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    Quercetin and rutin as inhibitors of azoxymethanol-induced colonic neoplasia. Deschner E E,Ruperto J,Wong G,Newmark H L Carcinogenesis Dietary quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU), phenolic flavonoids commonly found in many fruits and vegetables, were provided to CF1 female mice for 50 weeks to assess the ability of these compounds to inhibit azoxymethanol (AOM)-induced colonic neoplasia. In addition to a control group fed an AIN 76A diet, five other groups received that diet to which was added either 0.1, 0.5 or 2.0% QU and 1.0 or 4.0% RU. Acute studies revealed that, among saline controls, no alteration of any proliferative parameters of colonic epithelial cells was observed among those groups receiving any dose of QU or RU. However, among the AOM-treated mice, both 2% QU and 4% RU significantly reduced hyperproliferation and inhibited the shift of S-phase cells to the middle and upper portion of crypts. Moreover, mice fed these concentrations of QU and RU had significantly fewer AOM-induced focal areas of dysplasia (FADs) than those fed the control diet (0.2 +/- 0.4 and 0.4 +/- 0.5 versus 3.6 +/- 2.3 respectively). Tumors occurred more frequently in the distal half of the colon, regardless of treatment. Compared with controls, mice fed 2% QU had a significantly reduced tumor incidence (25.0% versus 5.9%, P = 0.03). Those fed 4% RU showed only a trend toward inhibition (25% versus 9.7%, P = 0.11). Nevertheless, both 2% QU and 4% RU suppressed tumor multiplicity, i.e. fewer tumors/animal arose in these groups than in the AOM-treated control mice (1.2 versus 2.3, P = 0.005; 1.1 versus 2.3, P = 0.003 respectively). Clearly, QU and RU exhibit significant activity in reducing AOM-induced hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells and FAD incidence. This behavior successfully forecast the ability of both flavonoids to suppress tumor multiplicity and ultimately tumor development. 10.1093/carcin/12.7.1193
    Mechanism of quercetin-induced suppression and delay of heat shock gene expression and thermotolerance development in HT-29 cells. Lee Y J,Erdos G,Hou Z Z,Kim S H,Kim J H,Cho J M,Corry P M Molecular and cellular biochemistry Previous studies have shown that a combination of low pH and quercetin (QCT) treatment following heat shock markedly suppresses and delays the expression of heat shock protein genes, particularly the HSP70 gene (Lee et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 186:1121-1128, 1992). The possible mechanism for alteration of gene expression by treatment with QCT at low pH was investigated in human colon carcinoma cells. Cells were heated at 45 degrees C for 15 min and then incubated at 37 degrees C for various times (0-12 h) with QCT (0.05-0.2 mM) at pH 7.4 or 6.5. Gel mobility-shift analysis of whole cell extracts from heated cells showed the formation of the heat shock transcription factor (HSF)-heat shock element (HSE) complex. Dissociation of HSF from the HSE of the human HSP70 promotor occurred within 4 h under both pH conditions. The kinetics of recovery were not affected by treatment with 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). However, the dissociation of HSF-HSE complex was markedly delayed during treatment with a combination of low pH and QCT. In addition, in vitro transcription assays showed a suppression of initiation and elongation of HSP70 mRNA. These results may explain why the combination of low pH and QCT treatment suppresses and delays the HSP70 gene expression as well as thermotolerance development.
    Quercetin exerts a preferential cytotoxic effect on active dividing colon carcinoma HT29 and Caco-2 cells. Agullo G,Gamet L,Besson C,Demigné C,Rémésy C Cancer letters The effect of the naturally occurring flavonol, quercetin, was investigated on cell growth and metabolism of two human carcinoma cell lines, HT29 and Caco-2 cells, both during the exponentially growing phase and after confluence. Our results show clearly that, after a 48-h period of treatment, quercetin (in the range of concentration from 15 microM to 120 microM) exerted a preferential cytotoxic effect on active proliferating cells. This effect was dose dependent and was accompanied by a simultaneous inhibition of lactate release and a dramatic decrease of total cellular ATP content. In contrast, in confluent cells, quercetin failed to affect cell viability or lactate release, but led nevertheless to a depletion of cellular ATP level. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of quercetin is markedly higher in actively growing cells in comparison with confluent cells. 10.1016/0304-3835(94)90409-x
    Inhibitory effect of quercetin on the synthesis of a possibly cell-cycle-related 17-kDa protein, in human colon cancer cells. Hosokawa N,Hosokawa Y,Sakai T,Yoshida M,Marui N,Nishino H,Kawai K,Aoike A International journal of cancer Quercetin inhibits growth of COLO320 DM cells, derived from a human colon cancer. The inhibitory effect is partially reversible when quercetin is removed from the culture medium. Flow cytometric analysis has revealed that quercetin causes perturbation of the cell cycle, inducing a frozen cell-cycle pattern and a block at the G1/S boundary. The synthesis of a 17-kDa protein was specifically inhibited by the addition of quercetin, and recovered when the cells at the G1/S boundary progressed into S-phase after the removal of quercetin from the culture medium. Furthermore, using synchronized cells obtained by centrifugal elutriation, we have shown that the rate of synthesis of a 17-kDa protein was low in G1, and high in S-phase of the cell cycle. Thus, this protein appears to be cell-cycle-related. 10.1002/ijc.2910450622
    Dietary quercetin, immune functions and colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Exon J H,Magnuson B A,South E H,Hendrix K Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology Rats fed 100 mg/kg quercetin (QUE) daily for 7 weeks had significantly enhanced natural killer cell activity compared to their vehicle (VEH)-fed control. In contrast, rats fed 100 mg/kg QUE and treated with the colon carcinogen, azoxymethane had significantly reduced natural killer cell activity compared to their VEH-fed azoxymethane-treated control. There was no significant difference in natural killer cell activity between the two control groups. Antibody production and delayed-type hypersensitivity were not altered by QUE feeding in any treatment group. In vitro exposure of splenic natural killer cells to 1mM QUE significantly decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Lower QUE concentrations produced a non-significant reduction in natural killer cell activity that was restored to control values at 1 x 10(-13)M QUE. The distribution, multiplicity and total number of colonic preneoplastic lesions, aberrant crypt foci, was not significantly different in the QUE-fed azoxymethane-treated rats when compared to azoxymethane-treated vehicle-fed rats at the conclusion of 7 week feeding period. We found no correlation between immune function and development of preneoplastic colon lesions in this study. 10.3109/08923979809034816
    Effects of quercetin and/or restraint stress on formation of aberrant crypt foci induced by azoxymethane in rat colons. Matsukawa Y,Nishino H,Okuyama Y,Matsui T,Matsumoto T,Matsumura S,Shimizu Y,Sowa Y,Sakai T Oncology The present study examines the effect of dietary quercetin and/or restraint stress on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in the colon. Female F344 rats were divided into four groups. All animals were given intraperitoneal injections of AOM. The animals were fed a basal diet (group A, C), or a 2% quercetin-supplemented diet (group B, D). The animals were put individually to narrow wire cages for 1 h every day throughout the study to expose them to mild restraint stress (group C, D). At week 5, all the rats were killed and analyzed for ACF in the colon. The number of ACF increased significantly in the animals subjected to stress (p < 0.05). On the other hand, dietary quercetin significantly reduced the number of ACF in both the nonstress (p < 0.001) and stress groups (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that quercetin might have a potential as a chemopreventive drug for colon cancer despite stress. 10.1159/000227674
    Dietary flavonoids suppress azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Miyamoto Shingo,Yasui Yumiko,Ohigashi Hajime,Tanaka Takuji,Murakami Akira Chemico-biological interactions Obesity is known to be a risk factor for colon carcinogenesis. Although there are several reports on the chemopreventive abilities of dietary flavonoids in chemically induced colon carcinogenesis, those have not been addressed in an obesity-associated carcinogenesis model. In the present study, the effects of 3 flavonoids (chrysin, quercetin and nobiletin) on modulation of the occurrence of putative preneoplastic lesions, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and beta-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCACs) in the development of colon cancer were determined in male db/db mice with obesity and diabetic phenotypes. Male db/db mice were given 3 weekly intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) to induce the ACF and BCAC. Each flavonoid (100ppm), given in the diet throughout the experimental period, significantly reduced the numbers of ACF by 68-91% and BCAC by 64-71%, as well as proliferation activity in the lesions. Clinical chemistry results revealed that the serum levels of leptin and insulin in mice treated with AOM were greater than those in the untreated group. Interestingly, the most pronounced suppression of development of preneoplastic lesions and their proliferation were observed in the quercetin-fed group, in which the serum leptin level was lowered. Furthermore, quercetin-feeding decreased leptin mRNA expression and secretion in differentiated 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes. These results suggest that the present dietary flavonoids are able to suppress the early phase of colon carcinogenesis in obese mice, partly through inhibition of proliferation activity caused by serum growth factors. Furthermore, they indicate that certain flavonoids may be useful for prevention of colon carcinogenesis in obese humans. 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.11.002
    The flavonol isorhamnetin exhibits cytotoxic effects on human colon cancer cells. Jaramillo Sara,Lopez Sergio,Varela Lourdes M,Rodriguez-Arcos Rocio,Jimenez Ana,Abia Rocio,Guillen Rafael,Muriana Francisco J G Journal of agricultural and food chemistry The aim of this study was to determine whether isorhamnetin, an immediate 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, affects proliferation, cell death, and the cell cycle of human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) cells. Isorhamnetin was found to be a potent antiproliferative agent in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 72 μM after 48 h of incubation as estimated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that isorhamnetin exerted a stimulatory effect on apoptosis and necrosis. Isorhamnetin also increased the number of cells in G2/M phase. Serum deprivation appeared to potentiate the effects of isorhamnetin on cell death and facilitated cell cycle progression to G0/G1 phase. These results suggest that isorhamnetin might mediate inhibition of HCT-116 cell growth through the perturbation of cell cycle progression and are consistent with the notion that G2/M checkpoints could be a conserved target for flavonoids in human colon cancer cells, leading to apoptotic and necrotic death. These antiproliferative, apoptotic, necrotic, and cell cycle effects suggest that isorhamnetin may have clinically significant therapeutic and chemopreventive capabilities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of isorhamnetin on human colon cancer cells. 10.1021/jf102669p
    Isolation of a chemical inhibitor against K-Ras-induced p53 suppression through natural compound screening. Lee Su-Jin,Jung Youn-Sang,Lee Sun-Hye,Chung Hye-Young,Park Bum-Joon International journal of oncology The strong tumor suppressor p53 shows loss of function in large portion of human cancer. In addition to genetic mutation, biological function of p53 is suppressed by signaling distortion or elevated expression of p53 inhibitors (such as overexpression of MDM2 or deletion of p14/ARF). In this study, we demonstrate that K-Ras, a frequently altered oncogene in human cancers including pancreatic cancer (about 80%), colon cancer (45%) and lung cancer (45%), suppresses p53. Based on this fact, we perform Western blot analysis-based chemical screening to isolate a K-Ras-specific activator of p53. From 117 kinds of chemicals (34 kinds of natural compounds that are obtained from herbal plants, 53 kinds of flavonoid, and 31 kinds of phenolic compounds), we find that quercetin works as an activator of p53 in K-Ras mutated cells but not in wild-type cells. Treatment with quercetin can induce p53 target genes such as PUMA and p21. These results suggest that although quercetin has limitations for use as a therapeutic drug due to its broad effects, specific function of it on K-Ras-p53 may be useful for K-Ras-induced cancer prevention and therapy through further development. 10.3892/ijo_00000294
    The effect of quercetin on apoptosis and necrosis induction in human colon adenocarcinoma cell line LS180. Pawlikowska-Pawlega B,Jakubowicz-Gil J,Rzymowska J,Gawron A Folia histochemica et cytobiologica Quercetin is a very common flavonoid widely distributed in many plants. The flavonoid intake has been linked to the prevention of some human diseases including cancer. Quercetin inhibits heat shock protein expression and in this way triggers apoptosis of tumor cells. The present study was designed to investigate whether quercetin exerts cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The studies have shown that quercetin alone and in combination with the heat shock can induce apoptosis and necrosis in vitro in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS 180). Relationships between heat shock proteins and quercetin in this phenomenon are discussed.
