange D,Mansur Antonio de Padua
Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) and an endogenous secretory receptor for an advanced glycation end product (esRAGE) are associated with vascular protection. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resveratrol (RSV) and caloric restriction (CR) on gene expression of Sirt-1 and esRAGE on serum levels of Sirt1 and esRAGE in healthy and slightly overweight subjects. The study included 48 healthy subjects randomized to 30 days of RSV (500 mg/day) or CR (1000 cal/day). Waist circumference ( = 0.011), TC ( = 0.007), HDL ( = 0.031), non-HDL ( = 0.025), ApoA1 ( = 0.011), and ApoB ( = 0.037) decreased in the CR group. However, TC ( = 0.030), non-HDL ( = 0.010), ApoB ( = 0.034), and HOMA-IR ( = 0.038) increased in the RSV group. RSV and CR increased serum levels of Sirt-1, respectively, from 1.06 ± 0.71 ng/mL to 5.75 ± 2.98 ng/mL ( < 0.0001) and from 1.65 ± 1.81 ng/mL to 5.80 ± 2.23 ng/mL ( < 0.0001). esRAGE serum levels were similar in RSV ( = NS) and CR ( = NS) groups. Significant positive correlation was observed between gene expression changes of Sirt-1 and esRAGE in RSV ( = 0.86; < 0.0001) and in CR ( = 0.71; < 0.0001) groups, but not for the changes in serum concentrations. CR promoted increases in the gene expression of esRAGE (post/pre). Future long-term studies are needed to evaluate the impact of these outcomes on vascular health.
Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate-Rich Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Fatty Liver and Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet by Activating the Sirtuin 1 and AMP Activating Protein Kinase Pathway.
Bae Ui-Jin,Park John,Park Il Woon,Chae Byung Min,Oh Mi-Ra,Jung Su-Jin,Ryu Geon-Seek,Chae Soo-Wan,Park Byung-Hyun
The American journal of Chinese medicine
The prevalence of metabolic diseases has risen globally in parallel with the obesity epidemic over the past few decades. Green tea has been reported to have metabolically beneficial effects on obesity; however, the mechanism by which green tea regulates lipid metabolism is not clearly understood. Male c57BL/6 mice were fed a normal chow diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD supplemented with various doses of epigallocatechin gallate-rich green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks. GTE supplementation reduced body weight gain, prevented hepatic fat accumulation, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, and improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. The underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects of GTE might involve the upregulation of sirtuin 1 and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the downregulation of enzymes related to de novo lipogenesis. Consistent with the in vivo findings, GTE increased the expression and activity of sirtuin 1, enhanced the binding of sirtuin 1 to liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and subsequent deacetylation of LKB1, and reduced triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells. These results suggest the possible therapeutic potential of dietary epigallocatechin gallate-rich GTE supplementation for preventing the development and progression of hepatic steatosis and obesity.
A novel microRNA-132-sirtuin-1 axis underlies aberrant B-cell cytokine regulation in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis [corrected].
Miyazaki Yusei,Li Rui,Rezk Ayman,Misirliyan Hétoum,Moore Craig,Farooqi Nasr,Solis Mayra,Goiry Lorna Galleguillos,de Faria Junior Omar,Dang Van Duc,Colman David,Dhaunchak Ajit Singh,Antel Jack,Gommerman Jennifer,Prat Alexandre,Fillatreau Simon,Bar-Or Amit, ,
Clinical trial results demonstrating that B-cell depletion substantially reduces new relapses in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have established that B cells play a role in the pathophysiology of MS relapses. The same treatment appears not to impact antibodies directed against the central nervous system, which underscores the contribution of antibody-independent functions of B cells to disease activity. One mechanism by which B cells are now thought to contribute to MS activity is by over-activating T cells, including through aberrant expression of B cell pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the mechanisms underlying the observed B cell cytokine dysregulation in MS remain unknown. We hypothesized that aberrant expression of particular microRNAs might be involved in the dysregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine responses of B cells of patients with MS. Through screening candidate microRNAs in activated B cells of MS patients and matched healthy subjects, we discovered that abnormally increased secretion of lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor α by MS B cells is associated with abnormally increased expression of miR-132. Over-expression of miR-132 in normal B cells significantly enhanced their production of lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor α. The over-expression of miR-132 also suppressed the miR-132 target, sirtuin-1. We confirmed that pharmacological inhibition of sirtuin-1 in normal B cells induces exaggerated lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor α production, while the abnormal production of these cytokines by MS B cells can be normalized by resveratrol, a sirtuin-1 activator. These results define a novel miR-132-sirtuin-1 axis that controls pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human B cells, and demonstrate that a dysregulation of this axis underlies abnormal pro-inflammatory B cell cytokine responses in patients with MS.
Fenofibrate reduces inflammation in obese patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus via sirtuin 1/fetuin A axis.
Noureldein Mohamed H,Abd El-Razek Rania S,El-Hefnawy Mohamed H,El-Mesallamy Hala O
Diabetes research and clinical practice
AIMS:The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of fenofibrate alone and in combination with pioglitazone on serum sirtuin 1 and fetuin A of obese patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). METHODS:Intervention effect on inflammatory parameters was assessed before and after treatment. The study was conducted on 60 postmenopausal females of whom, only 44 patients completed the study. They were distributed as follows; obese patients without T2DM (n=15) who administered fenofibrate (160 mg/day) once for 8 weeks, obese patients with T2DM (n=15) who administered fenofibrate (160 mg/day) once for 8 weeks, obese patients with T2DM (n=14) who administered fenofibrate (160 mg/day) and pioglitazone (15 mg/day) combination once for 8 weeks. We measured fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum lipids. Inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein "hs-CRP", interleukin-6 "IL-6", fetuin A, and sirtuin 1) of patients were measured in serum using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kits. RESULTS:Sirtuin 1 levels in obese patients with T2DM were significantly lower than its levels in obese patients while fetuin A levels were significantly higher (P<0.001). Fenofibrate, alone and in combination with pioglitazone, significantly decreased triacylglycerol, hs-CRP, IL-6, fetuin A and increased sirtuin 1 levels (P<0.001) which suggests that it can be used to delay the complications of obesity and T2DM. There is a strong correlation between fetuin A, sirtuin 1, IL-6 and hs-CRP levels suggesting a shared common pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Fenofibrate was shown to increase serum sirtuin 1 and decrease serum fetuin A levels in obese patients. TRIAL NUMBER:PACTR201407000856135.
The effects of curcumin supplementation on oxidative stress, Sirtuin-1 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α gene expression in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Heshmati Javad,Golab Fereshteh,Morvaridzadeh Mojgan,Potter Eric,Akbari-Fakhrabadi Maryam,Farsi Farnaz,Tanbakooei Sara,Shidfar Farzad
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Curcumin is a biologically active phytochemical ingredient found in turmeric and has antioxidant pharmacologic actions that may benefit patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The aim in this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) gene expression in PCOS patients. METHODS:Seventy-two patients with PCOS were recruited for this randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial. Thirty-six patients received curcumin, 1500 mg (three times per day), and 36 patients received placebo for 3 months. Gene expression of SIRT1, PGC1α and serum activity of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were evaluated at the beginning of trial and at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS:Sixty-seven patients with PCOS completed the trial. Curcumin supplementation significantly increased gene expression of PGC1α (p = 0.011) and activity of the Gpx enzyme (p = 0.045). Curcumin also non-significantly increased gene expression of SIRT1 and activity of the SOD enzyme. CONCLUSIONS:Curcumin seems to be an efficient reducer of oxidative stress related complications in patients with PCOS. Further studies on curcumin should strengthen our findings.
Slowing ageing by design: the rise of NAD and sirtuin-activating compounds.
Bonkowski Michael S,Sinclair David A
Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology
The sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacylases with remarkable abilities to prevent diseases and even reverse aspects of ageing. Mice engineered to express additional copies of SIRT1 or SIRT6, or treated with sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) such as resveratrol and SRT2104 or with NAD precursors, have improved organ function, physical endurance, disease resistance and longevity. Trials in non-human primates and in humans have indicated that STACs may be safe and effective in treating inflammatory and metabolic disorders, among others. These advances have demonstrated that it is possible to rationally design molecules that can alleviate multiple diseases and possibly extend lifespan in humans.
Therapeutic potential of activators and inhibitors of sirtuins.
