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    Pulmonary function after lobectomy versus segmentectomy in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Saito Hajime,Nakagawa Taku,Ito Manabu,Imai Kazuhiro,Ono Takashi,Minamiya Yoshihiro World journal of surgery BACKGROUND:Several reports have shown that segmentectomy is superior to lobectomy for preservation of postoperative pulmonary function. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between pulmonary function and the volume of the resected lung in patients undergoing segmentectomy or lobectomy. METHODS:Patients undergoing open lobectomy (n = 126) and open segmentectomy (n = 52) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed retrospectively. Pulmonary function testing, including vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), was performed preoperatively and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS:The postoperative reduction of VC and FEV1, as indicated by the postoperative value/preoperative value, at 6 months after surgery was significantly less in the segmentectomy group than in the lobectomy group. However, the standardized functional loss ratio, as expressed by [(measured postoperative value)-(predicted postoperative value)] / (predicted postoperative value) × 100 (%), at 1 month after surgery was significantly lower in the segmentectomy group than in the lobectomy group. No significant difference in the standardized functional loss ratio was seen at 6 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS:Pulmonary function at 6 months after surgery is better after segmental resection than after lobectomy. However, the absolute value of pulmonary function did not reach the predicted-postoperative value at 1 month after surgery. Thus, when segmentectomy is performed, clinicians should be aware that early postoperative pulmonary function may be significantly less than the expected value. 10.1007/s00268-014-2521-3
    Predictors of long-term compensatory response of pulmonary function following major lung resection for non-small cell lung cancer. Takahashi Yusuke,Matsutani Noriyuki,Morita Shigeki,Dejima Hitoshi,Nakayama Takashi,Uehara Hirofumi,Kawamura Masafumi Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Long-term pulmonary function which might include compensatory response (CR) significantly influences quality of life of long-term survivor after major lung resection. We investigated long-term pulmonary function after major lung resection. METHODS:A total of 137 patients who had undergone lobar resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from May 2013 to June 2014 had spirometry at 10-14 months after surgery. Actual post-operative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV ) (FEV )/predicted post-operative FEV (FEV ), actual post-operative forced vital capacity (FVC) (FVC )/predicted post-operative FVC (FVC ), its relationship with clinicopathological factors and immunohistochemistry for pro-surfactant protein C (pro-SPC), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were investigated. RESULTS:FEV /FEV showed strong correlation with FVC /FVC (r = 0.628; P < 0.001). We defined greater CR as both FEV /FEV and FVC /FVC were >120%. Greater CR was significantly associated with decreased smoking index (P < 0.001) and greater resected subsegments (P = 0.037). The never-smoker group revealed significantly greater CR compared with the smoker group in both FEV /FEV (119.9 ± 12.5% vs 107.5 ± 14.2%; P = 0.030) and FVC /FVC (117.9 ± 9.98% vs 107.2 ± 13.1%; P = 0.046) in case-matched comparison. The expression of pro-SPC, TTF-1 and VEGFR2 in the normal lung parenchyma of greater CR group was significantly higher than those of lesser CR group (P < 0.001 for each). In addition, pro-SPC, TTF-1 and VEGFR2 expressions showed a significant correlation to the degree of CR especially in the smoker group (r = 0.631, 0.705 and 0.732, respectively; P < 0.001 for each). CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that smokers may develop lesser long-term CR after major lung resection. Decreased expression of pro-SPC, TTF-1 and VEGFR2 may indicate decreased capacity of CR, especially in patients who smoke. 10.1111/resp.12904
    Does segmentectomy really preserve the pulmonary function better than lobectomy for patients with early-stage lung cancer? Suzuki Hidemi,Morimoto Junichi,Mizobuchi Teruaki,Fujiwara Taiki,Nagato Kaoru,Nakajima Takahiro,Iwata Takekazu,Yoshida Shigetoshi,Yoshino Ichiro Surgery today PURPOSE:Recently, segmentectomy has been considered as an alternative to lobectomy in early peripheral non-small lung cancer (NSCLC); however, controversy has remained regarding the long-term functional advantage after segmentectomy. The aim of this study was to analyze the postoperative lung function after segmentectomy and lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS:Patients with p-T1aN0M0 NSCLC who had undergone segmentectomy (n = 37) or lobectomy (n = 33) were retrospectively analyzed. The ratios of postoperative to preoperative forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were defined as the recovery rates. The radiological lung volume and weight were evaluated before and more than 6 months after surgery, and the postoperative values were compared with the predicted values that were calculated from the preoperative values, subtracting the resected lobes or segments. RESULTS:The clinical characteristics, including the preoperative lung function showed no significant differences between the groups. No statistical differences were recognized in the trend lines for recovery ratios of FVC and FEV1.0 (P = 0.96 and P = 0.33). The recovery ratios for radiologic lung volume and weight showed no significant differences (P = 0.46 and P = 0.22). The postoperative lung volume and weight were almost the same as the predicted values after segmentectomy, whereas those after lobectomy were significantly higher than the predicted values. CONCLUSIONS:No functional advantage for segmentectomy was observed during long-term follow-up, possibly due to compensatory lung growth after lobectomy. 10.1007/s00595-016-1387-4
    Pulmonary Function Changes Over 1 Year After Lobectomy in Lung Cancer. Kim Hyun Koo,Lee Yoo Jin,Han Kook Nam,Choi Young Ho Respiratory care BACKGROUND:This study was conducted to measure the serial changes in pulmonary function over 12 months after lobectomy in subjects with lung cancer and to evaluate the actual recovery of pulmonary function in comparison with the predicted postoperative values. METHODS:Subjects who underwent lobectomy for primary lung cancer were included in this study. In the statistical analysis, we included data from 76 subjects (52 men and 24 women; mean age, 63.4 y) who completed perfusion scintigraphy 1 week before surgery and FEV1 and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) assessments preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS:The actual percent-of-predicted FEV1 1 month postoperatively was 77.9% of the preoperative value, which was almost equal to the predicted postoperative value, and significantly increased to 84.3% by 6 months and 84.2% at 12 months. The actual percent-of-predicted DLCO 1 month postoperatively was 81.8% of the preoperative value, which was similar to the predicted postoperative value, and also significantly increased to 91.3% at 6 months and 96.5% at 12 months. However, the actual pulmonary function test results at 1 y in subjects with COPD or in those who underwent thoracotomy or received adjuvant chemotherapy were not different from the predicted postoperative values. CONCLUSIONS:Actual pulmonary function compared with predicted postoperative values improved over time over 1 y after lobectomy. However, this improvement was not observed in subjects with COPD or in those who underwent thoracotomy or received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. 10.4187/respcare.04284
    Serial changes in pulmonary function after video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy in lung cancer patients. Seok Yangki,Jheon Sanghoon,Cho Sukki The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to evaluate the serial changes in pulmonary function and the recovery time for the observed postoperative values to reach the predicted postoperative values after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients undergoing VATS lobectomy for lung cancer were prospectively evaluated using complete preoperative and repeated postoperative pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The parameters of PFT at each time were compared according to the resected lobe as well as the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The differences between the observed and predicted postoperative values of PFT and the recovery time for the observed values to reach the predicted values were calculated. RESULTS:Seventy-two patients (33 men, 39 women; mean age: 63.9 years) received complete pre- and postoperative regular PFT after undergoing VATS lobectomy. Of these patients, 24 (33.3%) patients satisfied the criteria for COPD. During the immediate postoperative period, forced vital capacity (FVC) percentage of the patients who received right lower lobectomy patients was decreased most significantly compared with the preoperative values. Compared with the upper lobectomy (UL) group, the lower lobectomy (LL) group showed a significant decrease of FVC% up to 6 months. However, there was no significant difference at 12 months after surgery. Patients with COPD showed little reduction of FEV1% that persisted significantly until 1 month after the surgery in both UL and LL groups. The recovery time was shortest in the left lower lobectomy patients, and it was shorter in the LL group than in the UL group. CONCLUSIONS:Postoperative pulmonary function and recovery time were different depending on the lobe resected and presence of COPD in VATS lobectomy patients. The information obtained from postoperative serial PFT would help accurately predict postoperative pulmonary function changes and recovery time after VATS lobectomy for lung cancer. 10.1055/s-0033-1343980