    Interaction between the cytostatic effects of quercetin and 5-fluorouracil in two human colorectal cancer cell lines. Boersma H H,Woerdenbag H J,Bauer J,Scheithauer W,Kampinga H H,Konings A W Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology Therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a single agent has only limited success in palliative treatment of cancer of the large bowel. In the current study, the effect of quercetin on the action of 5-FU in the human colorectal cancer cell lines COLO 320 DM and COLO 205 was evaluated using the MTT and clonogenic assays. Both assays were used in order to discriminate between cell growth inhibition and actual cell kill. As single agents as well as in combination, considerably higher concentrations of 5-FU and quercetin were required in the clonogenic assay to obtain detectable effects than in the MTT assay. In the MTT assay, but not in the clonogenic assay, a synergistic interaction between quercetin and 5-FU was found for COLO 320 DM cells. Our results therefore indicate that this interaction between quercetin and 5-FU mainly takes place at the level of growth inhibition. It is concluded that the cytostatic action of a combination of quercetin and 5-FU in COLO 320 DM cells is superior to that of the single agents. 10.1016/S0944-7113(11)80071-1
    Isoquercitrin suppresses colon cancer cell growth in vitro by targeting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Amado Nathália G,Predes Danilo,Fonseca Barbara F,Cerqueira Débora M,Reis Alice H,Dudenhoeffer Ana C,Borges Helena L,Mendes Fábio A,Abreu Jose G The Journal of biological chemistry Flavonoids are plant-derived polyphenolic molecules that have potential biological effects including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-tumoral effects. These effects are related to the ability of flavonoids to modulate signaling pathways, such as the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. This pathway controls many aspects of embryonic development and tissue maintenance and has been found to be deregulated in a range of human cancers. We performed several in vivo assays in Xenopus embryos, a functional model of canonical Wnt signaling studies, and also used in vitro models, to investigate whether isoquercitrin affects Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our data provide strong support for an inhibitory effect of isoquercitrin on Wnt/β-catenin, where the flavonoid acts downstream of β-catenin translocation to the nuclei. Isoquercitrin affects Xenopus axis establishment, reverses double axes and the LiCl hyperdorsalization phenotype, and reduces Xnr3 expression. In addition, this flavonoid shows anti-tumoral effects on colon cancer cells (SW480, DLD-1, and HCT116), whereas exerting no significant effect on non-tumor colon cell (IEC-18), suggesting a specific effect in tumor cells in vitro. Taken together, our data indicate that isoquercitrin is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin and should be further investigated as a potential novel anti-tumoral agent. 10.1074/jbc.M114.621599
    Biphasic modulation of cell proliferation by quercetin at concentrations physiologically relevant in humans. van der Woude Hester,Gliszczyńska-Swigło Anna,Struijs Karin,Smeets Astrid,Alink Gerrit M,Rietjens Ivonne M C M Cancer letters Optimal in vitro conditions regarding quercetin solubility and stability were defined. Using these conditions, the effect of quercetin on proliferation of the colon carcinoma cell lines HCT-116 and HT29 and the mammary adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 was investigated. For the colon carcinoma cell lines, at relatively high concentrations, a significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed, providing a basis for claims on the anti-carcinogenic activity of quercetin. However, at lower concentrations, a subtle but significant stimulation of cell proliferation was observed for all cell lines tested. These results point at a dualistic influence of quercetin on cell proliferation that may affect present views on its supposed beneficial anti-proliferative effect. 10.1016/s0304-3835(03)00412-9
    Taxifolin curbs NF-κB-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling via up-regulating Nrf2 pathway in experimental colon carcinogenesis. Manigandan Krishnan,Manimaran Dharmar,Jayaraj Richard L,Elangovan Namasivayam,Dhivya Velumani,Kaphle Anubhav Biochimie Aberrations in homeostasis mechanisms including Nrf2, inflammatory, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling are the major causative factors implicated in colon cancer development. Hence blocking these pathways through natural interventions pave a new channel for colon cancer prevention. Earlier, we reported the chemopreventive effect of taxifolin (TAX) against colon carcinogenesis. In this study, we aimed to understand the ability of TAX, to modulate the Nrf2, inflammatory and Wnt/β-catenin cascades on 1, 2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis. In addition, in silico molecular docking studies were performed to evaluate the binding affinity between TAX and target proteins (Nrf2, β-catenin, and TNF-α). We perceived that the increase of serum marker enzyme levels (CEA and LDH) and mast cell infiltration that occurs in the presence of DMH is inverted after TAX treatment. Immunoblot expression and docking analysis revealed that TAX could induce antioxidant response pathway, confirming the enhanced level of Nrf2 protein. It also inhibited NF-κB and Wnt signaling by down-regulating the levels of regulatory metabolites such as TNF-α, COX-2, β-catenin, and Cyclin-D1. Collectively, results of our hypothesis shown that TAX is an effective chemopreventive agent capable of modulating inflammatory, Wnt and antioxidant response pathway proteins in tumor microenvironment which explicating its anticancer property. 10.1016/j.biochi.2015.10.014
    Impact of quercetin and EGCG on key elements of the Wnt pathway in human colon carcinoma cells. Pahlke Gudrun,Ngiewih Yufanyi,Kern Melanie,Jakobs Sandra,Marko Doris,Eisenbrand Gerhard Journal of agricultural and food chemistry The flavonoids quercetin (QUE) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) are discussed as potential chemopreventive food constituents. Both compounds have been shown to affect a spectrum of different cellular signaling pathways. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) is one of the key elements of the Wnt pathway, governing beta-catenin homeostasis. The inhibition of GSK3 kinase activity might lead to the onset of beta-catenin/TCF/LEF-mediated gene transcription, representing a potentially mitogenic stimulus. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether QUE and EGCG possibly mediate undesired proliferative stimuli in human colon carcinoma cells by interference with the Wnt pathway. In HT29 cells QUE did not inhibit the activity of GSK3alpha and -beta, measured as phosphorylation at Ser21 and Ser9, respectively. In accordance, QUE did not substantially affect beta-catenin homeostasis. In a reporter gene assay QUE was found to act as a weak inductor of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) mediated luciferase expression, which was, however, not associated with a stimulation of cell growth. Treatment of HT29 cells with EGCG led to a potent inhibition of GSK3alpha and -beta activity. Subsequently, the amount of phosphorylated beta-catenin was diminished in a concentration-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the overall amount of beta-catenin was decreased to a similar extent, which might result from a downregulation of beta-catenin neogenesis, indicated by reduced levels of beta-catenin mRNA. In accordance, no induction of TCF/LEF-mediated luciferase expression was observed. In conclusion, the results allow the assumption that QUE and EGCG do not mediate proliferative stimuli in HT29 cells by interference with key elements of the Wnt pathway. 10.1021/jf0612530
    Effect of diets fortified with tomatoes or onions with variable quercetin-glycoside content on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in the colon of rats. Femia Angelo Pietro,Caderni Giovanna,Ianni Maura,Salvadori Maddalena,Schijlen Elio,Collins Geoff,Bovy Arnaud,Dolara Piero European journal of nutrition BACKGROUND:Onion and tomato are vegetables widely consumed by humans and epidemiological studies show an inverse association between vegetable consumption and colon cancer risk; however, the effect on colon cancer of diets containing high levels of vegetables like onion and tomato are not clear. AIMS OF THE STUDY:To investigate whether tomatoes and onions,with low or high quercetin-glycoside content, could reduce azoxymethane (AOM)-induced Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF), preneoplastic lesions in the colon of rats. METHODS:Male Fisher 344 rats were fed the following diets: a) high fat (HF) diet (control diet); b) HF diet containing 20 % (w/w) tomatoes with a low quercetin-glycoside content (final concentration in the diet: 5 mg/kg of quercetin aglycone equivalents); c) HF diet containing 20% (w/w) high quercetin-glycoside tomatoes (100 mg/kg final concentration of quercetin aglycone equivalents); d) HF diet containing 20 % (w/w) low quercetin-glycoside onions (14 mg/kg of quercetin aglycone equivalents in the diet); e) HF diet containing 20 % (w/w) high quercetin-glycoside onions (360 mg/kg quercetin aglycone equivalents in the diet). After 2 wks of feeding, all rats were treated twice, 1 wk apart, with AOM (12 mg/kg, s. c.). The dietary treatments continued until sacrifice, 7 wks after the first injection with AOM. RESULTS:ACF induction did not vary in animals fed low or high quercetin-glycoside tomatoes relative to controls. On the contrary, rats fed 20% (w/w) onion-based diets, with low or high quercetin-glycoside content, showed an increase in number, multiplicity and "large" ACF compared to the control group (number of ACF/colon 145 +/- 15 (SE), 255 +/- 11 and 218 +/- 16 in controls, low and high-quercetin-glycoside groups, respectively; p < 0.01). Proliferative activity of the colon did not vary between animals fed control and high quercetin-glycoside tomato diet. The height of the crypts in normal mucosa of rats fed high quercetinglycoside onions was significantly increased compared to control rats (cells/emicrypt 38.4 +/- 1.2 (SE) and 41.3 +/- 0.6 in controls and high quercetin-glycoside onions group, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:None of the diets supplemented with onion or tomato with variable quercetin-glycoside content demonstrated a potential chemopreventive effect on ACF-induction by AOM in rats. 10.1007/s00394-003-0431-5
    Isorhamnetin glycoside isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) MilI induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells through mitochondrial damage. Antunes-Ricardo Marilena,Hernández-Reyes Annia,Uscanga-Palomeque Ashanti C,Rodríguez-Padilla Cristina,Martínez-Torres Ana Carolina,Gutiérrez-Uribe Janet Alejandra Chemico-biological interactions This work aimed to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the apoptosis induction of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucosyl-pentoside (IGP) in metastatic human colon cancer cells (HT-29). To achieve this, we assessed phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, cell membrane disruption, chromatin condensation, cell cycle alterations, mitochondrial damage, ROS production, and caspase-dependence on cell death. Our results showed that IGP induced cell death on HT-29 cells through PS exposure (48%) and membrane permeabilization (30%) as well as nuclear condensation (54%) compared with control cells. Moreover, IGP treatment induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (63%) was observed in IGP-treated cells. Finally, as apoptosis is a caspase-dependent cell death mechanism, we used a pancaspase-inhibitor (Q-VD-OPh) to demonstrate that the cell death induced by IGP was caspase-dependent. Overall these results indicated that IGP induced apoptosis through caspase-dependent mitochondrial damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.108734
    Integrated assessment by multiple gene expression analysis of quercetin bioactivity on anticancer-related mechanisms in colon cancer cells in vitro. van Erk Marjan J,Roepman Paul,van der Lende Ted R,Stierum Rob H,Aarts Jac M M J G,van Bladeren Peter J,van Ommen Ben European journal of nutrition BACKGROUND:Many different mechanisms are involved in nutrient-related prevention of colon cancer. In this study, a comprehensive assessment of the spectrum of possible biological actions of the bioactive compound quercetin is made using multiple gene expression analysis. Quercetin is a flavonoid that can inhibit proliferation of tumor cells and reduce the number of aberrant crypt foci, although increase of number of colon tumors was also reported. AIM OF THE STUDY:In order to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in its mode of action the effect of quercetin on expression of 4000 human genes in Caco-2 cells was studied and related to functional effects. METHODS:Caco-2 cells were exposed to 5 or 50 microM quercetin for 48 hours, differential expression of 4000 human genes was studied using microarrays and related to functional effects. Differentially expressed genes were categorized in seven functional groups: cell cycle and differentiation, apoptosis, tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, cell adhesion and cell-cell interaction, transcription, signal transduction and energy metabolism. Also, cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were measured. RESULTS:Quercetin (5 microM) downregulated expression of cell cycle genes (for example CDC6, CDK4 and cyclin D1), downregulated cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in Caco-2 cells. After exposure to 50 microM quercetin cell proliferation decreased to 51.3% of control, and further decrease of the percentage of cells in the G1 phase coincided with an increase of the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase. Quercetin upregulated expression of several tumor suppressor genes. In addition, genes involved in signal transduction pathways like beta catenin/TCF signalling and MAPK signal transduction were influenced by quercetin. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that large-scale gene expression analysis in combination with functional assays yields a considerable amount of information on (anti-)carcinogenic potential of food components like quercetin. 10.1007/s00394-004-0503-1