Balcerczyk Aneta,Pirola Luciano
BioFactors (Oxford, England)
Sirtuins are evolutionary conserved NAD(+)-dependent acetyl-lysine deacetylases and ADP ribosyltransferases dual-function enzymes involved in the regulation of metabolism and lifespan. Sirtuins are also implicated in determining the balance between apoptosis, cell survival, and cell proliferation. In humans, seven sirtuins isoforms (SIRT₁₋₇) have been identified that localize either in the nucleus, cytoplasm, or mitochondria. The genetic demonstration that increasing gene dosage of sirtuin orthologs in eukaryotes, including yeast and multicellular Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, leads to prolonged lifespan induced considerable interest toward the discovery of sirtuin-activating molecules, on the ground that the phenomenon of sirtuin-induced lifespan prolongation-which is consequential to improved metabolic control-can be exploited therapeutically to counteract insulin resistance and diabetes. Conversely, ample evidence that either pharmacological inhibition or activation of sirtuin isoforms is potentially beneficial in study models of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases have been obtained. Here, we (i) survey the key roles of sirtuin isoforms and discuss the evidence in favor of activatory versus inhibitory targeting of sirtuins, (ii) discuss some of the inhibitors and activators of the sirtuin family members that have been described in the literature, (iii) review model systems in which these molecules have proved to exert therapeutic effects, and (iv) discuss the outcome of pharmacokinetic studies and phase I and II clinical trials employing sirtuin modulators.
Metformin ameliorates the proinflammatory state in patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis through sirtuin 1 induction.
Xu Wei,Deng Yang-Yang,Yang Lin,Zhao Sijia,Liu Junhui,Zhao Zhao,Wang Lijun,Maharjan Prabindra,Gao Shanshan,Tian Yuling,Zhuo Xiaozhen,Zhao Yan,Zhou Juan,Yuan Zuyi,Wu Yue
Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine
Metformin is a widely used classic antidiabetic drug. However, its clinical pharmacologic mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of metformin on circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis (AS). A total of 42 patients with carotid artery AS were randomly assigned to metformin (500 mg twice a day; Met; n = 21) or placebo control (Con; n = 21) groups. After 12 weeks of treatment, plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) significantly decreased in the Met group compared with the Con group. In addition, treatment with metformin significantly reduced the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α at the messenger RNA level and attenuated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) DNA binding activity in MNCs. Intriguingly, metformin did not alter the expression of NF-κB p65 subunit, but markedly inhibited its acetylation. Furthermore, metformin significantly induced sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression in MNCs. Moreover, we found that metformin treatment dramatically induced SIRT1 expression, blocked p65 acetylation, and inhibited NF-κB activity and the expression of inflammatory factors in MNCs in vitro. We conclude that metformin has a novel direct protective role to ameliorate the proinflammatory response through SIRT1 induction, p65 acetylation reduction, NF-κB inactivation, and inflammatory inhibition in peripheral blood MNCs of patients with carotid artery AS.
Beneficial effects of omega-3 and vitamin E coadministration on gene expression of SIRT1 and PGC1α and serum antioxidant enzymes in patients with coronary artery disease.
Saboori S,Koohdani F,Nematipour E,Yousefi Rad E,Saboor-Yaraghi A A,Javanbakht M H,Eshraghian M R,Ramezani A,Djalali M
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD
BACKGROUND AND AIM:SIRT1 and PGC1α are two important genes, which play critical roles in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation processes. The study aimed assess the effects of coadministration of omega-3 and vitamin E supplements on SIRT1 and PGC1α gene expression and serum levels of antioxidant enzymes in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS:Participants of this randomized controlled trial included 60 CAD male patients who were categorized into three groups: Group 1 received omega-3 (4 g/day) and vitamin E placebo (OP), group 2 omega-3 (4 g/day) and vitamin E (400 IU/day; OE), and group 3 omega-3 and vitamin E placebos (PP) for 2 months. Gene expression of SIRT1 and PGC1α in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS) was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, serum antioxidant enzyme and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were assessed at the beginning and end of the intervention. Gene expression of SIRT1 and PGC1α increased significantly in the OE group (P = 0.039 and P = 0.050, respectively). Catalase and hsCRP levels increased significantly in the OE and OP groups. However, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels did not statistically change in all groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) increased significantly in the OE group (P = 0.009) but not in OP and PP groups. CONCLUSION:Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in combination with vitamin E may have beneficial effects on CAD patients by increasing gene expression of SIRT1 and PGC1α and improving oxidative stress and inflammation in these patients.
Carbohydrate metabolism and gene expression of sirtuin 1 in healthy subjects after Sacha inchi oil supplementation: a randomized trial.
Alayón A N,Ortega Avila J G,Echeverri Jiménez I
Food & function
BACKGROUND:The postprandial stage is related to cardiovascular risk and it depends on the type of meal consumed. We study the effects of Sacha inchi oil on the postprandial glycemic state caused by meals rich in saturated fat. METHODS AND RESULTS:A double blind randomized trial in which 42 adult men ingested two breakfasts rich in saturated fat, one of them containing additionally 15 mL of Sacha inchi oil. Blood samples were obtained before or after 1 and 4 hours post-ingestion to quantify glucose, insulin and lipid profile in serum. The insulinogenic and sensitivity indices were calculated and the expression of sirtuin-1 in circulating mononuclear cells by qPCR was determined. RESULTS:Oil addition attenuated the increase of glucose in 16 (38.1%) participants. This group showed a higher concentration of fasting triacylglycerides and sirtuin-1 expression at 4 hours post-Sacha inchi oil correlated with glucose at the same time (r = -0.724; p = 0.012), and with postprandial insulin sensitivity (r = 0.636; p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS:The addition of Sacha inchi oil to a highly fatty meal improves insulin sensitivity in people with higher basal triglyceridemia and higher glycemic responses after a fat load. Under these conditions, sirtuin-1 expression correlates with postprandial insulin sensitivity.
Poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes patients reduces endothelial progenitor cell number by influencing SIRT1 signalling via platelet-activating factor receptor activation.
Balestrieri M L,Servillo L,Esposito A,D'Onofrio N,Giovane A,Casale R,Barbieri M,Paolisso P,Rizzo M R,Paolisso G,Marfella R
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Downregulation of levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) during in-vitro short-term exposure to high glucose concentrations relates to reduced activity of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and increased synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF). We investigated the possible relationship between PAF and SIRT1 pathways in EPCs during altered glucose homeostasis. METHODS:SIRT1 and PAF receptor (PAF-R) levels were determined by western blot, RT-PCR and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. In-vivo experiments were performed on 48 type 2 diabetic patients (25 with poor glycaemic control and 23 with good glycaemic control) and 20 control individuals. In-vitro experiments with the PAF-R antagonist CV3988 were performed on EPCs isolated from leucocyte-rich buffy coat of healthy human donors. RESULTS:Decreased SIRT1 protein levels were observed in EPCs from type 2 diabetic patients compared with control individuals (p < 0.01). Notably, the SIRT1 level was consistently lower in patients with poor glycaemic control than in those with good glycaemic control (p < 0.01). Diabetic patients also showed an upregulation of PAF-Rs; this response occurred to a greater extent in individuals with poor glycaemic control than in those with good glycaemic control. In-vitro experiments confirmed that EPCs respond to PAF stimulation with decreased SIRT1 protein and SIRT1 mRNA levels. Moreover, reduction of SIRT1 levels and activity were abolished by CV3988. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:These findings unveil a link between PAF and SIRT1 pathways in EPCs that contributes to the deleterious effect of hyperglycaemia on the functional properties of EPCs, crucial in diabetes and peripheral vascular complications.
Cardiovascular effects of a novel SIRT1 activator, SRT2104, in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers.
Venkatasubramanian Sowmya,Noh Radzi Mohd,Daga Shruti,Langrish Jeremy P,Joshi Nikhil V,Mills Nicholas L,Hoffmann Ethan,Jacobson Eric W,Vlasuk George P,Waterhouse Brian R,Lang Ninian N,Newby David E
Journal of the American Heart Association
BACKGROUND:We examined the effect of the oral SIRT1 activator SRT2104 on cardiovascular function in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers. METHODS AND RESULTS:Twenty-four otherwise healthy cigarette smokers participated in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial and received 28 days of oral SRT2104 (2.0 g/day) or matched placebo. Plasma SRT2104 concentrations, serum lipid profile, plasma fibrinolytic factors, and markers of platelet and monocyte activation were measured at baseline and at the end of each treatment period together with an assessment of forearm blood flow during intra-arterial bradykinin, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside infusions. Three hours postdose, mean plasma SRT2104 concentration was 1328 ± 748 ng/mL after 28 days of active treatment. Compared with placebo, serum lipid profile improved during SRT2104 administration, with reductions in serum total cholesterol (-11.6 ± 20 versus 6 ± 21 mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-10 ± 17 versus 3 ± 21 mg/dL), and triglyceride (-39.8 ± 77 versus 13.3 ± 57 mg/dL) concentrations (P<0.05 for all). All vasodilators produced a dose-dependent increase in blood flow (P<0.0001) that was similar during each treatment period (P>0.05 for all). No significant differences in fibrinolytic or blood flow parameters were observed between placebo and SRT2014. CONCLUSIONS:SRT2104 appears to be safe and well tolerated and associated with an improved lipid profile without demonstrable differences in vascular or platelet function in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01031108.