    [Effects of VATS Lobectomy, VATS Anatomic Segmentectomy, and Open Thoracotomy on Pulmonary Function of Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer]. Zhang Yanjiao,Gao Yushun Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer BACKGROUND:Lung cancer is a malignancy with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Surgery is the preferred treatment for non-small cell lung cancer. This study aims to investigate the effects of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, VATS segmentectomy, and open thoracotomy on pulmonary function in the early postoperative stage and compare the difference among three groups. METHODS:Pulmonary function data of patients were collected from September 2015 to February 2016 in Department of Thoracic Surgical Oncology, Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The patients were categorized according to operation methods into three groups, namely, VATS segmentectomy, VATS lobectomy, and open thoracotomy groups. Pulmonary function was assessed 1 day before the surgery, 3 days after the surgery, and 3 months after the surgery. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20.0 through single-factor analysis of variance. RESULTS:Pulmonary function 3 days after the surgery was compared among the three groups. There was a significant difference in forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1%, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), transfer factor for carbon monoxide of lung (TLCO) and TLCO% (P values were as follows: 0.033, 0.042, 0.029, 0.045, 0.039, 0.021, 0.018, 0.024). The comparison of pulmonary function of 3 groups at the time of 3 months after operation showed that there was a significant difference among three groups in FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1%, PEF, MVV, TLCO, TLCO% (P values were as follows: 0.019, 0.024, 0.044, 0.021, 0.037, 0.029, 0.045, 0.017). CONCLUSIONS:No matter in the early stage after surgery or at the time of 3 months after surgery, the patients' pulmonary function in VATS segmentectomy is better than the data of VATS lobectomy group, and the pulmonary function data of VATS lobectomy patients recovered better than the open thoracotomy group.
. 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2016.10.15
    Thoracoscopic lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with impaired pulmonary function: analysis from a national database. Bongiolatti Stefano,Gonfiotti Alessandro,Vokrri Eduart,Borgianni Sara,Crisci Roberto,Curcio Carlo,Voltolini Luca, Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery OBJECTIVES:The objective of this retrospective multi-institutional study was to evaluate the postoperative outcomes of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)-lobectomy (VATS-L) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with impaired lung function. The second end point was to illustrate the effective role of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%) and the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO%) in predicting complications in this population. METHODS:Data from patients who underwent VATS-L at participating centres were analysed and divided into 2 groups: group A comprised patients with FEV1% and/or DLCO% >60% and group B included patients with impaired lung function defined as FEV1% and/or DLCO% ≤60%. To define clinical predictors of death and complications, we performed univariate and multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS:A total of 5562 patients underwent VATS-L, 809 (14.5%) of whom had impaired lung function. The postoperative mortality rate did not differ between the 2 groups (2.3% vs 3.2%; P = 0.77). The percentage of patients who had any complication (21.4% vs 34.2%; P ≤ 0.001), the complication rate (28% vs 49.8%; P ≤ 0.001) and the length of hospital stay (P ≤ 0.001) were higher for patients with limited pulmonary function. Impaired lung function was a strong predictor of overall and pulmonary complications at multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS:VATS-L for NSCLC can be performed in patients with impaired lung function without increased risk of postoperative death and with an acceptable incidence of overall and respiratory complications. Our analysis suggested that FEV1% and DLCO% play a substantial role in estimating the risk of complications after VATS-L, but their role was less reliable for estimating the mortality. 10.1093/icvts/ivaa044