    The effects of quercetin on SW480 human colon carcinoma cells: a proteomic study. Mouat Michael F,Kolli Kumar,Orlando Ronald,Hargrove James L,Grider Arthur Nutrition journal BACKGROUND:High fruit and vegetable intake is known to reduce the risk of colon cancer. To improve understanding of this phenomenon the action of different phytochemicals on colon cells has been examined. One such compound is quercetin that belongs to the group known as flavonoids. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of quercetin on the proteome of the SW480 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, specifically to identify proteins that could be the molecular targets of quercetin in its amelioration of the progression of colon cancer. To this end, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify proteins that underwent a change in expression following treatment of the cells with 20 muM quercetin. This could elucidate how quercetin may reduce the progression of colon cancer. RESULTS:Quercetin treatment of the SW480 human colon cancer cells was found to result in the decreased expression of three proteins and the increased expression of one protein. The identified proteins with decreased expression were type II cytoskeletal 8 keratin and NADH dehydrogenase Fe-S protein 3. The other protein with decreased expression was not identified. The protein with increased expression belonged to the annexin family. CONCLUSION:Several proteins were determined to have altered expression following treatment with quercetin. Such changes in the levels of these particular proteins could underlie the chemo-protective action of quercetin towards colon cancer. 10.1186/1475-2891-4-11
    Quercetin decreases the expression of ErbB2 and ErbB3 proteins in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Kim Woo K,Bang Myung H,Kim Eul S,Kang Nam E,Jung Kyeong C,Cho Han J,Park Jung H Y The Journal of nutritional biochemistry Quercetin has chemoprotective properties in experimental colon cancer models, and in vitro studies have demonstrated that quercetin inhibits HT-29 colon cancer cell growth. ErbB2 and ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinases have been associated with the development of human colon cancer, and the expressions of both receptors are high in HT-29 cells. In this study, we assessed quercetin regulation of HT-29 and SW480 cell apoptosis and the influence of quercetin on the protein expression of ErbB2, ErbB3, Akt, Bax and Bcl-2. We cultured HT-29 cells in the presence of various concentrations (0, 25, 50, or 100 micromol/L) of quercetin or rutin. Quercetin inhibited HT-29 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas rutin had no effect on the cell growth. DNA that was isolated from cells treated with 50 micromol/L of quercetin exhibited an oliogonucleosomal laddering pattern characteristic of apoptotic cell death. Western blot analysis of cell lysates revealed that Bcl-2 levels decreased dose-dependently in cells treated with quercetin, but Bax remained unchanged. Quercetin increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and the 89-kDa fragment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, phosphorylated Akt levels were markedly lower in cells treated with 25 micromol/L quercetin, but total Akt levels decreased only at 100 micromol/L quercetin. Furthermore, a dose-dependent decrease in ErbB2 and ErbB3 levels was detected in quercetin-treated cells. The results obtained using SW480 cells were similar to those obtained with HT-29 cells. In conclusion, we have shown that quercetin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells, and that this may be mediated by its ability to down-regulate ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling and the Akt pathway. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.10.010
    Modulation of aberrant crypt foci and apoptosis by dietary herbal supplements (quercetin, curcumin, silymarin, ginseng and rutin). Volate Suresh R,Davenport Destiny M,Muga Stephanie J,Wargovich Michael J Carcinogenesis It is estimated that one-third of Americans use dietary herbal supplements on a regular basis. Diets rich in bioactive phytochemicals are associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, notably, colon cancer. Herbal supplements have not been directly tested as sources of bioactive cancer preventives. Hence, this study compares the ability of four herbal flavonoids (quercetin, curcumin, rutin and silymarin) and one whole herb mixture (ginseng powder) to suppress aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colon cancer model. Second, this study examines the effect of these herbal compounds on apoptosis and the mechanisms by which these compounds evoke apoptosis. The results of this study show that diets containing quercetin, curcumin, silymarin, ginseng and rutin decreased the number of ACFs by 4-, 2-, 1.8-, 1.5- and 1.2-fold, respectively compared with control. Histological analysis of the colon mucosa revealed that all the herbal supplements, except silymarin, induced apoptosis, with quercetin being the most potent (3x increase compared with control). Furthermore, ginseng and curcumin were region-specific in inducing apoptosis. The ability of quercetin and curcumin to modulate ACFs correlates well with their ability to induce apoptosis. Western blot analysis of caspase 9, Bax (proapoptotic) and Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic) proteins from the colon scraping suggests that quercetin and curcumin induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that these herbal supplements may exert significant and potentially beneficial effects on decreasing the amount of precancerous lesions and inducing apoptosis in the large intestine. 10.1093/carcin/bgi089
    Liposomal quercetin efficiently suppresses growth of solid tumors in murine models. Yuan Zhi-ping,Chen Li-juan,Fan Lin-yu,Tang Ming-hai,Yang Guang-li,Yang Han-su,Du Xiao-bo,Wang Guo-qing,Yao Wen-xiu,Zhao Qu-mei,Ye Bin,Wang Rui,Diao Peng,Zhang Wei,Wu Hong-bin,Zhao Xia,Wei Yu-quan Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Quercetin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug. Clinical trials exploring different schedules of administration of quercetin have been hampered by its extreme water insolubility. To overcome this limitation, this study is aimed to develop liposomal quercetin and investigate its distribution in vivo and antitumor efficacy in vivo and in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Quercetin was encapsulated in polyethylene glycol 4000 liposomes. Biodistribution of liposomal quercetin i.v. at 50 mg/kg in tumor-bearing mice was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Induction of apoptosis by liposomal quercetin in vitro was tested. The antitumor activity of liposomal quercetin was evaluated in the immunocompetent C57BL/6N mice bearing LL/2 Lewis lung cancer and in BALB/c mice bearing CT26 colon adenocarcinoma and H22 hepatoma. Tumor volume and survival time were observed. The mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of quercetin in vivo was investigated by detecting the microvessel density, apoptosis, and heat shock protein 70 expression in tumor tissues. RESULTS:Liposomal quercetin could be dissolved in i.v. injection and effectively accumulate in tumor tissues. The half-time of liposomal quercetin was 2 hours in plasma. The liposomal quercetin induced apoptosis in vitro and significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The optimal dose of liposomal quercetin resulted in a 40-day survival rate of 40%. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that liposomal quercetin down-regulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in tumor tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that liposomal quercetin inhibited tumor angiogenesis as assessed by CD31 and induced tumor cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicated that pegylated liposomal quercetin can significantly improve the solubility and bioavailability of quercetin and can be a potential application in the treatment of tumor. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2365
    A preliminary investigation demonstrating the effect of quercetin on the expression of genes related to cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and xenobiotic metabolism in human CO115 colon-adenocarcinoma cells using DNA microarray. Murtaza Imtiyaz,Marra Giancarlo,Schlapbach Ralph,Patrignani Andrea,Künzli Marzana,Wagner Ulrich,Sabates Jacob,Dutt Amit Biotechnology and applied biochemistry The role of the natural dietary flavonoid chemical quercetin (an antioxidant) in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer is receiving a great deal of attention. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of action of this flavonoid. In the present study, whole genome DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the effect of quercetin on gene expression in the CO115 colon-adenocarcinoma cell line with the completely deleted chromosome 18 harbouring the SMAD4 tumour-suppressor gene related to colon carcinogenesis. The study demonstrated that quercetin, widely present in fruit and vegetables, inhibited the growth of CO115 cells at 100 microM concentration in both the G(1)/S and the G(2)/M phases by modulating cell-cycle and apoptosis-related genes. Differential changes in accumulation of transcripts analysed for cells treated with 100 microM quercetin for 24 and 48 h in three independent repeated experiments revealed 5060-7000 differentially expressed genes. This means that quercetin probably does have a broad modulatory effect on gene expression in colon cancer. Out of these differentially expressed genes, the expression of 35 and 23 unique set of genes involved in cell-cycle control, apoptosis and xenobiotic metabolism were significantly altered after 24 and 48 h quercetin treatment respectively. Our results represent a novel aspect of the biological profile of quercetin that induces cell-cycle arrest through modulation of cell-cycle-related and apoptosis genes. The present study demonstrates a new step in elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms of the antitumour action of quercetin, which could become a chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer. 10.1042/BA20060044
    NAG-1 up-regulation mediated by EGR-1 and p53 is critical for quercetin-induced apoptosis in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells. Lim J H,Park J-W,Min D S,Chang J-S,Lee Y H,Park Y B,Choi K S,Kwon T K Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death Quercetin, a flavonoid molecule ubiquitously present in nature, has multiple effects on cancer cells, including the inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. However, the responsible molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We found that quercetin induces the expression of NAG-1 (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1), a TGF-beta superfamily protein, during quercetin-induced apoptosis of HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. Reporter assays using the luciferase constructs containing NAG-1 promoter region demonstrate that early growth response-1 (EGR-1) and p53 are required for quercetin-mediated activation of the NAG-1 promoter. Overexpression of NAG-1 enhanced the apoptotic effect of quercetin, but suppression of quercetin-induced NAG-1 expression by NAG-1 siRNA attenuated quercetin-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the present study demonstrates for the first time that quercetin induces apoptosis via NAG-1, providing a mechanistic basis for the apoptotic effect of quercetin in colon carcinoma cells. 10.1007/s10495-006-0576-9
    Quercetin enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells by inducing the accumulation of death receptors in lipid rafts. Psahoulia Faiy H,Drosopoulos Konstantinos G,Doubravska Lenka,Andera Ladislav,Pintzas Alexander Molecular cancer therapeutics Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells through engagement of death receptors. Nevertheless, evading apoptosis induced by anticancer drugs characterizes many types of cancers. This results in the need for combination therapy. In this study, we have investigated whether the flavonoid quercetin could sensitize human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We report that quercetin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by causing the redistribution of DR4 and DR5 into lipid rafts. Nystatin, a cholesterol-sequestering agent, prevented quercetin-induced clustering of death receptors and sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon adenocarcinoma cells. In addition, our experiments show that quercetin, in combination with TRAIL, triggered the mitochondrial-dependent death pathway, as shown by Bid cleavage and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Together, our findings propose that quercetin, through its ability to redistribute death receptors at the cell surface, facilitates death-inducing signaling complex formation and activation of caspases in response to death receptor stimulation. Based on these results, this study provides a challenging approach to enhance the efficiency of TRAIL-based therapies. 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-0001
    Quercetin mediates preferential degradation of oncogenic Ras and causes autophagy in Ha-RAS-transformed human colon cells. Psahoulia Faiy H,Moumtzi Sophy,Roberts Michael L,Sasazuki Takehiko,Shirasawa Senji,Pintzas Alexander Carcinogenesis Several food polyphenols act as chemopreventers by reducing the incidence of many types of cancer, especially in colon epithelia. In this study, we have investigated whether the flavonoid quercetin can modulate cell proliferation and survival by targeting key molecules and/or biological processes responsible for tumor cell properties. The effect of quercetin on the expression of Ras oncoproteins was specifically studied using systems of either constitutive or conditional expression of oncogenic RAS in human epithelial cells. Our findings suggest that quercetin inhibits cell viability as well as cancer cell properties like anchorage-independent growth. These findings were further supported at the molecular level, since quercetin treatment resulted in a preferential reduction of Ras protein levels in cell lines expressing oncogenic Ras proteins. Notably, in cells that only express wild-type Ras or in those where the oncogenic Ras allele was knocked out, quercetin had no evident effects upon Ras levels. We have shown that quercetin drastically reduces half-life of oncogenic Ras but has no effect when the cells are treated with a proteasome inhibitor. Moreover, in Ha-RAS-transformed cells, quercetin induces autophagic processes. Since quercetin downregulates the levels of oncogenic Ras in cancer cells, we propose that this flavonoid could act as a chemopreventive agent for cancers with frequent mutations of RAS genes. 10.1093/carcin/bgl232
    Growth-inhibitory effect of quercetin and presence of type-II estrogen-binding sites in human colon-cancer cell lines and primary colorectal tumors. Ranelletti F O,Ricci R,Larocca L M,Maggiano N,Capelli A,Scambia G,Benedetti-Panici P,Mancuso S,Rumi C,Piantelli M International journal of cancer We studied the effect of quercetin (Q) on the proliferation of HT-29, WiDr, COLO 201, and LS-174T human colon cancer cell lines. Q, between 10 nM and 10 microM, exerted a dose-dependent, reversible inhibition of cell proliferation. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that the growth-inhibitory effect of Q was due to a blocking action in the G0/G1 phase. Using a whole-cell assay with 17 beta-[3H]-estradiol as tracer, we demonstrated that all these cell lines contain type-II estrogen-binding sites (type-II EBS). By using Q and other chemically related flavonols (3,7-4'-trimethoxyquercetin, 3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyquercetin, kaempferol, morin, and rutin), we observed that the affinities of these compounds for type-II EBS are correlated with their growth-inhibitory potential. Furthermore, the Q sensitivity of the colon cancer cell lines was correlated with the number of type-II EBS/cell. Then Q could regulate colon cancer cell growth through a binding interaction with type-II EBS. This mechanism could also be active in vivo as we have observed that cytosolic type-II EBS are present in primary colorectal cancers and that Q is effective in inhibiting the in vitro bromodeoxyuridine incorporated by neoplastic cells in these cancers. 10.1002/ijc.2910500326