Cardiometabolic effects of a novel SIRT1 activator, SRT2104, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Noh Radzi M,Venkatasubramanian Sowmya,Daga Shruti,Langrish Jeremy,Mills Nicholas L,Lang Ninian N,Hoffmann Ethan,Waterhouse Brian,Newby David E,Frier Brian M
BACKGROUND:The cardiometabolic effects of SRT2104, a novel SIRT1 activator, were investigated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS:Fifteen adults with T2DM underwent a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial and received 28 days of oral SRT2104 (2.0 g/day) or placebo. Forearm vasodilatation (measured during intrabrachial bradykinin, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside infusions) as well as markers of glycaemic control, lipid profile, plasma fibrinolytic factors, and markers of platelet-monocyte activation, were measured at baseline and at the end of each treatment period. RESULTS:Lipid profile and platelet-monocyte activation were similar in both treatment arms (p>0.05 for all). Forearm vasodilatation was similar on exposure to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside (p>0.05, respectively). Bradykinin-induced vasodilatation was less during treatment with SRT2104 versus placebo (7.753vs9.044, respectively, mean difference=-1.291,(95% CI -2.296 to -0.285, p=0.012)). Estimated net plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 antigen release was reduced in the SRT2104 arm versus placebo (mean difference=-38.89 ng/100 mL tissue/min, (95% CI -75.47, to -2.305, p=0.038)). There were no differences in other plasma fibrinolytic factors (p>0.05 for all). After 28 days, SRT2104 exposure was associated with weight reduction (-0.93 kg (95% CI -1.72 to -0.15), p=0.0236), and a rise in glycated haemoglobin (5 mmol/mol or 0.48% (0.26 to 0.70), p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS:In people with T2DM, SRT2104 had inconsistent, predominantly neutral effects on endothelial and fibrinolytic function, and no discernible effect on lipids or platelet function. In contrast, weight loss was induced along with deterioration in glycaemic control, suggestive of potentially important metabolic effects. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01031108; Results.
Effects of crocin and saffron aqueous extract on gene expression of SIRT1, AMPK, LOX1, NF-κB, and MCP-1 in patients with coronary artery disease: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Abedimanesh Nasim,Motlagh Behrooz,Abedimanesh Saeed,Bathaie S Zahra,Separham Ahmad,Ostadrahimi Alireza
Phytotherapy research : PTR
This trial evaluated the potential impacts of saffron aqueous extract (SAE) and its main carotenoid on some of the atherosclerosis-related gene expression and serum levels of oxidized low-density cholesterol (ox-LDL) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Participants of this randomized controlled trial included 84 CAD patients who categorized into three groups: Group 1 received crocin (30 mg/day), Group 2 SAE (30 mg/day), and Group 3 placebo for 8 weeks. Gene expression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX1), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and MCP-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells assessed by real-time PCR. Furthermore, serum ox-LDL and MCP-1 levels measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. Compared with the placebo group, gene expression of SIRT1 and AMPK increased significantly in the crocin group (p = .001), and the expression of LOX1 and NF-κB decreased significantly (p = .016 and .004, respectively). Serum ox-LDL levels decreased significantly in the crocin group after the intervention (p = .002) while MCP-1 levels decreased both in crocin and SAE groups (p = .001). Crocin may have beneficial effects on CAD patients by increasing the gene expression of SIRT1 and AMPK and decreasing the expression of LOX1 and NF-κB.
Downregulation of Sirt1 as aging change in advanced heart failure.
Lu Tse-Min,Tsai Jia-Yun,Chen Yen-Chung,Huang Chun-Yang,Hsu Hung-Lung,Weng Chi-Feng,Shih Chun-Che,Hsu Chiao-Po
Journal of biomedical science
BACKGROUND:In congestive heart failure the balance between cell death and cell survival in cardiomyocytes is compromised. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) activates cell survival machinery and has been shown to be protective against ischemia/reperfusion injury in murine heart. The role of Sirt1 in heart failure, especially in human hearts is not clear. RESULTS:The expression of Sirt1 and other (associated) downstream molecules in human cardiomyocytes from patients with advanced heart failure was examined. Sirt1 was down-regulated (54.92% ± 7.80% in advanced heart failure samples compared with healthy control cardiomyocytes). The modulation of molecules involved in cardiomyocyte survival and death in advanced heart failure were also examined. The expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin1, as well as an antiapoptotic molecule, Bcl-xL, were all significantly reduced in advanced heart failure cardiomyoctes (0.71 ± 0.02-fold, 0.61 ± 0.05-fold, and 0.53 ± 0.08-fold vs. control, respectively); whereas the expression of proapoptotic molecule Bax was significantly increased (1.62 ± 0.18-fold vs. control). Increased TUNEL-positive number of cardiomyocytes and oxidative stress, confirmed by 8-hydorxydeoxyguanosine staining, were associated with advanced heart failure. The AMPK-Nampt-Sirt1 axis also showed inhibition in advanced heart failure in addition to severely impaired AMPK activation. Increased p53 (acetyl form) and decreased FoxO1 translocation in the nucleus may be the mechanism of down-regulation of antioxidants and up-regulation of proapoptotic molecules due to low expression of Sirt1. CONCLUSION:In advanced heart failure, low Sirt1 expression, like aging change may be a significant contributing factor in the downregulation of antioxidants and upregulation of proapoptotic molecules through the p53, FoxO1, and oxidative stress pathways.
Garlic activates SIRT-3 to prevent cardiac oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes.
Sultana Md Razia,Bagul Pankaj K,Katare Parameshwar B,Anwar Mohammed Soheb,Padiya Raju,Banerjee Sanjay K
BACKGROUND:Cardiac complications are major contributor in the mortality of diabetic people. Mitochondrial dysfunctioning is a crucial contributor for the cardiac complications in diabetes, and SIRT-3 remains the major mitochondrial deacetylase. We hypothesized whether garlic has any role on SIRT-3 to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic heart. METHODS:Rats with developed hyperglycemia after STZ injection were divided into two groups; diabetic (Dia) and diabetic+garlic (Dia+Garl). Garlic was administered at a dose of 250mg/kg/day, orally for four weeks. An additional group was maintained to evaluate the effect of raw garlic administration on control rat heart. RESULT:We have observed altered functioning of cardiac mitochondrial enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, and increased levels of cardiac ROS with decreased activity of catalase and SOD in diabetic rats. Cardiac mRNA expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, and CO1 was also altered in diabetes. In addition, reduced levels of electron transport chain complexes that observed in Dia group were normalized with garlic administration. This indicates the presence of increased oxidative stress with mitochondrial dysfunctioning in diabetic heart. We have observed reduced activity of SIRT3 and increased acetylation of MnSOD. Silencing SIRT-3 in cells also revealed the same. However, administration of garlic improved the SIRT-3 and MnSOD activity, by deacetylating MnSOD. Increased SOD activity was correlated with reduced levels of ROS in garlic-administered rat hearts. CONCLUSION:Collectively, our results provide an insight into garlic's protection to T1DM heart through activation of SIRT3-MnSOD pathway.
The brain, sirtuins, and ageing.
Satoh Akiko,Imai Shin-Ichiro,Guarente Leonard
Nature reviews. Neuroscience
In mammals, recent studies have demonstrated that the brain, the hypothalamus in particular, is a key bidirectional integrator of humoral and neural information from peripheral tissues, thus influencing ageing both in the brain and at the 'systemic' level. CNS decline drives the progressive impairment of cognitive, social and physical abilities, and the mechanisms underlying CNS regulation of the ageing process, such as microglia-neuron networks and the activities of sirtuins, a class of NAD-dependent deacylases, are beginning to be understood. Such mechanisms are potential targets for the prevention or treatment of age-associated dysfunction and for the extension of a healthy lifespan.
Protective effects of sirtuins in cardiovascular diseases: from bench to bedside.