    Factors associated with preserved pulmonary function in non-small-cell lung cancer patients after video-assisted thoracic surgery. Kim Se Joong,Ahn Soyeon,Lee Yeon Joo,Park Jong Sun,Cho Young-Jae,Cho Sukki,Yoon Ho Il,Kim Kwhanmien,Lee Jae Ho,Jheon Sanghoon,Lee Choon-Taek European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery OBJECTIVES:Some non-small-cell lung cancer patients have preserved pulmonary function after surgery. Compared with open thoracotomy, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely performed and preserves pulmonary function. Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer have an extremely poor prognosis without surgery. Clinicians should therefore decide which patients can safely tolerate lung resection. This study aimed to identify factors associated with preserving pulmonary function after VATS in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. METHODS:Three hundred and fifty-one patients with non-small-cell lung cancer underwent VATS and preoperative and 12-month postoperative pulmonary function tests. Patients with and patients without preserved forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide were compared. RESULTS:The FEV1 was preserved after VATS in 142 (40.5%) patients. In multivariable analysis, this group was significantly associated with VATS sublobar resection (P < 0.001) and resection at the right upper lobe or right middle lobe (vs right lower lobe, P = 0.048; vs left upper lobe, P = 0.003; vs left lower lobe, P = 0.015). Diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide was preserved in 129 (36.8%) patients. Multivariable analysis showed that VATS sublobar resection (P < .001), lower baseline diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (P < 0.001) and right upper lobe or right middle lobe resection (vs right lower lobe, P = 0.0014; vs left upper lobe, P = 0.029, vs left lower lobe, P = 0.014) were significantly associated with preserved diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. CONCLUSIONS:For preserving pulmonary function after non-small-cell lung cancer surgery, VATS sublobar resection was superior to VATS lobectomy, and surgery on the right upper lobe or right middle lobe was superior to that at other sites. 10.1093/ejcts/ezv325
    Long-term pulmonary function after surgery for lung cancer. Kobayashi Naohiro,Kobayashi Keisuke,Kikuchi Shinji,Goto Yukinobu,Ichimura Hideo,Endo Katsuyuki,Sato Yukio Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery OBJECTIVES:Many patients with lung cancer have been cured by surgical intervention. However, the long-term effects of lung resection on pulmonary function are unclear. Therefore, we investigated long-term pulmonary function after surgery. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer between 2001 and 2009. A total of 445 patients who had survived more than 5 years since the surgery were included. The patients were divided into lobectomy, segmentectomy and partial resection groups. The time-dependent changes in pulmonary function were investigated. RESULTS:The percentages of the vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) at postoperative year (POY) 1 vs preoperative values were 92.9 ± 11.1% and 91.3 ± 13.0% in the lobectomy group, 95.9 ± 9.0% and 93.8 ± 10.5% in the segmentectomy group and 97.8 ± 7.3% and 98.1 ± 8.3% in the partial resection group, respectively. The values in the lobectomy group were significantly lower than those in the segmentectomy and partial resection groups. The percentages of vital capacity and FEV 1 at POY 5 vs preoperative values were 90.0 ± 11.5% and 86.2 ± 11.9% in the lobectomy group, 93.4 ± 9.8% and 91.1 ± 9.8% in the segmentectomy group and 94.3 ± 8.8% and 94.0 ± 8.0% in the partial resection group, respectively. The decrease in the rates from POY 1 to POY 5 were not significantly different among the procedures. CONCLUSIONS:Pulmonary function declined with pulmonary resection. After the patient recovered from the operation, pulmonary function decreased with time regardless of the surgical procedure. 10.1093/icvts/ivw414
    Head-to-Head Prospective Comparison of Quantitative Lung Scintigraphy and Segment Counting in Predicting Pulmonary Function in Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Lobectomy. Arnon-Sheleg Elite,Haberfeld Ori,Kremer Ran,Keidar Zohar,Weiler-Sagie Michal Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine Prediction of postoperative pulmonary function in lung cancer patients before tumor resection is essential for patient selection for surgery and is conventionally done with a nonimaging segment counting method (SC) or 2-dimensional planar lung perfusion scintigraphy (PS). The purpose of this study was to compare quantitative analysis of PS to SPECT/CT and to estimate the accuracy of SC, PS, and SPECT/CT in predicting postoperative pulmonary function in patients undergoing lobectomy. Seventy-five non-small cell lung cancer patients planned for lobectomy were prospectively enrolled (68% male; average age, 68.1 ± 8 y). All patients completed tests of preoperative forced expiratory volume capacity in 1 s (FEV1) and diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), as well as Tc-macroaggregated albumin PS and SPECT/CT quantification. A subgroup of 60 patients underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy and measurement of postoperative FEV1 and DLCO. Relative uptake of the lung lobes estimated by PS and SPECT/CT was compared. Predicted postoperative FEV1 and DLCO were derived from SC, PS, and SPECT/CT. Prediction results were compared between the different methods and the true postoperative measurements