    Isorhamnetin Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-1α Accumulation. Seo Suho,Seo Kyuhwa,Ki Sung Hwan,Shin Sang Mi Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin Isorhamnetin is a flavonoid metabolite of quercetin and isolated from water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica, Umbelliferae). It has been reported that isorhamnetin exerts beneficial effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities. The present study investigated whether the antioxidant activity of isorhamnetin is correlated with its anti-cancer effects on colorectal cancer cells. Isorhamnetin significantly repressed cobalt chloride (CoCl)- or hypoxia-induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) accumulation in HCT116 and HT29 cells. When compared with quercetin, isorhamnetin showed potent inhibition of HIF-1α. Moreover, it inhibited CoCl-induced activity of hypoxia response element reporter gene and HIF-1α-dependent transcription of genes such as glucose transporter 1, lactate dehydrogenase A, carbonic anhydrase-IX, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1. Isorhamnetin also blocked hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced HIF-1α accumulation. The antioxidant effects of isorhamnetin were confirmed by observation of CoCl- or HO-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Consistently, overexpressed HIF-1α was decreased by isorhamnetin or N-acetyl-L-cysteine in HEK293 cells. In vitro migration and invasion assay further confirmed the inhibitory effects of isorhamnetin on cancer cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that isorhamnetin inhibits ROS-mediated HIF-1α accumulation, which contributes to its anti-metastatic efficacy. 10.1248/bpb.b16-00414
    Quercetin may suppress rat aberrant crypt foci formation by suppressing inflammatory mediators that influence proliferation and apoptosis. Warren Cynthia A,Paulhill Kimberly J,Davidson Laurie A,Lupton Joanne R,Taddeo Stella S,Hong Mee Young,Carroll Raymond J,Chapkin Robert S,Turner Nancy D The Journal of nutrition The flavonoid quercetin suppresses cell proliferation and enhances apoptosis in vitro. In this study, we determined whether quercetin protects against colon cancer by regulating the protein level of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and Akt or by suppressing the expression of proinflammatory mediators [cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)] during the aberrant crypt (AC) stage. Forty male rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing quercetin (0 or 4.5 g/kg) and injected subcutaneously with saline or azoxymethane (AOM; 2 times during wk 3 and 4). The colon was resected 4 wk after the last AOM injection and samples were used to determine high multiplicity AC foci (HMACF; foci with >4 AC) number, colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis by immunohistochemistry, expression of PI 3-kinase (p85 and p85alpha subunits) and Akt by immunoblotting, and COX-1, COX-2, and iNOS expression by real time RT-PCR. Quercetin-fed rats had fewer (P = 0.033) HMACF. Relative to the control diet, quercetin lowered the proliferative index (P = 0.035) regardless of treatment and diminished the AOM-induced elevation in crypt column cell number (P = 0.044) and expansion of the proliferative zone (P = 0.021). The proportion of apoptotic colonocytes in AOM-injected rats increased with quercetin treatment (P = 0.014). Levels of p85 and p85alpha subunits of PI 3-kinase and total Akt were unaffected by dietary quercetin. However, quercetin tended to suppress (P < 0.06) the expression of COX-1 and COX-2. Expression of iNOS was elevated by AOM injection (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, quercetin suppresses the formation of early preneoplastic lesions in colon carcinogenesis, which occurred in concert with reductions in proliferation and increases in apoptosis. It is possible the effects on proliferation and apoptosis resulted from the tendency for quercetin to suppress the expression of proinflammatory mediators. 10.3945/jn.108.096271
    Resveratrol and quercetin in combination have anticancer activity in colon cancer cells and repress oncogenic microRNA-27a. Del Follo-Martinez Armando,Banerjee Nivedita,Li Xiangrong,Safe Stephen,Mertens-Talcott Susanne Nutrition and cancer Resveratrol and quercetin (RQ) in combination (1:1 ratio) previously inhibited growth in human leukemia cells. This study investigated the anticancer activity of the same mixture in HT-29 colon cancer cells. RQ decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by up to 2.25-fold and increased the antioxidant capacity by up to 3-fold in HT-29 cells (3.8-60 μg/mL), whereas IC50 values for viability were 18.13, 18.73, and 11.85 μg/mL, respectively. RQ also induced caspase-3-cleavage (2-fold) and increased PARP cleavage. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors are overexpressed in colon and other cancers and regulate genes required for cell proliferation survival and angiogenesis. RQ treatment decreased the expression of Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 mRNA and this was accompanied by decreased protein expression. Moreover, the Sp-dependent antiapoptotic survival gene survivin was also significantly reduced, both at mRNA and protein levels. RQ decreased microRNA-27a (miR-27a) and induced zinc finger protein ZBTB10, an Sp-repressor, suggesting that interactions of RQ with the miR-27a-ZBTB10-axis play a role in Sp downregulation. This was confirmed by transfection of cells with the specific mimic for miR-27a, which partially reversed the effects of RQ. These findings are consistent with previous studies on botanical anticancer agents in colon cancer cells. 10.1080/01635581.2012.725194
    The dietary antioxidants resveratrol and quercetin protect cells from exogenous pro-oxidative damage. Kaindl Ulrike,Eyberg Isgard,Rohr-Udilova Natalia,Heinzle Christine,Marian Brigitte Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association In the colorectal epithelium oxidative stress is observed endogenously in premalignant adenoma cells or induced by nutritional factors like fatty acid hydroperoxides (LOOH). Bioactive phenols like resveratrol and quercetin can quench reactive oxygen species and protect from pro-oxidative damage. Our study used colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cell lines to assess antioxidant protective effects of resveratrol and quercetin. It demonstrated that both compounds efficiently protect from oxidative stress induced by LOOH. Effective concentrations (10 microM resveratrol and 1 microM quercetin) can easily be reached in the intestinal lumen after consumption of plant foods or food supplements. Both compounds prevent LOOH-induced formation of intracellular H2O2, stimulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor. For reduction of endogenous H2O2 levels in colorectal tumor cells higher antioxidant-concentrations are needed in all cell lines. Quercetin (10 microM) alone even increased H2O2 in LT97 adenoma cells and stimulated VEGF production. Resveratrol and quercetin also induced 10-30% and 40-60% cell loss respectively by apoptosis. In summary, this indicates that resveratrol and quercetin have little protective capacity in absence of exogenous stress. They are however highly efficient in protecting against nutrition induced oxidative stress damage suggesting that this constitutes the major part of their tumor protective activity. 10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.002
    Characterisation of metabolites of the putative cancer chemopreventive agent quercetin and their effect on cyclo-oxygenase activity. Jones D J L,Lamb J H,Verschoyle R D,Howells L M,Butterworth M,Lim C K,Ferry D,Farmer P B,Gescher A J British journal of cancer Quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) is a flavone with putative ability to prevent cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Its metabolism was evaluated in rats and human. Rats received quercetin via the intravenous (i.v.) route and metabolites were isolated from the plasma, urine and bile. Analysis was by high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmation of species identity was achieved by mass spectrometry. Quercetin and isorhamnetin, the 3'-O-methyl analogue, were found in both the plasma and urine. In addition, several polar peaks were characterised as sulphated and glucuronidated conjugates of quercetin and isorhamnetin. Extension of the metabolism studies to a cancer patient who had received quercetin as an i.v. bolus showed that (Quercetin removed) isorhamnetin and quercetin 3'-O-sulphate were major plasma metabolites. As a catechol, quercetin can potentially be converted to a quinone and subsequently conjugated with glutathione (GSH). Oxidation of quercetin with mushroom tyrosinase in the presence of GSH furnished GSH conjugates of quercetin, two mono- and one bis-substituted conjugates. However, these species were not found in biomatrices in rats treated with quercetin. As cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is mechanistically linked to carcinogenesis, we examined whether quercetin and its metabolites can inhibit COX-2 in a human colorectal cancer cell line (HCA-7). Isorhamnetin and its 4'-isomer tamarixetin were potent inhibitors, reflected in a 90% decrease in prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) levels, a marker of COX-2 activity. Quercetin was less effective, with a 50% decline. Quercetin 3- and 7-O-sulphate had no effect on PGE-2. The results indicate that quercetin may exert its pharmacological effects, at least in part, via its metabolites. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6602091
    Apoptotic effect of quercetin on HT-29 colon cancer cells via the AMPK signaling pathway. Kim Hyeong-Jin,Kim Sang-Ki,Kim Byeong-Soo,Lee Seung-Ho,Park Young-Seok,Park Byung-Kwon,Kim So-Jung,Kim Jin,Choi Changsun,Kim Jong-Suk,Cho Sung-Dae,Jung Ji-Won,Roh Kyong-Hwan,Kang Kyung-Sun,Jung Ji-Youn Journal of agricultural and food chemistry Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a physiological cellular energy sensor, strongly suppresses cell proliferation in both nonmalignant and tumor cells. This study demonstrates the mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Treatment of cells with quercetin significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, quercetin increased cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and up-regulated apoptosis-related proteins, such as AMPK, p53, and p21, within 48 h. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that quercetin treatment resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume over 6 weeks, and apoptosis-related protein induction by quercetin was significantly higher in the 100 mg/kg treated group compared to the control group. All of these results indicate that quercetin induces apoptosis via AMPK activation and p53-dependent apoptotic cell death in HT-29 colon cancer cells and that it may be a potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against HT-29 colon cancer. 10.1021/jf101510z
    Combination treatment with curcumin and quercetin of adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis. Cruz-Correa Marcia,Shoskes Daniel A,Sanchez Patricia,Zhao Rhongua,Hylind Linda M,Wexner Steven D,Giardiello Francis M Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association BACKGROUND & AIMS:Familialadenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by the development of hundreds of colorectal adenomas and eventual colorectal cancer. Regression of adenomas in this syndrome occurs with the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, but these compounds can have considerable side effects. We evaluated the efficacy of the combination of diet-derived nonprescription supplements curcumin and quercetin to regress adenomas in patients with FAP. METHODS:Five FAP patients with prior colectomy (4 with retained rectum and 1 with an ileal anal pouch) received curcumin 480 mg and quercetin 20 mg orally 3 times a day. The number and size of polyps were assessed at baseline and after therapy. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine differences in the number and size of polyps. Treatment side effects and medication compliance also were evaluated. RESULTS:All 5 patients had a decreased polyp number and size from baseline after a mean of 6 months of treatment with curcumin and quercetin. The mean percent decrease in the number and size of polyps from baseline was 60.4% (P < .05) and 50.9% (P < .05), respectively. Minimal adverse side effects and no laboratory abnormalities were noted. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of curcumin and quercetin appears to reduce the number and size of ileal and rectal adenomas in patients with FAP without appreciable toxicity. Randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these findings. 10.1016/j.cgh.2006.03.020
    Quercetin inhibits human DLD-1 colon cancer cell growth and polyamine biosynthesis. Linsalata Michele,Orlando Antonella,Messa Caterina,Refolo Maria Grazia,Russo Francesco Anticancer research BACKGROUND/AIM:Polyamines and ornithine decarboxylase are involved in cell growth and differentiation. The polyphenol quercetin may exert anti-tumour properties by influencing proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of increasing concentrations of quercetin (from 0.1 to 100 μM) on polyamine biosynthesis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the DLD-1 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Polyamine levels and ornithine decarboxylase activity were evaluated by HPLC and radiometric technique, respectively. The proliferative response was estimated by 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in cell DNA. Apoptosis was investigated by DNA fragmentation. RESULTS:At concentrations ≥50 μM, quercetin significantly reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, putrescine and spermidine levels compared to controls and cells treated with 0.1 μM concentration. Quercetin concentrations ≥70 μM caused a significant reduction in the conversion of MTT tetrazolium salt and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. The same concentrations were needed to induce the apoptosis. CONCLUSION:The present study demonstrates that quercetin can affect growth of DLD-1 cells by both decreasing polyamine biosynthesis and inducing apoptosis. Due to the extensive dietary consumption of polyphenols, such as quercetin, the biological activity of these compounds deserves further investigation.