Winnik Stephan,Auwerx Johan,Sinclair David A,Matter Christian M
European heart journal
Sirtuins (Sirt1-Sirt7) comprise a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent enzymes. While deacetylation reflects their main task, some of them have deacylase, adenosine diphosphate-ribosylase, demalonylase, glutarylase, and desuccinylase properties. Activated upon caloric restriction and exercise, they control critical cellular processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria to maintain metabolic homeostasis, reduce cellular damage and dampen inflammation-all of which serve to protect against a variety of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular pathologies. This review focuses on the cardiovascular effects of Sirt1, Sirt3, Sirt6, and Sirt7. Most is known about Sirt1. This deacetylase protects from endothelial dysfunction, atherothrombosis, diet-induced obesity, type 2 diabetes, liver steatosis, and myocardial infarction. Sirt3 provides beneficial effects in the context of left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, oxidative stress, metabolic homeostasis, and dyslipidaemia. Sirt6 is implicated in ameliorating dyslipidaemia, cellular senescence, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Sirt7 plays a role in lipid metabolism and cardiomyopathies. Most of these data were derived from experimental findings in genetically modified mice, where NFκB, Pcsk9, low-density lipoprotein-receptor, PPARγ, superoxide dismutase 2, poly[adenosine diphosphate-ribose] polymerase 1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were identified among others as crucial molecular targets and/or partners of sirtuins. Of note, there is translational evidence for a role of sirtuins in patients with endothelial dysfunction, type 1 or type 2 diabetes and longevity. Given the availability of specific Sirt1 activators or pan-sirtuin activators that boost levels of the sirtuin cofactor NAD⁺, we anticipate that this field will move quickly from bench to bedside.
Deacetylase-independent function of SIRT6 couples GATA4 transcription factor and epigenetic activation against cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
Peng Linyuan,Qian Minxian,Liu Zuojun,Tang Xiaolong,Sun Jie,Jiang Yue,Sun Shimin,Cao Xinyue,Pang Qiuxiang,Liu Baohua
Nucleic acids research
SIRT6 deacetylase activity improves stress resistance via gene silencing and genome maintenance. Here, we reveal a deacetylase-independent function of SIRT6, which promotes anti-apoptotic gene expression via the transcription factor GATA4. SIRT6 recruits TIP60 acetyltransferase to acetylate GATA4 at K328/330, thus enhancing its chromatin binding capacity. In turn, GATA4 inhibits the deacetylase activity of SIRT6, thus ensuring the local chromatin accessibility via TIP60-promoted H3K9 acetylation. Significantly, the treatment of doxorubicin (DOX), an anti-cancer chemotherapeutic, impairs the SIRT6-TIP60-GATA4 trimeric complex, blocking GATA4 acetylation and causing cardiomyocyte apoptosis. While GATA4 hyperacetylation-mimic retains the protective effect against DOX, the hypoacetylation-mimic loses such ability. Thus, the data reveal a novel SIRT6-TIP60-GATA4 axis, which promotes the anti-apoptotic pathway to prevent DOX toxicity. Targeting the trimeric complex constitutes a new strategy to improve the safety of DOX chemotherapy in clinical application.
Nicotinamide riboside promotes autolysosome clearance in preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
Zheng Dong,Zhang Yi,Zheng Ming,Cao Ting,Wang Grace,Zhang Lulu,Ni Rui,Brockman Joseph,Zhong Huiting,Fan Guo-Chang,Peng Tianqing
Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used as a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for various malignancies. However, DOX causes severe cardiotoxicity, which limits its clinical uses. Oxidative stress is one of major contributors to DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. While autophagic flux serves as an important defense mechanism against oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes, recent studies have demonstrated that DOX induces the blockage of autophagic flux, which contributes to DOX cardiotoxicity. The present study investigated whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), prevents DOX cardiotoxicity by improving autophagic flux. We report that administration of NR elevated NAD levels, and reduced cardiac injury and myocardial dysfunction in DOX-injected mice. These protective effects of NR were recapitulated in cultured cardiomyocytes upon DOX treatment. Mechanistically, NR prevented the blockage of autophagic flux, accumulation of autolysosomes, and oxidative stress in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes, the effects of which were associated with restoration of lysosomal acidification. Furthermore, inhibition of lysosomal acidification or SIRT1 abrogated these protective effects of NR during DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our study shows that NR enhances autolysosome clearance via the NAD/SIRT1 signaling, thereby preventing DOX-triggered cardiotoxicity.
Inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) by doxorubicin accentuates genotoxic stress and cell death in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes: role of p53 and SIRT1.
Wang Shaobin,Song Ping,Zou Ming-Hui
The Journal of biological chemistry
Doxorubicin, an anthracycline antibiotic, is widely used in cancer treatment. Doxorubicin produces genotoxic stress and p53 activation in both carcinoma and non-carcinoma cells. Although its side effects in non-carcinoma cells, especially in heart tissue, are well known, the molecular targets of doxorubicin are poorly characterized. Here, we report that doxorubicin inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) resulting in SIRT1 dysfunction and p53 accumulation. Spontaneously immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or H9C2 cardiomyocyte were exposed to doxorubicin at different doses and durations. Cell death and p53, SIRT1, and AMPK levels were examined by Western blot. In MEFs, doxorubicin inhibited AMPK activation, increased cell death, and induced robust p53 accumulation. Genetic deletion of AMPKα1 reduced NAD(+) levels and SIRT1 activity and significantly increased the levels of p53 and cell death. Pre-activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside or transfection with an adenovirus encoding a constitutively active AMPK (AMPK-CA) markedly reduced the effects of doxorubicin in MEFs from Ampkα1 knock-out mice. Conversely, pre-inhibition of Ampk further sensitized MEFs to doxorubicin-induced cell death. Genetic knockdown of p53 protected both wild-type and Ampkα1(-/-) MEFs from doxorubicin-induced cell death. p53 accumulation in Ampkα1(-/-) MEFs was reversed by SIRT1 activation by resveratrol. Taken together, these data suggest that AMPK inhibition by doxorubicin causes p53 accumulation and SIRT1 dysfunction in MEFs and further suggest that pharmacological activation of AMPK might alleviate the side effects of doxorubicin.
Crosstalk between AMPK activation and angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes: the role of mitochondria.
Hernández Jessica Soto,Barreto-Torres Giselle,Kuznetsov Andrey V,Khuchua Zaza,Javadov Sabzali
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation reduces cardiac hypertrophy, although underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we elucidated the anti-hypertrophic action of metformin, specifically, the role of the AMPK/eNOS/p53 pathway. H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes were treated with angiotensin II (AngII) for 24 hrs in the presence or absence of metformin (AMPK agonist), losartan [AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker], Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, pan-NOS inhibitor), splitomicin (SIRT1 inhibitor) or pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor). Results showed that treatment with metformin significantly attenuated AngII-induced cell hypertrophy and death. Metformin attenuated AngII-induced activation (cleavage) of caspase 3, Bcl-2 down-regulation and p53 up-regulation. It also reduced AngII-induced AT1R up-regulation by 30% (P < 0.05) and enhanced AMPK phosphorylation by 99% (P < 0.01) and P-eNOS levels by 3.3-fold (P < 0.01). Likewise, losartan reduced AT1R up-regulation and enhanced AMPK phosphorylation by 54% (P < 0.05). The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, prevented AT1R down-regulation, indicating that metformin mediated its effects via AMPK activation. Beneficial effects of metformin and losartan converged on mitochondria that demonstrated high membrane potential (Δψm ) and low permeability transition pore opening. Thus, this study demonstrates that the anti-hypertrophic effects of metformin are associated with AMPK-induced AT1R down-regulation and prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction through the SIRT1/eNOS/p53 pathway.
Reduced silent information regulator 1 signaling exacerbates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in type 2 diabetic rats and the protective effect of melatonin.
Yu Liming,Liang Hongliang,Dong Xiaochao,Zhao Guolong,Jin Zhenxiao,Zhai Mengen,Yang Yang,Chen Wensheng,Liu Jincheng,Yi Wei,Yang Jian,Yi Dinghua,Duan Weixun,Yu Shiqiang
Journal of pineal research
Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases myocardial oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Melatonin confers cardioprotective effect by suppressing oxidative damage. However, the effect and mechanism of melatonin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in type 2 diabetic state are still unknown. In this study, we developed high-fat diet-fed streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) rat, a well-known type 2 diabetic model, to evaluate the effect of melatonin on MI/R injury with a focus on silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) signaling, oxidative stress, and PERK/eIF2α/ATF4-mediated ER stress. HFD-STZ treated rats were exposed to melatonin treatment in the presence or the absence of sirtinol (a SIRT1 inhibitor) and subjected to MI/R surgery. Compared with nondiabetic animals, type 2 diabetic rats exhibited significantly decreased myocardial SIRT1 signaling, increased apoptosis, enhanced oxidative stress, and ER stress. Additionally, further reduced SIRT1 signaling, aggravated oxidative damage, and ER stress were found in diabetic animals subjected to MI/R surgery. Melatonin markedly reduced MI/R injury by improving cardiac functional recovery and decreasing myocardial apoptosis in type 2 diabetic animals. Melatonin treatment up-regulated SIRT1 expression, reduced oxidative damage, and suppressed PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling. However, these effects were all attenuated by SIRT1 inhibition. Melatonin also protected high glucose/high fat cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes against simulated ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced ER stress by activating SIRT1 signaling while SIRT1 siRNA blunted this action. Taken together, our study demonstrates that reduced cardiac SIRT1 signaling in type 2 diabetic state aggravates MI/R injury. Melatonin ameliorates reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and ER stress via activation of SIRT1 signaling, thus reducing MI/R damage and improving cardiac function.