in patients who underwent lobectomy. Relative uptake measurements differed significantly between PS and SPECT/CT in right lung lobes, with a mean difference of -8.2 ± 3.8, 18.0 ± 5.0, and -11.5 ± 6.1 for right upper, middle, and lower lobes, respectively ( < 0.001). The differences between the methods in the left lung lobes were minor, with a mean difference of -0.4 ± 4.4 ( > 0.05) and -2.0 ± 4.0 ( < 0.001) for left upper and lower lobes, respectively. No significant difference and a strong correlation ( = 0.6-0.76, < 0.001) were found between predicted postoperative lung function values according to SC, PS, SPECT/CT, and the actual postoperative FEV1 and DLCO. Although lobar quantification parameters differed significantly between PS and SPECT/CT, no significant differences were found between the predicted postoperative lung function results derived from these methods and the actual postoperative results. The additional time and effort of SPECT/CT quantification may not have an added value in patient selection for surgery. SPECT/CT may be advantageous in patients planned for right lobectomy, but further research is warranted. 10.2967/jnumed.119.234526
    [Approaches to the pre-operative functional assessment of patients with lung cancer and preoperative rehabilitation]. Charloux A,Enache I,Pistea C,Olland A Revue des maladies respiratoires Surgery is the best treatment for early lung cancer but requires a preoperative functional evaluation to identify patients who may be at a high risk of complications or death. Guideline algorithms include a cardiological evaluation, a cardiopulmonary assessment to calculate the predicted residual lung function, and identify patients needing exercise testing to complete the evaluation. According to most expert opinion, exercise tests have a very high predictive value of complications. However, since the publication of these guidelines, minimally-invasive surgery, sublobar resections, prehabilitation and enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes have been developed. Implementation of these techniques and programs is associated with a decrease in postoperative mortality and complications. In addition, the current guidelines and the cut-off values they identified are based on early series of patients, and are designed to select patients before major lung resection (lobectomy-pneumonectomy) performed by thoracotomy. Therefore, after a review of the current guidelines and a brief update on prehabilitation (smoking cessation, exercise training and nutritional aspects), we will discuss the need to redefine functional criteria to select patients who will benefit from lung surgery. 10.1016/j.rmr.2020.07.007
    Prediction of postoperative lung function after major lung resection for lung cancer using volumetric computed tomography. Fernández-Rodríguez Lucía,Torres Isabel,Romera Delia,Galera Raúl,Casitas Raquel,Martínez-Cerón Elisabet,Díaz-Agero Prudencio,Utrilla Cristina,García-Río Francisco The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery OBJECTIVES:The study objectives were to assess the accuracy of volumetric computed tomography to predict postoperative lung function in patients with lung cancer in relation to anatomic segments counting and perfusion scintigraphy, to generate specific predictive equations for each functional parameter, and to evaluate accuracy and precision of these in a validation cohort. METHODS:We assessed pulmonary functions preoperatively and 3 to 4 months postoperatively after lung resection for lung cancer (n = 114). Absolute and relative lung volumes (total and upper/middle/lower) were determined using volumetric software analysis for staging thoracic computed tomography scans. Predicted postoperative function was calculated by segments counting, scintigraphy, and volumetric computed tomography. RESULTS:Volumetric computed tomography achieves a higher correlation and precision with measured postoperative lung function than segments counting or scintigraphy (correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.779-0.969 and 0.776-0.969; 0.573-0.887 and 0.552-0.882; and 0.578-0.834 and 0.532-0.815, respectively), as well as greater accuracy, determined by narrower agreement coefficients for forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, lung diffusing capacity, and peak oxygen uptake. After validation in an independent cohort (n = 43), adjusted linear regression including volumetric estimation of decreased postoperative ventilation for postoperative lung function parameters explains 98% to 99% of variance. CONCLUSIONS:Volumetric computed tomography is a reliable and accurate method to predict postoperative lung function in patients undergoing lung resection that provides better accuracy than conventional procedures. Because lung computed tomography is systematically performed in the staging of patients with suspected lung cancer, this volumetric analysis might simultaneously provide the information necessary to evaluate operability. 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2018.07.040