    Quercetin, a potent inhibitor against beta-catenin/Tcf signaling in SW480 colon cancer cells. Park Chi Hoon,Chang Joon Young,Hahm Eun Ryeong,Park Seyeon,Kim Hyun-Kyung,Yang Chul Hak Biochemical and biophysical research communications Dysregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway plays a central role in early events in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined the effect of quercetin, a famous anti-tumor agent, against beta-catenin/Tcf signaling in SW480 cells. Quercetin inhibited the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/Tcf in SW480 and also in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with constitutively active mutant beta-catenin gene, whose product is not induced to be degraded by APC-Axin-GSK3beta complex, so we concluded that its inhibitory mechanism was related to beta-catenin itself or downstream components. To investigate the precise inhibitory mechanism, we performed EMSA showing that binding of the Tcf complexes to its specific DNA-binding sites was strongly suppressed by quercetin. Immunoprecipitation analysis also showed that the binding of beta-catenin to Tcf-4 was also disrupted by quercetin. Western blot analysis proved these decreased bindings resulted from decreased level of beta-catenin and Tcf-4 product in nucleus caused by quercetin. Together, we suggest that quercetin is an excellent inhibitor of beta-catenin/Tcf signaling in SW480 cell lines, and the reduced beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity is due to the decreased nuclear beta-catenin and Tcf-4 proteins. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.12.151
    Antitumor activities of quercetin and quercetin-5',8-disulfonate in human colon and breast cancer cell lines. Zhang Haisheng,Zhang Min,Yu Linhong,Zhao Yan,He Nianwu,Yang Xingbin Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association This study is designed to compare the anticancer effects of quercetin and its water-soluble sulfated derivative, quercetin-5',8-disulfonate (QS), in human colon cancer LoVo cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. It was found that both quercetin and QS can inhibit the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, with the IC(50) values of 40.2 and 28.0 μM for LoVo cells and 30.8 and 19.9 μM for MCF-7 cells, respectively, suggesting QS was more effective against the cancer cells than quercetin. Moreover, flow cytometric assay revealed that quercetin and QS could mediate the cell-cycle arrest principally in the S phase after 24h of treatment with the two tumor cells. It was also found that 69.6% of LoVo cells and 90.6% of MCF-7 cells entered the early phase of apoptosis when treated with 100 μM QS for 48 h. Furthermore, we firstly found the generation of ROS is a critical mediator in QS-induced cell growth inhibition. Taken together, the novel sulfated derivative of quercetin possesses strong antitumor activity via a ROS-dependent apoptosis pathway, and has the excellent potential to be developed into an antitumor precursor compound. 10.1016/j.fct.2012.01.025
    The influence of curcumin, quercetin, and eicosapentaenoic acid on the expression of phase II detoxification enzymes in the intestinal cell lines HT-29, Caco-2, HuTu 80, and LT97. Odenthal Julia,van Heumen Bjorn W H,Roelofs Hennie M J,te Morsche Rene H M,Marian Brigitte,Nagengast Fokko M,Peters Wilbert H M Nutrition and cancer Curcumin, quercetin, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are 3 natural compounds with the capacity to reduce adenoma burden in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The mechanistic basis of this anticarcinogenic capacity is largely unknown, but it was suggested that induction of detoxification enzymes is involved. Therefore, the effects of low-dose curcumin, quercetin, and EPA on phase II detoxification enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as on glutathione (GSH) content were analyzed in 4 cell line models of intestinal carcinogenesis. HT-29, HuTu 80, and Caco-2 intestinal cancer cells and LT97 colon adenoma cells from a patient with FAP were treated with low-dose noncytotoxic concentrations of curcumin, quercetin, and EPA. GST enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry, and expression of GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, and UGT1 by Western blotting. Cytosolic GSH levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. An inducing effect of curcumin and quercetin on GST or UGT was seen in Caco-2, LT97, and HuTu 80 cells. GSH levels were reduced by quercetin and EPA in HT-29 cells and induced by curcumin in Caco-2 cells. In LT97 cells, GST activity and expression was reduced, but UGT1 expression was induced by curcumin and quercetin; whereas EPA only decreased GST or UGT levels. In summary, enhancement of the detoxification capacity by low dose of the potential anticarcinogens curcumin, quercetin, or EPA seems only a minor factor in explaining their anticarcinogenic properties. 10.1080/01635581.2012.700994
    Quercetin enhances hypoxia-mediated apoptosis via direct inhibition of AMPK activity in HCT116 colon cancer. Kim Hak-Su,Wannatung Tirawat,Lee Sooho,Yang Woo Kyeom,Chung Sung Hyun,Lim Jong-Seok,Choe Wonchae,Kang Insug,Kim Sung-Soo,Ha Joohun Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death Tumor hypoxia is considered the best validated target in clinical oncology because of its significant contribution to chemotherapy failure and drug resistance. As an approach to target hypoxia, we assessed the potential of quercetin, a flavonoid widely distributed in plants, as a anticancer agent under hypoxic conditions and examined its pharmacological mechanisms by primarily focusing on the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Quercetin significantly attenuated tumor growth in an HCT116 cancer xenograft in vivo model with a substantial reduction of AMPK activity. In a cell culture system, quercetin more dramatically induced apoptosis of HCT116 cancer cells under hypoxic conditions than normoxic conditions, and this was tightly associated with inhibition of hypoxia-induced AMPK activity. An in vitro kinase assay demonstrated that quercetin directly inhibits AMPK activity. Inhibition of AMPK by expressing a dominant-negative form resulted in an increase of apoptosis under hypoxia, and a constitutively active form of AMPK effectively blocked quercetin-induced apoptosis under hypoxia. Collectively, our data suggest that quercetin directly inhibits hypoxia-induced AMPK, which plays a protective role against hypoxia. Quercetin also reduced the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a major transcription factor for adaptive cellular response to hypoxia. Moreover, quercetin sensitized HCT116 cancer cells to the anticancer drugs cisplatin and etoposide under hypoxic conditions. Our findings suggest that AMPK may serve as a novel target for overcoming tumor hypoxia-associated negative aspects. 10.1007/s10495-012-0719-0
    Quercetin liposome sensitizes colon carcinoma to thermotherapy and thermochemotherapy in mice models. He Bing,Wang Xin,Shi Hua-shan,Xiao Wen-jing,Zhang Jing,Mu Bo,Mao Yong-qiu,Wang Wei,Wang Yong-sheng Integrative cancer therapies Thermotherapy and thermochemotherapy have been used in clinics to treat patients with malignant diseases, including colon cancer, and their efficacy has been well proved. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), especially Hsp70, play important roles in neutralizing their efficacy. It has been reported that quercetin can suppress cancer by inhibiting the intratumoral expression of Hsp70. This study was designed to investigate whether quercetin could enhance sensitivity to thermotherapy and thermochemotherapy. Soluble quercetin liposome was used in this study. The effects of quercetin were investigated in vitro and in mouse colon cancer models of subcutaneous tumor and peritoneal carcinomatosis. The results showed that quercetin liposome inhibited the upregulation of Hsp70 and enhanced apoptosis induced by hyperthermia and thermochemotherapy. Systemic administration of quercetin liposome can sensitize CT26 cells to thermotherapy and chemothermotherapy. This study suggests that quercetin liposome might be potentially applied for clinical cancer therapy. 10.1177/1534735412446863
    Apoptotic Effects of Quercitrin on DLD-1 Colon Cancer Cell Line. Cincin Zeynep Birsu,Unlu Miray,Kiran Bayram,Bireller Elif Sinem,Baran Yusuf,Cakmakoglu Bedia Pathology oncology research : POR Quercetin, which is the most abundant bioflavonoid compound, is mainly present in the glycoside form of quercitrin. Although different studies indicated that quercitrin is a potent antioxidant, the action of this compound is not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether quercitrin has apoptotic and antiproliferative effects in DLD-1 colon cancer cell lines. Time and dose dependent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of quercitrin were subsequently determined by WST-1 cell proliferation assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay, detection of nucleosome enrichment factor, changes in caspase-3 activity, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and also the localization of phosphatidylserine (PS) in the plasma membrane. There were significant increases in caspase-3 activity, loss of MMP, and increases in the apoptotic cell population in response to quercitrin in DLD-1 colon cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These results revealed that quercitrin has antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells. Quercitrin activity supported with in vivo analyses could be a biomarker candicate for early colorectal carcinoma. 10.1007/s12253-014-9825-3
    Pathway and single gene analyses of inhibited Caco-2 differentiation by ascorbate-stabilized quercetin suggest enhancement of cellular processes associated with development of colon cancer. Dihal Ashwin A,Tilburgs Chantal,van Erk Marjan J,Rietjens Ivonne M C M,Woutersen Ruud A,Stierum Rob H Molecular nutrition & food research The aim was to investigate mechanisms contributing to quercetin's previously described effects on cell-proliferation and -differentiation, which contradicted its proposed anticarcinogenic potency. In a 10-day experiment, 40 microM quercetin stabilized by 1 mM ascorbate reduced Caco-2 differentiation up to 50% (p < 0.001). Caco-2 RNA from days 5 and 10, hybridized on HG-U133A2.0 Affymetrix GeneChips(R), showed 1,743 affected genes on both days (p < 0.01). All 14 Caco-2 differentiation-associated genes showed decreased expression (p < 0.01), including intestinal alkaline phosphatase, that was confirmed technically (qRT-PCR) and functionally (enzyme-activity). The 1,743 genes contributed to 27 pathways (p < 0.05) categorized under six gene ontology (GO) processes, including apoptosis and cell-cycle. Genes within these GO-processes showed fold changes that suggest increased cell-survival and -proliferation. Furthermore, quercetin down-regulated expression of genes involved in tumor-suppression and phase II metabolism, and up-regulated oncogenes. Gene expression changes mediated by ascorbate-stabilized quercetin were concordant with those occurring in human colorectal carcinogenesis ( approximately 80-90%), but were opposite to those previously described for Caco-2 cells exposed to quercetin without ascorbate ( approximately 75-90%). In conclusion, gene expression among Caco-2 cells exposed to ascorbate-stabilized quercetin showed mechanisms contrary to what is expected for a cancer-preventive agent. Whether this unexpected in vitro effect is relevant in vivo, remains to be elucidated. 10.1002/mnfr.200600261
    Quercetin-induced apoptosis in colorectal tumor cells: possible role of EGF receptor signaling. Richter M,Ebermann R,Marian B Nutrition and cancer Flavonoids are among the best candidates for mediating the protective effect of diets rich in fruits and vegetables with respect to colorectal cancer. To gain additional information about their growth effects on colorectal tumors and their cellular mechanisms of action, a series of related flavonoids was added to cultures of colonic tumor cells. Most compounds induced growth inhibition and cell loss at concentrations of 1-100 microM, relative effectivity being quercetin > apigenin > fisetin > robinetin and kaempferol. Myricetin was only slightly effective. Quercetin was the strongest inducer of apoptosis in a process that was reversible until 10 hours by flavonoid removal and until 24 hours by fetal calf serum. Cells were preferentially retained in the S phase. On the cellular level, quercetin sensitivity was correlated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor levels, rapid growth, and poor differentiation, indicating the possibility of targeting those cells most harmful for the organism. The flavonoid transiently inhibited EGF receptor phosphorylation but had only little effect on other signaling molecules. Even after recovery of receptor phosphorylation, cells remained resistant to EGF stimulation. In summary, the data indicate that inhibition of EGF receptor kinase is an integral part of quercetin-induced growth inhibition, but additional mechanisms also contribute to the overall effect. 10.1207/S15327914NC340113