Berberine Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Response: Role of Silent Information Regulator 1.
Yu Liming,Li Qing,Yu Bo,Yang Yang,Jin Zhenxiao,Duan Weixun,Zhao Guolong,Zhai Mengen,Liu Lijun,Yi Dinghua,Chen Min,Yu Shiqiang
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Berberine (BBR) exerts potential protective effect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Activation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) signaling attenuates MI/R injury by reducing oxidative damage and inflammation response. This study investigated the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of BBR treatment in MI/R condition and elucidated its potential mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with BBR in the absence or presence of the SIRT1 inhibitor sirtinol (Stnl) and then subjected to MI/R injury. BBR conferred cardioprotective effects by improving postischemic cardiac function, decreasing infarct size, reducing apoptotic index, diminishing serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, upregulating SIRT1, Bcl-2 expressions, and downregulating Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Stnl attenuated these effects by inhibiting SIRT1 signaling. BBR treatment also reduced myocardium superoxide generation, gp91(phox) expression, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and cardiac inflammatory markers and increased myocardium superoxide dismutase (SOD) level. However, these effects were also inhibited by Stnl. Consistently, BBR conferred similar antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects against simulated ischemia reperfusion injury in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes. SIRT1 siRNA administration also abolished these effects. In summary, our results demonstrate that BBR significantly improves post-MI/R cardiac function recovery and reduces infarct size against MI/R injury possibly due to its strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Additionally, SIRT1 signaling plays a key role in this process.
Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function.
Wang Yi,Liang Xinying,Chen Yaqi,Zhao Xiaoping
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1) belongs to the family of NAD(+) dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1.
CTRP3 protected against doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction, inflammation and cell death via activation of Sirt1.
Yuan Yu-Pei,Ma Zhen-Guo,Zhang Xin,Xu Si-Chi,Zeng Xiao-Feng,Yang Zheng,Deng Wei,Tang Qi-Zhu
Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
BACKGROUND:Inflammation and myocytes apoptosis play critical roles in the development of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. Our previous study found that C1q/tumour necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) could inhibit cardiac inflammation and apoptosis of myocytes but its role in DOX-induced heart injury remains largely unknown. Our study aimed to investigate whether CTRP3 protected against DOX-induced heart injury and the underlying mechanism. METHODS:We overexpressed CTRP3 in the hearts using an adeno-associated virus system. The mice were subjected to a single intraperitoneal injection of DOX (15mg/kg) to induce short-term model for cardiomyopathy. The morphological examination and biochemical analysis were used to evaluate the effects of CTRP3. H9C2 cells were used to verify the protective role of CTRP3 in vitro. RESULTS:Myocardial CTRP3 protein levels were reduced in DOX-treated mice. Cardiac specific-overexpression of CTRP3 preserved heart dysfunction, and attenuated cardiac inflammation and cell loss induced by DOX in vivo and in vitro. CTRP3 could activate silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, specific inhibitor of Sirt1 and the silence of Sirt1 could abolish the protective effects of CTRP3 against DOX-induced inflammation and apoptosis. CONCLUSION:CTRP3 protected against DOX-induced heart injury via activation of Sirt1. CTRP3 has therapeutic potential for the treatment of DOX cardiotoxicity.
Melatonin prevents Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission in diabetic hearts through SIRT1-PGC1α pathway.
Ding Mingge,Feng Na,Tang Daishi,Feng Jiahao,Li Zeyang,Jia Min,Liu Zhenhua,Gu Xiaoming,Wang Yuemin,Fu Feng,Pei Jianming
Journal of pineal research
Myocardial contractile dysfunction is associated with an increase in mitochondrial fission in patients with diabetes. However, whether mitochondrial fission directly promotes diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction is still unknown. Melatonin exerts a substantial influence on the regulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion. This study investigated whether melatonin protects against diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction via regulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion and explored its underlying mechanisms. Here, we show that melatonin prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by inhibiting dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission. Melatonin treatment decreased Drp1 expression, inhibited mitochondrial fragmentation, suppressed oxidative stress, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, improved mitochondrial function and cardiac function in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, but not in SIRT1 diabetic mice. In high glucose-exposed H9c2 cells, melatonin treatment increased the expression of SIRT1 and PGC-1α and inhibited Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and mitochondria-derived superoxide production. In contrast, SIRT1 or PGC-1α siRNA knockdown blunted the inhibitory effects of melatonin on Drp1 expression and mitochondrial fission. These data indicated that melatonin exerted its cardioprotective effects by reducing Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission in a SIRT1/PGC-1α-dependent manner. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that PGC-1α directly regulated the expression of Drp1 by binding to its promoter. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission with Drp1 inhibitor mdivi-1 suppressed oxidative stress, alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac dysfunction in diabetic mice. These findings show that melatonin attenuates the development of diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by preventing mitochondrial fission through SIRT1-PGC1α pathway, which negatively regulates the expression of Drp1 directly. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission may be a potential target for delaying cardiac complications in patients with diabetes.
Naringenin improves mitochondrial function and reduces cardiac damage following ischemia-reperfusion injury: the role of the AMPK-SIRT3 signaling pathway.
Yu Li-Ming,Dong Xue,Xue Xiao-Dong,Zhang Jian,Li Zhi,Wu Hong-Jiang,Yang Zhong-Lu,Yang Yang,Wang Hui-Shan
Food & function
Mitochondrial dysfunction contributed greatly to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Naringenin is a flavonoid exhibiting potential protective effects on myocardial mitochondria under stress conditions. However, the detailed down-stream signaling pathway involved remains uncovered. This study was designed to elucidate naringenin's mitochondrial protective actions during MI/R with a focus on AMPK-SIRT3 signaling. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with naringenin (50 mg kg-1 d-1) and subjected to MI/R surgery in the presence or absence of compound C (0.25 mg kg-1, Com.C, an AMPK inhibitor) co-treatment. An in vitro study was performed on H9c2 cardiomyoblasts subjected to simulated ischemia-reperfusion treatment. Before the treatment, the cells were administered with naringenin (80 μmol L-1) with or without SIRT3 siRNA/AMPK1α siRNA transfection. Naringenin improved post-reperfusion left ventricular systolic pressure and the instantaneous first derivative of left ventricular pressure, and reduced the infarction size and myocardial apoptosis index by suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress damage (as evidenced by decreased mitochondrial cytochrome c release and oxidative markers) and enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis [as evidenced by increased NRF1, TFAM and oxidative phosphorylation subunit complexes (II, III and IV)]. These protective actions were abolished by Com.C (in vivo) or SIRT3 siRNA (in vitro) administration. Further investigation revealed that Com.C (in vivo) or AMPK1α siRNA (in vitro) markedly suppressed PGC-1α and SIRT3 levels while SIRT3 siRNA (in vitro) inhibited SIRT3 expression without significantly changing AMPK phosphorylation and PGC-1α levels. Taken together, we found that naringenin directly inhibits mitochondrial oxidative stress damage and preserves mitochondrial biogenesis, thus attenuating MI/R injury. Importantly, AMPK-SIRT3 signaling played a key role in this process.
PGC1α activation by pterostilbene ameliorates acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress via enhancing AMPK and SIRT1 cascades.
Liu Dong,Ma Zhiqiang,Xu Liqun,Zhang Xiaoyan,Qiao Shubin,Yuan Jiansong
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used and potent anticancer agent, but DOX dose-dependently induced cardiotoxicity greatly limits its use in clinic. Pterostilbene, a natural analog of resveratrol, is a known antioxidant and exerts myocardial protection. The present study explored the action and detailed mechanism of pterostilbene on DOX-treated cardiomyocytes. We investigated the effects of pterostilbene on established acute DOX-induced cardiotoxicity models in both H9c2 cells treated with 1 μM DOX and C57BL/6 mice with DOX (20 mg/kg cumulative dose) exposure. Pterostilbene markedly alleviated the DOX exposure-induced acute myocardial injury. Both and studies revealed that pterostilbene inhibited the acute DOX exposure-caused oxidative stress and mitochondrial morphological disorder via the PGC1α upregulation through activating AMPK and via PGC1α deacetylation through enhancing SIRT1. However, these effects were partially reversed by knockdown of AMPK or SIRT1 and treatment of Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) or EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor) . Our results indicate that pterostilbene protects cardiomyocytes from acute DOX exposure-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage via PGC1α upregulation and deacetylation through activating AMPK and SIRT1 cascades.