    Anti Proliferative and Pro Apoptotic Effects of Flavonoid Quercetin Are Mediated by CB1 Receptor in Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines. Refolo Maria Grazia,D'Alessandro Rosalba,Malerba Natascia,Laezza Chiara,Bifulco Maurizio,Messa Caterina,Caruso Maria Gabriella,Notarnicola Maria,Tutino Valeria Journal of cellular physiology Quercetin, the major constituent of flavonoid and widely present in fruits and vegetables, is an attractive compound for cancer prevention due to its beneficial anti proliferative effects, showing a crucial role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle signaling. In vitro studies have demonstrated that quercetin specifically influences colon cancer cell proliferation. Our experiments, using human colon adenocarcinoma cells, confirmed the anti proliferative effect of quercetin and gave intriguing new insight in to the knowledge of the mechanisms involved. We observed a significant increase in the expression of the endocannabinoids receptor (CB1-R) after quercetin treatment. CB1-R can be considered an estrogen responsive receptor and quercetin, having a structure similar to that of the estrogens, can interact with CB1-R leading to the regulation of cell growth. In order to clarify the contribution of the CB1-R to the quercetin action, we investigated some of the principal molecular pathways that are inhibited or activated by this natural compound. In particular we detected the inhibition of the major survival signals like the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and an induction of the pro apoptotic JNK/JUN pathways. Interestingly, the metabolism of β-catenin was modified by flavonoid both directly and through activated CB1-R. In all the experiments done, the quercetin action has proven to be reinforced by anandamide (Met-F-AEA), a CB1-R agonist, and partially counteracted by SR141716, a CB1-R antagonist. These findings open new perspectives for anticancer therapeutic strategies. 10.1002/jcp.25026
    Protein expression profiling identifies molecular targets of quercetin as a major dietary flavonoid in human colon cancer cells. Wenzel Uwe,Herzog Angelika,Kuntz Sabine,Daniel Hannelore Proteomics A high dietary intake of plant foods is thought to contribute to the prevention of colorectal cancers in humans and flavonoids as part of such a diet are considered to contribute to those protective effects. Quercetin is a major dietary flavonoid consumed with a diet rich in onions, tea, and apples. We used HT-29 human colon cancer cells and investigated the effects of quercetin on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation as processes shown to be disregulated during cancer development. To identify the cellular targets of quercetin action, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed and proteins altered in expression level after quercetin exposure of cells were identified by mass spectrometry of peptide fragments generated by tryptic digestion. Quercetin inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells with an IC(50)-value of 81.2 +/- 6.6 microM. Cell differentiation based on surface expression of alkaline phosphatase was enhanced 4-fold and the activity of the pro-apoptotic effector caspase-3 increased 3-fold. Those effects were associated with the regulation of heat-shock proteins and annexins shown to both play a crucial role in the process of apoptosis. Cytoskeletal caspase substrates were found as regulated as well and various proteins involved in intermediary metabolism and in gene regulation showed altered steady-state expression levels upon quercetin treatment of cells. In conclusion, quercetin alters the levels of a variety of proteins involved in growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of colon cancer cells. Their identification as molecular targets of quercetin may explain the anti-cancer activities of this flavonoid. 10.1002/pmic.200300726
    The Role of Polyphenol (Flavonoids) Compounds in the Treatment of Cancer Cells. Hazafa Abu,Rehman Khalil-Ur-,Jahan Nazish,Jabeen Zara Nutrition and cancer Cancer remains a second leading cause of deaths and major public health problem. It occurs due to extensive DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiations, ionizing radiations, environmental agents, therapeutic agents, etc. Among all cancers, the most frequently diagnosed cancers are lung (12.7%), breast (10.9%), colorectal (9.7%), and gastric cancer (7.81%). Natural compounds are most favorable against cancer on the count of their anti-cancerous ability, easy to avail and efficient. Among natural compounds, polyphenols (flavonoids, catechin, hesperetin, flavones, quercetin, phenolic acids, ellagic acid, lignans, stilbenes, etc.) represent a large and diverse group used in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Natural flavonoids are derived from different plant sources and from various medicinal plants including , , , , etc. Natural flavonoids possess antioxidant, anti-inflammation, as well as anti-cancerous activities through multiple pathways, they induce apoptosis in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers, lower the nucleoside diphosphate kinase-B activity in lung, bladder and colon cancers, inhibit cell-proliferation and cell cycle arrest by suppressing the NF-kB pathway in various cancers, etc. The current review summarized the anticancer activities of natural polyphenols and their mechanisms of action. 10.1080/01635581.2019.1637006
    Novel quercetin derivative TEF induces ER stress and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. Khan Imran,Paul Souren,Jakhar Rekha,Bhardwaj Monika,Han Jaehong,Kang Sun Chul Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Although quercetin is very well known for its anticancer activity, however it shows some drawbacks. Herein, we have evaluated the apoptotic effect TEF (5, 3'-dihydroxy-3, 7, 4'-triethoxyflavone), a newly synthesized quercetin derivative on HCT-116 colon cancer cells. After 24h of treatment, the proliferation of colon cancer cells was inhibited by TEF. TEF induced apoptosis, as confirmed by the presence of fragmented nuclei, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and elevated cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. TEF treatment causes elevation of IRE1-α and activates calcium ions (Ca) with concomitant increase in JNK levels. Elevated Ca ion translocates from ER to mitochondria which leads to ROS release and oxidative stress. TEF treatment further elevated levels of pro-apoptotic factors and down-regulated the level of Bcl2. TEF led to activation of mito-JNK (mitochondrial JNK), which plays a crucial role in activation of oxidative stress and caspase mediated apoptotic cell death. Moreover, JNK inhibition shown to suppress TEF induced apoptosis in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Therefore, this study reveals the apoptotic role of TEF against HCT-116 cell line via IRE1-α and mito-JNK pathway. 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.09.094
    8-C-(E-phenylethenyl)quercetin from onion/beef soup induces autophagic cell death in colon cancer cells through ERK activation. Zhao Yueliang,Fan Daming,Zheng Zong-Ping,Li Edmund T S,Chen Feng,Cheng Ka-Wing,Wang Mingfu Molecular nutrition & food research SCOPE:Quercetin, a flavonoid, widely distributed in edible fruits and vegetables, was reported to effectively inhibit 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation in a food model (roast beef patties) with itself being converted into a novel compound 8-C-(E-phenylethenyl)quercetin (8-CEPQ). Here we investigated whether 8-CEPQ could be formed in a real food system, and tested its anticancer activity in human colon cancer cell lines. METHODS AND RESULTS:LC-MS was applied for the determination of 8-CEPQ formation in onion/beef soup. Anticancer activity of 8-CEPQ was evaluated by using cell viability assay and flow cytometry. Results showed that 8-CEPQ suppressed proliferation and caused G phase arrest in colon cancer cells. Based on immunofluorescent staining assay, western blot assay, and RNA knockdown data, we found that 8-CEPQ did not cause apoptotic cell death. Instead, it induced autophagic cell death. Moreover, treatment with 8-CEPQ induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated 8-CEPQ-induced autophagy and reversed 8-CEPQ-mediated cell growth inhibition. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that 8-CEPQ, a novel quercetin derivative, could be formed in onion/beef soup. 8-CEPQ inhibited colon cancer cell growth by inducing autophagic cell death through ERK activation. 10.1002/mnfr.201600437
    Lecithin-Stabilized Polymeric Micelles (LPMs) for Delivering Quercetin: Pharmacokinetic Studies and Therapeutic Effects of Quercetin Alone and in Combination with Doxorubicin. Chang Chia-En,Hsieh Chien-Ming,Huang Sheng-Chin,Su Chia-Yu,Sheu Ming-Thau,Ho Hsiu-O Scientific reports In this study, lecithin-stabilized polymeric micelles (LPMs) were prepared to load quercetin (QUE) in order to improve its bioavailability and increase its antitumor activity. Its combination with doxorubicin (DOX) to minimize DOX-mediated cardiac toxicity and increase the antitumor activity of QUE-loaded LPMs was also examined. LPMs were prepared following a previously reported procedure. Results demonstrated that optimal QUE-loaded LPMs contained quercetin, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, and lecithin at a weight ratio of 6:40:80. Drug-release studies showed that QUE released from LPMs followed a controlled release pattern. A cytotoxicity assay revealed that QUE-loaded LPMs had significant anticancer activities against MCF-7, SKBR-3, and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and CT26 mouse colon cancer cells. In animal studies, intravenous administration of QUE-loaded LPMs resulted in efficient growth inhibition of CT26 colon cancer cells in a Balb/c mice model. In a pharmacokinetics study compared to free QUE, intravenous and oral administration of QUE-loaded LPMs was found to have significantly increased the relative bioavailability to 158% and 360%, respectively, and the absolute bioavailability to 5.13%. The effect of QUE-loaded LPMs in combination with DOX resulted in efficient growth inhibition of CT26 colon cancer cells and reduced cardiac toxicity in the Balb/c mice model. 10.1038/s41598-018-36162-0
    Quercetin Suppresses AOM/DSS-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis through Its Anti-Inflammation Effects in Mice. Lin Rui,Piao Meiyu,Song Yan,Liu Chunyan Journal of immunology research Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of tumor-related deaths worldwide. In this study, we explored the in vivo effects of quercetin, a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols with antioxidant effects, on colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS). Thirty mice were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group, the AOM/DSS group, and the quercetin+AOM/DSS group. CRC was induced by AOM injection and a solution of 2% DSS in the drinking water. In the AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer mice model, quercetin treatment dramatically reduced the number and size of colon tumors. In addition, quercetin significantly restored the leukocyte counts by decreasing the inflammation caused by AOM/DSS. We also observed that the expression of oxidative stress markers, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD), and glutathione (GSH), could be reduced by quercetin, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory function of quercetin comes from its antioxidant effect. Moreover, potential biomarkers were identified with serum metabolite profiling. Increased levels of 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-aminobutyrate, and 2-oxobutyrate and decreased levels of gentian violet, indole-3-methyl acetate, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, indoxyl sulfate, and indoxyl were also found in the AOM/DSS-treated mice. However, quercetin treatment successfully decreased the levels of 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-aminobutyrate, 2-oxobutyrate, endocannabinoids, and sphinganine and increased the levels of gentian violet, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, indoxyl sulfate, and indoxyl. Together, our data demonstrated that quercetin could maintain relatively potent antitumor activities against colorectal cancer in vivo through its anti-inflammation effect. 10.1155/2020/9242601
    Quercetin inhibits p21-RAS expression in human colon cancer cell lines and in primary colorectal tumors. Ranelletti F O,Maggiano N,Serra F G,Ricci R,Larocca L M,Lanza P,Scambia G,Fattorossi A,Capelli A,Piantelli M International journal of cancer Immunocytochemical studies have revealed that 10 microM quercetin reduced the steady state levels of p21-ras proteins in both colon cancer cell lines and primary colorectal tumors. These findings were confirmed by Western blot and flow cytometric analysis showing that the inhibition of p21-ras expression by quercetin was time- and concentration-dependent. Twenty-four-hour treatment with 10 microM quercetin reduced p21-ras levels to about 50% of control values. Quercetin was similarly effective in inhibiting the expression of K-, H-, and N-ras proteins. Moreover, the effect of quercetin on ras oncogene expression was not dependent on the cell cycle position of colon cancer cells and appeared to be specific and not merely a consequence of overall inhibition of protein synthesis. Northern blot analysis revealed that quercetin produced in colon cancer cells an early (30 min) reduction of the steady state levels of K-, H-, and N-ras mRNAs. This reduction was also present after 6 hr of flavonoid treatment. These effects of quercetin suggest a possible chemopreventive role for this compound in colorectal carcinogenesis.
    The Microbiota-Derived Metabolite of Quercetin, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid Prevents Malignant Transformation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Hemin in Colon Cancer and Normal Colon Epithelia Cell Lines. Catalán Mabel,Ferreira Jorge,Carrasco-Pozo Catalina Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Meat diet plays a pivotal role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Hemin, a metabolite of myoglobin, produced after meat intake, has been involved in CRC initiation. The compound, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4HPAA) is a scarcely studied microbiota-derived metabolite of the flavonoid quercetin (QUE), which exert antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of 3,4HPAA against malignant transformation (increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, DNA oxidative damage and augmented reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels) and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by hemin in normal colon epithelial cells and colon cancer cells. The effect of 3,4HPAA was assessed in comparison to its precursor, QUE and to a known CRC protective agent, sulforaphane (SFN). The results showed that both, tumor and normal cells, exposed to hemin, presented increased cell proliferation, decreased caspase 3 activity and cytochrome c release, as well as augmented production of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS. In addition, hemin decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the activity of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain. These effects of hemin were prevented by the action of 3,4HPAA. The metabolite showed to be more active than QUE and slightly less active than SFN. In conclusion, 3,4HPAA administration could represent a promising strategy for preventing malignant transformation and mitochondrial dysfunction in colon epithelia induced by hemin. 10.3390/molecules25184138
    Network Pharmacology-Based Study on the Mechanism of Gegen Qinlian Decoction against Colorectal Cancer. Fan Qiaowei,Guo Lin,Guan Jingming,Chen Jing,Fan Yujing,Chen Zhendong,Li Hulun Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Purpose:Gegen Qinlian decoction (GQD) has been used to treat gastrointestinal diseases, such as diarrhea and ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent study demonstrated that GQD enhanced the effect of PD-1 blockade in colorectal cancer (CRC). This study used network pharmacology analysis to investigate the mechanisms of GQD as a potential therapeutic approach against CRC. Materials and Methods:Bioactive chemical ingredients (BCIs) of GQD were collected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database. CRC-specific genes were obtained using the gene expression profile GSE110224 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Target genes related to BCIs of GQD were then screened out. The GQD-CRC ingredient-target pharmacology network was constructed and visualized using Cytoscape software. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was subsequently constructed and analyzed with BisoGenet and CytoNCA plug-in in Cytoscape. Gene Ontology (GO) functional and the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis for target genes were then performed using the package of clusterProfiler. Results:One hundred and eighteen BCIs were determined to be effective on CRC, including quercetin, wogonin, and baicalein. Twenty corresponding target genes were screened out including PTGS2, CCNB1, and SPP1. Among these genes, CCNB1 and SPP1 were identified as crucial to the PPI network. A total of 212 GO terms and 6 KEGG pathways were enriched for target genes. Functional analysis indicated that these targets were closely related to pathophysiological processes and pathways such as biosynthetic and metabolic processes of prostaglandins and prostanoids, cytokine and chemokine activities, and the IL-17, TNF, Toll-like receptor, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) signaling pathways. Conclusion:The study elucidated the "multiingredient, multitarget, and multipathway" mechanisms of GQD against CRC from a systemic perspective, indicating GQD to be a candidate therapy for CRC treatment. 10.1155/2020/8897879
    Prediction of new targets and mechanisms for quercetin in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, and rectal cancer. Pang Bing,Xu Xiaoguang,Lu Yao,Jin Han,Yang Rongrong,Jiang Chunmei,Shao Dongyan,Liu Yanlin,Shi Junling Food & function Quercetin has been widely found to exhibit anticancer activity with low toxicity and prevalence in foods. Quercetin has been reported to inhibit digestive system cancers including pancreatic cancer (PAAD) and colon cancer (COAD), but rectal cancer (READ) has not been reported. The reported mechanisms and targets are divergent. In this study, new targets and mechanisms were predicted for the influence of quercetin on PAAD, COAD, and READ using bioinformatics methods. The results showed that quercetin may target CD36 and reduce the death rate caused by PAAD by enhancing the cell adhesion, mediating the uptake of fatty acids (FAs), regulating thrombospondin-1, and stimulating the immune response. Quercetin may lower the death rate from READ by targeting SLCO1B1 and producing enhanced effects from use of this compound, inhibiting cell growth, and inducing apoptosis in tumor cells. ACADS, ALDH3B2, UGT2A3, AMH, CDKN2A, FOSL1, CD36, CFL2, CYP3A4, and MAF were identified as targets for quercetin to reduce the death rate caused by COAD. Glutathione metabolism was mainly involved in the effect of quercetin on COAD, including the enhancement of the oxidation of fatty acids, the metabolism of anticancer medications, and the stiffness of cells, and the reduction of chemical carcinogenesis, the level of anti-Müllerian hormone, the proliferation of cancer cells and transcriptional misregulation, and mediation of the activity of glutathione transferases. The combined analyses of three databases can be referred to and used to seek medications and targets that can be applied to other diseases. 10.1039/c9fo01168d
    In vitro effects of polyphenols on colorectal cancer cells. Pampaloni Barbara,Palmini Gaia,Mavilia Carmelo,Zonefrati Roberto,Tanini Annalisa,Brandi Maria Luisa World journal of gastrointestinal oncology AIM:To investigate the effects of quercetin and genistein on colon cancer cell proliferation and their estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression. METHODS:Colon cancer cells were stably transfected with a mammalian expression vector to overexpress ERβ (HCT8-β8-expressing cells) or a control vector (HCT8-pSV2neo-expressing cells). The proliferation of these cells was examined after treatment with quercetin or genistein (5-100 μmol/L), or 10 nmol/L 17β-estradiol (17β-E2). Cell viability was examined by acridine orange staining following treatments for 48 or 144 h. Effects of quercetin and genistein on ERβ transcriptional transactivation were examined by luciferase activity in HCT8-β8-expressing cells transiently transfected with a pEREtkLUC reporter vector. In addition, the regulation of ERβ transcription by phytoestrogens and 17β-E2 was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:Proliferation of HCT8-β8-expressing cells was not reduced low doses (5 μmol/L) of quercetin and genistein, while it was reduced at 25-50 μmol/L with an effect similar to 10 nmol/L 17β-E2. Treatment with doses of phytoestrogens ≥ 75 μmol/L completely blocked cell growth and reduced overall cell counts, however no effects at any dose were observed in HCT8-pSV2neo-expressing cells. These results were supported by viability staining that revealed acridine orange-stained lysosomes with high doses or extended treatment periods. Genistein and quercetin (50 μmol/L) significantly increased ER-responsive luciferase activity similar to 10 nmol/L 17β-E2 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, genistein and quercetin (50 μmol/L), as well as 10 nmol/L 17β-E2 significantly increased ERβ mRNA levels in HCT8-β8-expressing cells (P < 0.05). In addition, treatment of HCT8-pSV2neo-expressing cells with 50 µmol/L quercetin or 10 nmol/L 17β-E2 significantly increased ERβ mRNA levels compared to untreated controls (P < 0.05), though the absolute levels were much lower than in HCT8-β8-expressing cells. CONCLUSION:The antitumorigenic effects of the phytoestrogenic compounds quercetin and genistein on colon cancers cells occur through ERβ activity and expression. 10.4251/wjgo.v6.i8.289
    Evaluation of Novel 3-Hydroxyflavone Analogues as HDAC Inhibitors against Colorectal Cancer. Biswas Subhankar,Reddy Neetinkumar D,Jayashree B S,Rao C Mallikarjuna Advances in pharmacological sciences Alteration of epigenetic enzymes is associated with the pathophysiology of colon cancer with an overexpression of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) enzyme in this tissue. Numerous reports suggest that targeting HDAC8 is a viable strategy for developing new anticancer drugs. Flavonols provide a rich source of molecules that are effective against cancer; however, their clinical use is limited. The present study investigated the potential of quercetin and synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone analogues to inhibit HDAC8 enzyme and evaluated their anticancer property. Synthesis of the analogues was carried out, and cytotoxicity was determined using MTT assay. Nonspecific and specific HDAC enzyme inhibition assays were performed followed by the expression studies of target proteins. Induction of apoptosis was studied through annexin V and caspase 3/7 activation assay. Furthermore, the analogues were assessed against colorectal cancer. Among the synthesized analogues, QMJ-2 and QMJ-5 were cytotoxic against HCT116 cells with an IC value of 68 ± 2.3 and 27.4 ± 1.8 M, respectively. They inhibited HDAC enzyme in HCT116 cells at an IC value of 181.7 ± 22.04 and 70.2 ± 4.3 M, respectively, and inhibited human HDAC8 and 1 enzyme at an IC value of <50 M with QMJ-5 having greater specificity towards HDAC8. A reduction in the expression of HDAC8 and an increase in acetyl H3K9 expression were observed with the synthesized analogues. Both QMJ-2 and QMJ-5 treatment induced apoptosis through the activation of caspase 3/7 evident from 55.70% and 83.55% apoptotic cells, respectively. studies revealed a significant decrease in colon weight to length ratio in QMJ-2 and QMJ-5 treatment groups compared to DMH control. Furthermore, a reduction in aberrant crypt foci formation was observed in the treatment groups. The present study demonstrated the potential of novel 3-hydroxyflavone analogues as HDAC8 inhibitors with anticancer property against colorectal cancer. 10.1155/2018/4751806
    CHNQ, a novel 2-Chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone derivative of quercetin, induces oxidative stress and autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. Enayat Shabnam,Şeyma Ceyhan M,Taşkoparan Betül,Stefek Milan,Banerjee Sreeparna Archives of biochemistry and biophysics Quercetin (Qc) shows strong antitumor effects but has limited clinical application due to poor water solubility and bioavailability. In a screening of novel semi-synthetic derivatives of Qc, 3,7-dihydroxy-2-[4-(2-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone-3-yloxy)-3-hydroxyphenyl]-5-hydroxychromen-4-one (CHNQ) could ameliorate acetic acid induced acute colitis in vivo more efficiently than Qc. Since inflammation contributes to colorectal cancer (CRC), we have hypothesized that CHNQ may have anti-cancer effects. Using CRC cell lines HCT-116 and HT-29, we report that CHNQ was three-fold more cytotoxic than Qc along with a robust induction of apoptosis. As expected from naphthoquinones such as CHNQ, a strong induction of oxidative stress was observed. This was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced autophagy marked by a dramatic increase in the lipidation of LC3, decreased activation of Akt/PKB, acidic vesicle accumulation and puncta formation in HCT-116 cells treated with CHNQ. Interestingly, an incomplete autophagy was observed in HT-29 cells where CHNQ treatment led to LC3 lipidation, but not the formation of acidic vacuoles. CHNQ-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and autophagy were also detected in vivo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain RDKY3615 (WinstonS288C background). Overall, we propose that CHNQ can induce cancer cell death through the induction of oxidative stress, and may be examined further as a potential chemotherapeutic drug. 10.1016/j.abb.2016.03.004