High content screening identifies licoisoflavone A as a bioactive compound of Tongmaiyangxin Pills to restrain cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via activating Sirt3.
Guo Rui,Liu Ningning,Liu Hao,Zhang Junhua,Zhang Han,Wang Yingchao,Baruscotti Mirko,Zhao Lu,Wang Yi
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
BACKGROUND:Cardiac hypertrophy is a prominent feature of heart remodeling, which may eventually lead to heart failure. Tongmaiyangxin (TMYX) pills are a clinically used botanical drug for treating multiple cardiovascular diseases including chronic heart failure. The aim of the current study was to identify the bioactive compounds in Tongmaiyangxin pills that attenuate cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, and to investigate the underlying mechanism of action. METHODS AND RESULTS:The anti-hypertrophy effect of TMYX was validated in isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy model in C57BL/6 mice. After TMYX treatment for 2 weeks, the heart ejection fraction and fractional shortening of the mice model was increased by approximately 20% and 15%, respectively, (p < 0.05). Besides, TMYX dose-dependently reduced the cross section area of cardiomyocytes in the angiotensin-II induced hypertrophy H9c2 model (p < 0.01). Combining high content screening and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, four compounds with anti-cardiac hypertrophy effects were identified from TMYX, which includes emodin, licoisoflavone A, licoricone and glyasperin A. Licoisoflavone A is one of the compounds with most significant protective effect and we continued to investigate the mechanism. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with a hypertrophic agonist phenylephrine (PE) in the presence or absence of licoisoflavone A. After 48 h of treatment, cells were harvested and mitochondrial acetylation was analyzed by western blotting and Image analysis. Interestingly, the results suggested that the anti-hypertrophic effects of licoisoflavone A depend on the activation of the deacetylase Sirt3 (p < 0.01). Finally, we showed that licoisoflavone A-treatment was able to decrease relative ANF and BNP levels in the hypertrophic cardiac cells (p < 0.01), but not in cells co-treated with Sirt3 inhibitors (3-TYP) (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION:TMYX exerts its anti-hypertrophy effect possibly through upregulating Sirt3 expression. Four compounds were identified from TMYX which may be responsible for the anti-hypertrophy effect. Among these compounds, licoisoflavone A was demonstrated to block the hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes, which required its positive regulation on the expression of Sirt3. These results suggested that licoisoflavone A is a potential Sirt3 activator with therapeutic effect on cardiac hypertrophy.
Cardioprotection of CAPE-oNO against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion induced ROS generation via regulating the SIRT1/eNOS/NF-κB pathway in vivo and in vitro.
Li Dejuan,Wang Xiaoling,Huang Qin,Li Sai,Zhou You,Li Zhubo
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) could ameliorate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) by various mechanisms, but there hadn't been any reports on that CAPE could regulate silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to exert cardioprotective effect. The present study aimed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of caffeic acid o-nitro phenethyl ester (CAPE-oNO) on MIRI and the possible mechanism based on the positive control of CAPE. The SD rats were subjected to left coronary artery ischemia /reperfusion (IR) and the H9c2 cell cultured in hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR) to induce the MIRI model. Prior to the procedure, vehicle, CAPE or CAPE-oNO were treated in the absence or presence of a SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) and an eNOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In vivo, CAPE and CAPE-oNO conferred a cardioprotective effect as shown by reduced myocardial infarct size, cardiac marker enzymes and structural abnormalities. From immunohistochemical and sirius red staining, above two compounds ameliorated the TNF-α release and collagen deposition of IR rat hearts. They could agitate SIRT1 and eNOS expression, and consequently enhance NO release and suppress NF-κB signaling, to reduce the malondialdehyde content and cell necrosis. In vitro, they could inhibit HR-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis and ROS generation by activating SIRT1/eNOS pathway and inhabiting NF-κB expression. Emphatically, CAPE-oNO presented the stronger cardioprotection than CAPE both in vivo and in vitro. However, NAM and L-NAME eliminated the CAPE-oNO-mediated cardioprotection by restraining SIRT1 and eNOS expression, respectively. It suggested that CAPE-oNO ameliorated MIRI by suppressing the oxidative stress, inflammatory response, fibrosis and necrocytosis via the SIRT1/eNOS/NF-κB pathway.
MicroRNA-140-5p aggravates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by promoting myocardial oxidative stress via targeting Nrf2 and Sirt2.
Zhao Lisha,Qi Yan,Xu Lina,Tao Xufeng,Han Xu,Yin Lianhong,Peng Jinyong
Clinical application of doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic with potent anti- tumor effects, is limited because of its cardiotoxicity. However, its pathogenesis is still not entirely understood. The aim of this paper was to explore the mechanisms and new drug targets to treat DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The in vitro model on H9C2 cells and the in vivo models on rats and mice were developed. The results showed that DOX markedly decreased H9C2 cell viability, increased the levels of CK, LDH, caused histopathological and ECG changes in rats and mice, and triggered myocardial oxidative damage via adjusting the levels of intracellular ROS, MDA, SOD, GSH and GSH-Px. Total of 18 differentially expressed microRNAs in rat heart tissue caused by DOX were screened out using microRNA microarray assay, especially showing that miR-140-5p was significantly increased by DOX which was selected as the target miRNA. Double-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-140-5p directly targeted Nrf2 and Sirt2, as a result of affecting the expression levels of HO-1, NQO1, Gst, GCLM, Keap1 and FOXO3a, and thereby increasing DOX-caused myocardial oxidative damage. In addition, the levels of intracellular ROS were significantly increased or decreased in H9C2 cells treated with DOX after miR-140-5p mimic or miR-140-5p inhibitor transfection, respectively, as well as the changed expression levels of Nrf2 and Sirt2. Furthermore, DOX- induced myocardial oxidative damage was worsened in mice treated with miR-140-5p agomir, and however the injury was alleviated in the mice administrated with miR-140-5p antagomir. Therefore, miR-140-5p plays an important role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by promoting myocardial oxidative stress via targeting Nrf2 and Sirt2. Our data provide novel insights for investigating DOX-induced heart injury. In addition, miR-140-5p/ Nrf2 and miR-140-5p/Sirt2 may be the new targets to treat DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
Berberine Ameliorates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity via a SIRT1/p66Shc-Mediated Pathway.
Wu Yan-Zhao,Zhang Lan,Wu Zi-Xiao,Shan Tong-Tong,Xiong Chen
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced cardiotoxicity is associated with oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The adaptor protein p66Shc regulates the cellular redox status and determines cell susceptibility to apoptosis. This study is aimed at investigating the involvement of sirtuin 1- (SIRT1-) mediated p66Shc inhibition in DOX-induced redox signalling and exploring the possible protective mechanisms of berberine (Ber) against DOX-triggered cardiac injury in rats and a cultured H9c2 cell line. Our results showed that the Ber pretreatment markedly increased CAT, SOD, and GSH-PX activities, decreased the levels of MDA, and improved the electrocardiogram and histopathological changes in the myocardium in DOX-treated rats (in vivo). Furthermore, Ber significantly ameliorated the DOX-induced oxidative insult and mitochondrial damage by adjusting the levels of intracellular ROS, ΔΨ, and [Ca] in H9c2 cells (in vitro). Importantly, the Ber pretreatment increased SIRT1 expression following DOX exposure but downregulated p66Shc. Consistent with the results demonstrating the SIRT1-mediated inhibition of p66Shc expression, the Ber pretreatment inhibited DOX-triggered cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. After exposing H9c2 cells to DOX, the increased SIRT1 expression induced by Ber was abrogated by a SIRT1-specific inhibitor (EX527) or the use of siRNA against SIRT1. Accordingly, SIRT1 inhibition significantly abrogated the suppression of p66Shc expression and protection of Ber against DOX-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. These results suggest that Ber protects the heart from DOX injury through SIRT1-mediated p66Shc suppression, offering a novel mechanism responsible for the protection of Ber against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy.
Melatonin ameliorates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through SIRT3-dependent regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Zhai Mengen,Li Buying,Duan Weixun,Jing Lin,Zhang Bin,Zhang Meng,Yu Liming,Liu Zhenhua,Yu Bo,Ren Kai,Gao Erhe,Yang Yang,Liang Hongliang,Jin Zhenxiao,Yu Shiqiang
Journal of pineal research
Sirtuins are a family of highly evolutionarily conserved nicotinamide adenine nucleotide-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) is a member of the sirtuin family that is localized primarily to the mitochondria and protects against oxidative stress-related diseases, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Melatonin has a favorable effect in ameliorating MI/R injury. We hypothesized that melatonin protects against MI/R injury by activating the SIRT3 signaling pathway. In this study, mice were pretreated with or without a selective SIRT3 inhibitor and then subjected to MI/R operation. Melatonin was administered intraperitoneally (20 mg/kg) 10 minutes before reperfusion. Melatonin treatment improved postischemic cardiac contractile function, decreased infarct size, diminished lactate dehydrogenase release, reduced the apoptotic index, and ameliorated oxidative damage. Notably, MI/R induced a significant decrease in myocardial SIRT3 expression and activity, whereas the melatonin treatment upregulated SIRT3 expression and activity, and thus decreased the acetylation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). In addition, melatonin increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax, Caspase-3, and cleaved Caspase-3 levels in response to MI/R. However, the cardioprotective effects of melatonin were largely abolished by the selective SIRT3 inhibitor 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (3-TYP), suggesting that SIRT3 plays an essential role in mediating the cardioprotective effects of melatonin. In vitro studies confirmed that melatonin also protected H9c2 cells against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury (SIR) by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis, while SIRT3-targeted siRNA diminished these effects. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that melatonin treatment ameliorates MI/R injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis via activating the SIRT3 signaling pathway.
lncRNA Oip5-as1 attenuates myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury by sponging miR-29a to activate the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC1α pathway.
Niu Xiaowei,Pu Shuangshuang,Ling Chun,Xu Jizhe,Wang Jing,Sun Shaobo,Yao Yali,Zhang Zheng
OBJECTIVES:Myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MI/R injury are unclear. This study investigated the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Oip5-as1 in regulating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during MI/R injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MI/R induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion. H9c2 cells were incubated under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) conditions to mimic in vivo MI/R. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to evaluate gene and protein levels. CCK-8 assay, biochemical assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to assess the function of Oip5-as1. The dual-luciferase gene reporter assay and RIP assay were conducted as needed. RESULTS:Oip5-as1 expression was downregulated in the hearts of rats with MI/R and in H9c2 cells treated with OGD/R. Oip5-as1 overexpression alleviated reactive oxygen species-driven mitochondrial injury and consequently decreased apoptosis in MI/R rats and H9c2 cells exposed to OGD/R. Mechanistically, Oip5-as1 acted as a competing endogenous RNA of miR-29a and thus decreased its expression. Inhibition of miR-29a reduced the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by OGD/R. Overexpression of miR-29a reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of Oip5-as1 in H9c2 cells treated with OGD/R. Further experiments identified SIRT1 as a downstream target of miR-29a. Oip5-as1 upregulated SIRT1 expression and activated the AMPK/PGC1α pathway by targeting miR-29a, thus reducing the apoptosis triggered by OGD/R. However, these effects were reversed by a selective SIRT1 inhibitor, EX527. CONCLUSIONS:Oip5-as1 suppresses miR-29a leading to activation of the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC1α pathway, which attenuates mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during MI/R injury. Our findings thus provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of MI/R injury.
Melatonin improves cardiac and mitochondrial function during doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: A possible role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and sirtuin activity?
Govender Jenelle,Loos Ben,Marais Erna,Engelbrecht Anna-Mart
Toxicology and applied pharmacology
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central element in the development of doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardiotoxicity. In this context, melatonin is known to influence mitochondrial homeostasis and function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin on cardiac function, tumor growth, mitochondrial fission and fusion, PGC1-α and sirtuin activity in an acute model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. During the in vitro study, H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts were pre-treated with melatonin (10 μM, 24 h) followed by DXR exposure (3 μM, 24 h). Following treatment, cellular ATP levels and mitochondrial morphology were assessed. In the in vivo study, female Sprague Dawley rats (16 weeks old), were inoculated with a LA7 rat mammary tumor cell line and tumors were measure daily. Animals were injected with DXR (3 × 4 mg/kg) and/or received melatonin (6 mg/kg) for 14 days in their drinking water. Rat hearts were used to conduct isolated heart perfusions to assess cardiac function and thereafter, heart tissue was used for immunoblot analysis. DXR treatment increased cell death and mitochondrial fission which were reduced with melatonin treatment. Cardiac output increased in rats treated with DXR + melatonin compared to DXR-treated rats. Tumor volumes was significantly reduced in DXR + melatonin-treated rats on Day 8 in comparison to DXR-treated rats. Furthermore, DXR + melatonin treatment increased cellular ATP levels, PGC1-α and SIRT1 expression which was attenuated by DXR treatment. These results indicate that melatonin treatment confers a dual cardio-protective and oncostatic effect by improving mitochondrial function and cardiac function whilst simultaneously retarding tumor growth during DXR-induced cardiotoxicity.
Propofol Alleviates Apoptosis Induced by Chronic High Glucose Exposure via Regulation of HIF-1 in H9c2 Cells.
Pu Jinjun,Zhu Shun,Zhou Dandan,Zhao Lidong,Yin Ming,Wang Zejian,Hong Jiang
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Background:The sedative anesthetic, propofol, is a cardioprotective agent for hyperglycemia-induced myocardial hypertrophy and dysfunction in rats. However, the specific protective mechanism has not been clarified. Methods and Results:In this experiment, we used H9c2 cells subjected to 22 mM glucose lasting for 72 hours as an in vitro model of cardiomyocyte injury by hyperglycemia and investigated the potential mechanism of propofol against hyperglycemic stress in cells. Propofol (5, 10, or 20 M) was added to the cell cultures before and during the high glucose culture phases. Cell viability and levels of ROS were measured. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were tested by ELISA. The levels of SIRT3, SOD2, PHD2, HIF-1, Bcl-2, P53, and cleaved caspase-3 proteins were detected by western blotting. Our data showed that propofol attenuated high glucose-induced cell apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines. Meanwhile, propofol decreased the apoptosis of H9c2 cells via increasing the expression of Bcl-2, SIRT3, SOD2, and PHD2 proteins and decreasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3, P53, and HIF-1. Real-time PCR analysis showed that propofol did not significantly change the HIF-1 but increase PHD2 at mRNA level. HIF-1 silence significantly decreased apoptosis and inflammation in H9c2 cell during high glucose stress. Pretreatment of IOX2 (the inhibitor of PHD2) inhibited cell viability until the concentration reached 200 M during high glucose stress. However, 50 M TYP (the inhibitor of SIRT3) significantly inhibited cell viability during high glucose stress. Delayed IOX2 treatment for 6 hours significantly inhibited cell viability during high glucose stress. Conclusions:Propofol might alleviate cell apoptosis via SIRT3-HIF-1 axis during high glucose stress.
Stimulation of Na/K-ATPase with an Antibody against Its 4 Extracellular Region Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy via an AMPK/SIRT3/PPAR Signaling Pathway.
Xiong Siping,Sun Hai-Jian,Cao Lei,Zhu Mengyuan,Liu Tengteng,Wu Zhiyuan,Bian Jin-Song
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Sodium potassium ATPase (NKA) expression and activity are often regulated by angiotensin II (Ang II). This study is aimed at investigating whether DR-Ab, an antibody against 4 extracellular region of NKA, can protect Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our results showed that Ang II treatment significantly reduced NKA activity and membrane expression. Pretreatment with DR-Ab preserved cell size in Ang II-induced cardiomyopathy by stabilizing the plasma membrane expression of NKA and restoring its activity. DR-Ab reduced intracellular ROS generation through inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and protection of mitochondrial functions in Ang II-treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological manipulation and Western blotting analysis demonstrated the cardioprotective effects were mediated by the activation of the AMPK/Sirt-3/PPAR signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that dysfunction of NKA is an important mechanism for Ang II-induced cardiomyopathy and DR-Ab may be a novel and promising therapeutic approach to treat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
lncRNA ANRIL protects H9c2 cells against hypoxia-induced injury through targeting the miR-7-5p/SIRT1 axis.
Shu Liliang,Zhang Wanzhe,Huang Chen,Huang Gongcheng,Su Gang,Xu Jing
Journal of cellular physiology
BACKGROUND:Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurred in the heart, which underwent long-term ischemia, and was mainly caused by hypoxia. Recently, studies have uncovered the participation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of heart disease. Here, we planned to probe the role and molecular basis of ANRIL in hypoxia-induced H9c2 cell injury. METHODS:Trypan blue exclusion assay and Transwell and flow cytometry assays were conducted to assess hypoxia-induced injury by determining the viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of H9c2 cells in different conditions, respectively. Gene expressions were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis as needed. RNA immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were applied to confirm the associations among genes. RESULTS:ANRIL expression was dramatically enhanced in hypoxia-injured H9c2 cells, and silencing ANRIL aggravated hypoxia-induced H9c2 cell injury. ANRIL positively regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression via competitively binding with miR-7-5p. Moreover, inhibition of miR-7-5p counteracted ANRIL depletion-exacerbated injury in hypoxic H9c2 cells, meanwhile, forced SIRT1 expression attenuated the injury-promoting effect of miR-7-5p upregulation on hypoxic H9c2 cells. CONCLUSION:Our findings disclosed that ANRIL plays a protective part in hypoxia-induced H9c2 cell injury via modulating the miR-7-5p/SIRT1 axis, suggesting the great potential of ANRIL as a protective target for AMI.
Cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism in heart failure: Role of cardiolipin and sirtuins.
Dolinsky Vernon W,Cole Laura K,Sparagna Genevieve C,Hatch Grant M
Biochimica et biophysica acta
Mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids accounts for the majority of cardiac ATP production in the heart. Fatty acid utilization by cardiac mitochondria is controlled at the level of fatty acid uptake, lipid synthesis, mobilization and mitochondrial import and oxidation. Consequently defective mitochondrial function appears to be central to the development of heart failure. Cardiolipin is a key mitochondrial phospholipid required for the activity of the electron transport chain. In heart failure, loss of cardiolipin and tetralinoleoylcardiolipin helps to fuel the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species that are a by-product of inefficient mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and III. In this vicious cycle, reactive oxygen species generate lipid peroxides and may, in turn, cause oxidation of cardiolipin catalyzed by cytochrome c leading to cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Hence, preservation of cardiolipin and mitochondrial function may be keys to the prevention of heart failure development. In this review, we summarize cardiac energy metabolism and the important role that fatty acid uptake and metabolism play in this process and how defects in these result in heart failure. We highlight the key role that cardiolipin and sirtuins play in cardiac mitochondrial β-oxidation. In addition, we review the potential of pharmacological modulation of cardiolipin through the polyphenolic molecule resveratrol as a sirtuin-activator in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, we provide novel experimental evidence that resveratrol treatment increases cardiolipin in isolated H9c2 cardiac myocytes and tetralinoleoylcardiolipin in the heart of the spontaneously hypertensive rat and hypothesize that this leads to improvement in mitochondrial function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk.
Protective effects of higenamine combined with -gingerol against doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and toxicity in H9c2 cells and potential mechanisms.
Wen Jianxia,Wang Jian,Li Pengyan,Wang Ruilin,Wang Jiabo,Zhou Xuelin,Zhang Lu,Li Haotian,Wei Shizhang,Cai Huadan,Zhao Yanling
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Higenamine (HG) is a well-known selective activator of beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) with a positive inotropic effect. The present study showed that HG combined with -gingerol (HG/-GR) protects H9c2 cells from doxorubicin (DOX)-induced mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder and respiratory dysfunction. H9c2 cells were pretreated with HG/-GR for 2 h before DOX treatment in all procedures. Cell viability was quantified by a cell counting kit‑8 assay. Cardiomyocyte morphology, proliferation, and mitochondrial function were detected by a high content screening (HCS) assay. Cell mitochondrial stress was measured by a Seahorse XFp analyzer. To further investigate the protective mechanism of HG/-GR, mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARα/PGC-1α/Sirt3 pathway-related molecules were detected. The present data demonstrated that protective effects of HG/-GR combination were presented in mitochondria, which increased cell viability, ameliorated DOX-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). Most importantly, the protective effects were abrogated by GW6471 (a PPARα inhibitor) and ameliorated by Wy14643 (a PPARα agonist). Moreover, the combined use of HG and -GR exerted more profound protective effects than either drug as a single agent. In conclusion, the results suggested that HG/-GR ameliorates DOX-induced mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder and respiratory function impairment in H9c2 cells, and it indicated that the protective mechanism may be related to upregulation of the PPARα/PGC-1α/Sirt3 pathway, which promotes mitochondrial energy metabolism and protects against heart failure.
Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice) root extract attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via alleviating oxidative stress and stabilising the cardiac health in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.
Upadhyay Shishir,Mantha Anil Kumar,Dhiman Monisha
Journal of ethnopharmacology
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anti-neoplastic drug, however; it has downside effects on cardiac health and other vital organs. The herbal remedies used in day to day life may have a beneficial effect without disturbing the health of the vital organs. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is a ligneous perennial shrub belonging to Leguminosae/Fabaceae/Papilionaceae family growing in Mediterranean region and Asia and widespread in Turkey, Italy, Spain, Russia, Syria, Iran, China, India and Israel. Commonly known as mulaithi in north India, G. glabra has glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetic acid, isoliquiritin, isoflavones, etc., which have been reported for several pharmacological activities such as anti-demulcent, anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. AIM OF THE STUDY:The objective of the present study is to investigate the interaction between the molecular factors like PPAR-α/γ and SIRT-1 during cardiac failure arbitrated by DOX under in vitro conditions and role of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) root extract in alleviating these affects. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In the present study, we have examined the DOX induced responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and investigated the role of phytochemical Glycyrrhiza glabra in modulating these affects. MTT assay was done to evaluate the cell viability, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)/Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) levels, mitochondrial ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential was estimated using fluorescent probes. The oxidative stress in terms of protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage was detected via spectrophotometric methods and immune-fluorescence imaging. The cardiac markers and interaction between SIRT-1 and PPAR-α/γ was measured using Real-Time PCR, Western blotting and Co-immunoprecipitation based studies. RESULTS:The Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) extracts maintained the membrane integrity and improved the lipid homeostasis and stabilized cytoskeletal element actin. Gg phytoextracts attenuated aggravated ROS level, repaired the antioxidant status and consequently, assisted in repairing the DNA damage and mitochondrial function. Further, the expression of hypertrophic markers in the DOX treated cardiomyocytes reconciled the expression factors both at the transcriptional and translational levels after Gg treatment. SIRT-1 mediated pathway and its downstream activator PPARs are significant in maintaining the cellular functions. It was observed that the Gg extract allows regaining the nuclear SIRT-1 and PPAR-γ level which was otherwise reduced with DOX treatment in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) documented that SIRT-1 interacts with PPAR-α in the untreated control H9c2 cardiomyocytes whereas DOX treatment interferes and diminishes this interaction however the Gg treatment maintains this interaction. Knocking down SIRT-1 also downregulated expression of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in DOX treated cells and Gg treatment was able to enhance the expression of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in SIRT-1 knocked down cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS:The antioxidant property of Gg defend the cardiac cells against the DOX induced toxicity via; 1) reducing the oxidative stress, 2) maintaining the mitochondrial functions, 3) regulating lipid homeostasis and cardiac metabolism through SIRT-1 pathway, and 4) conserving the cardiac hypertrophy and hence preserving the cardiomyocytes health. Therefore, Gg can be recommended as a healthy supplement with DOX towards cancer therapeutics associated cardiotoxicity.
The role of sirtuins in cardiac disease.
Matsushima Shouji,Sadoshima Junichi
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
Modification of histones is one of the important mechanisms of epigenetics, in which genetic control is determined by factors other than an individual's DNA sequence. Sirtuin family proteins, which are class III histone deacetylases, were originally identified as gene silencers that affect the mating type of yeast, leading to the name "silent mating-type information regulation 2" (SIR2). They are characterized by their requirement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for their enzyme activity, unlike other classes of histone deacetylases. Sirtuins have been traditionally linked to longevity and the beneficial effects of calorie restriction and DNA damage repair. Recently, sirtuins have been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including aging, energy responses to low calorie availability, and stress resistance, as well as apoptosis and inflammation. Sirtuins can also regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and circadian clocks. Seven sirtuin family proteins (Sirt1-7) have been identified as mammalian SIR2 orthologs, localized in different subcellular compartments, namely, the cytoplasm (Sirt1, 2), the mitochondria (Sirt3, 4, 5), and the nucleus (Sirt1, 2, 6, 7). Sirt1 is evolutionarily close to yeast SIR2 and has been the most intensively investigated in the cardiovascular system. Endogenous Sirt1 plays a pivotal role in mediating the cell death/survival process and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Downregulation of Sirt2 is protective against ischemic-reperfusion injury. Increased Sirt3 expression has been shown to correlate with longevity in humans. In addition, Sirt3 protects cardiomyocytes from aging and oxidative stress and suppresses cardiac hypertrophy. Sirt6 has also recently been demonstrated to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy, and Sirt7 is known to regulate apoptosis and stress responses in the heart. On the other hand, the roles of Sirt4 and Sirt5 in the heart remain largely uncharacterized.