    3, 3'-Dimethylquercetin Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Colon Cancer RKO Cells through Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis. Wu Jianguo,Yi Jun,Wu Yanbin,Chen Xuzheng,Zeng Jianwei,Wu Jinzhong,Peng Wei Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry BACKGROUND:Our previous study successfully identified that 3,3'-Dimethylquercetin (DMQ) acted as a potent anticancer agent against human colon cancer cell lines RKO. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism by which DMQ displayed inhibitory activity in RKO cells. METHODS:Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the effect of DMQ on the cell cycle arrest, as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential in RKO cells. DAPI staining and DNA fragmentation ladder assays were performed to assess the apoptosis inducing activity of DMQ. Furthermore, western blot analysis was conducted to examine the expression of related proteins responsible for the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. RESULTS:Treatment with DMQ caused a significant increase in the fraction of G2/M cells, and induced remarkable apoptosis. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that DMQ arrested cells at G2/M checkpoint by down-regulation of cyclin B1, cdc2 and cdc25c and up-regulation of p21, and induced cell apoptosis via affecting the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, causing loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential and enhancing the expression of cleaved caspase-9 (C-caspase-9) and cleaved caspase-3 (C-caspase-3). CONCLUSION:These data showed that DMQ could suppress RKO cell growth by arresting RKO cells at G2/M checkpoint and inducing mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis. Our findings shed light on the potential use of DMQ as a chemotherapeutic agent for CRC. 10.2174/1871520618666181106120718
    Quercetin pretreatment enhances the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells by targeting Notch-1 pathway. Li Yana,Wang Zhicheng,Jin Jingji,Zhu Shuang-Xi,He Gan-Qing,Li Sui-Hui,Wang Jianfeng,Cai Yong Biochemical and biophysical research communications Cancer stem-like cells are rare immortal cells within tumor, which are thought to play important roles in ionizing radiation (IR) therapy-resistance. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with potential anti-cancer properties without significant cytotoxicity in normal tissues. In this study, we demonstrated that quercetin-IR combination treatment exhibited more dramatic anti-cancer effect than either quercetin or IR treatment alone via targeting colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) and inhibiting the Notch-1 signaling. These effects were further verified by in vivo studies which showed remarkable decrease of the CSCs markers and the expression of Notch-1 signaling proteins in human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice. Co-treatment with quercetin and low dose of radiation significantly reduced the expressions of all five proteins of γ-secretase complex in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells. In addition, ectopic expression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) partly reversed the inhibition effects by the combination therapy. In conclusion, our results indicated that the combination of quercetin (20 μM) and IR (5Gy) might be a promising therapeutic strategy for colon cancer treatment by targeting colon cancer stem-like cells and inhibiting the Notch-1 signaling. In future studies, we intend to further explore the potential therapeutic efficacy of the quercetin-radiation combination treatment in clinical trials. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.01.048
    Combination of quercetin with radiotherapy enhances tumor radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Lin Chenghe,Yu Yan,Zhao Hong-Guan,Yang Aimin,Yan Hong,Cui Yali Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology PURPOSE:Quercetin (3, 3,' 4', 5, 7 - five-flavonoids) is one of the main components of flavonoids, with multifunctions on immune function, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection. We hypothesize that a combination of quercetin with radiation would increase tumor radiosensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we conducted in vitro and in vivo studies. METHODS AND MATERIALS:The in vitro radio-sensitization activity of quercetin was tested in DLD1, HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cell lines by colony formation assays. The in vivo activity was assessed in the DLD-1 human colorectal cancer xenograft model in nude mice. Mechanistic studies were conducted in several cell lines using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS:We found that quercetin can significantly increase tumor radiosensitivity both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro Sensitizing Enhancement Ratios in DLD1, HeLa and MCF-7 cells were 1.87, 1.65, and 1.74, respectively. The mean doubling time of tumor xenografts was significantly increased in irradiated mice treated with quercetin. At the cellular level, exposure to quercetin resulted in prolonged DNA repair. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that quercetin induced radio-sensitization is through inhibiting the ATM kinase, one of the critical DNA damage response proteins. CONCLUSION:We demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo evidence that combination of quercetin with radiotherapy can enhance tumor radiosensitivity by targeting the ATM-mediated pathway in response to radiation. 10.1016/j.radonc.2011.10.023
    Isorhamnetin suppresses colon cancer cell growth through the PI3K‑Akt‑mTOR pathway. Li Chuan,Yang Xi,Chen Cheng,Cai Shaoxin,Hu Junbo Molecular medicine reports Isorhamnetin, a flavonoid isolated from the fruits of herbal medicinal plants, such as Hippophae rhamnoides L., exerts anticancer effects similar to other flavonoids. However, the effect of isorhamnetin on colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying molecular mechanism are unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of isorhamnetin on the proliferation of cells from the human CRC cell lines, HT‑29, HCT116 and SW480. It was demonstrated that isorhamnetin suppressed the proliferation of cells from all three cell lines, induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and suppressed cell proliferation by inhibiting the PI3K‑Akt‑mTOR pathway. Isorhamnetin also reduced the phosphorylation levels of Akt (ser473), phosph‑p70S6 kinase and phosph‑4E‑BP1 (t37/46) protein, and enhanced the expression of Cyclin B1 protein. Therefore, this compound was revealed to be a selective PI3K‑Akt‑mTOR pathway inhibitor, and may be a potent anticancer agent for the treatment of CRC, as it restrains the proliferation of CRC cells. 10.3892/mmr.2014.1886
    Quercetin inhibit human SW480 colon cancer growth in association with inhibition of cyclin D1 and survivin expression through Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Shan Bao-En,Wang Ming-Xia,Li Run-qing Cancer investigation AIM:The Wnt signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in cellular developmental processes and human carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on the growth of the colon carcinoma cell line and the regulation effect of quercetin on the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. METHODS:MTT assay was used to determine the reduction of cell viability of quercetin on SW480 cells and clone 26 cells. The apoptotic rate and cell-cycle analysis after treatment with quercetin was determined by flow cytometry. Effects of quercetin on mRNA expression of cyclin D(1) and survivin were detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR. After treatment with quercetin, the protein expression of cyclin D(1) and survivin in SW480 cells was analyzed by Western blot analysis. We built a Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway reporter gene model. The regulation effect of quercetin on the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling transcription was investigated by using this reporter gene model. RESULTS:Quercetin reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner in SW480 and clone 26 cells. The percentages of SW480 cells and clone 26 cells at G(2)/M phase were increased significantly after treatment with 40 approximately 80 micromol/L quercetin for 48 hours. Quercetin induced the apoptosis of SW480 cells in a dose-dependent manner at the concentration of 20, 40, 60, anf 80 micromol/L. However, quercetin only induced the apoptosis of clone 26 cells at the concentration of 80 micromol/L. Quercetin downregulated transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/Tcf in SW480 cells transiently transfected with the TCF-4 reporter gene. Within 24 hours of treatment, a 160-mumol/L concentration of quercetin reduced beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity by about 18-fold. Cyclin D(1) and the survivin gene were downregulated markedly by quercetin in a dose-dependent manner at both the transcription and protein expression levels. CONCLUSION:The results indicate that the molecular mechanism underlying the antitumor effect of quercetin in SW480 colon cancer cells is related to the inhibition of expression of cyclin D(1) and survivin as well as the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway could be qualified as one of the promising targets for innovative treatment strategies of colorectal cancer. 10.1080/07357900802337191
    Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor is required for efficient quercetin-mediated suppression of TNFα secretion. De Santis Stefania,Kunde Dale,Serino Grazia,Galleggiante Vanessa,Caruso Maria Lucia,Mastronardi Mauro,Cavalcanti Elisabetta,Ranson Nicole,Pinto Aldo,Campiglia Pietro,Santino Angelo,Eri Rajaraman,Chieppa Marcello Oncotarget Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that in response to microbial infections generate long-lasting adaptive immune response. Following microbial uptake, DCs undergo a cascade of cellular differentiation that ultimately leads to "mature" DCs. Mature DCs produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFβ) a key cytokine for the inflammatory cascade. In numerous studies, polyphenols, including quercetin, demonstrated their ability to suppress TNFα secretion and protect from the onset of chronic inflammatory disorders. We show that murine bone marrow derived DCs express Slpi following quercetin exposure. Slpi is known to suppress LPS mediated NFκB activation, thus, it was hypothesized that its expression could be the key step for polyphenol induced inflammatory suppression. Slpi-KO DCs poorly respond to quercetin administration failing to reduce TNFα secretion in response to quercetin exposure. Supernatant from quercetin exposed DCs could also reduce LPS-mediated TNFα secretion by unrelated DCs, but this property is lost using an anti-Slpi antibody. In vivo, oral administration of quercetin is able to induce Slpi expression. Human biopsies from inflamed tract of the intestine reveal the presence of numerous SLPI+ cells and the expression level could be further increased by quercetin administration. We propose that quercetin induces Slpi expression that in turn reduces the inflammatory response. Our data encourages the development of nutritional strategies to improve the efficiency of current therapies for intestinal chronic inflammatory syndrome and reduce the risks of colorectal cancer development. 10.18632/oncotarget.12415
    Novel quercetin derivatives: From redox properties to promising treatment of oxidative stress related diseases. Zizkova Petronela,Stefek Milan,Rackova Lucia,Prnova Marta,Horakova Lubica Chemico-biological interactions A set of O-substituted quercetin derivatives was prepared with the aim to optimize bioavailability and redox properties of quercetin, a known agent with multiple health beneficial effects. Electron-acceptor/-donor properties of the agents were evaluated theoretically by quantum chemical calculations and by experimental methods in cell-free model systems (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), peroxynitrite scavenging, protein-thiol oxidation) and in cellular systems of fibroblasts, microglials and cancer lines. The order of individual antioxidant effects varied dependently on the system used. In cellular systems, quercetin derivatives were shown to be better antioxidants compared to quercetin. Monochloropivaloylquercetin (CPQ), monoacetylferuloylquercetin (MAFQ) and chloronaphthoquinonequercetin (CHNQ) showed a prominent inhibitory effect on the key enzymes involved in diabetic complications, aldose reductase and α-glucosidase, suggesting their promising therapeutic application. In the cellular models of BHNF-3 fibroblasts, microglial cell line BV-2, colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-116 and HT-29, CHNQ and CPQ were studied for their cytotoxic, antiproliferative and antiinflammatory properties. In the rat model, CHNQ attenuated colon inflammation induced by acetic acid. In summary, our studies revealed CPQ and CHNQ as potential remedies of chronic age-related metabolic or inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and neurodegenerations. Furthermore, CHNQ represents a novel promising agent exerting its anticancer effect through induction of oxidative stress-dependent cell death. 10.1016/j.cbi.2017.01.019
    Anticancer Effects of Fufang Yiliu Yin Formula on Colorectal Cancer Through Modulation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway and BCL-2 Family Proteins. Dong Bingzi,Yang Zhenjie,Ju Qiang,Zhu Shigao,Wang Yixiu,Zou Hao,Sun Chuandong,Zhu Chengzhan Frontiers in cell and developmental biology Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. Fufang Yiliu Yin (FYY) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula used in clinical practice for cancer treatment, but its effectiveness and mechanism of action in human CRC are unclear. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of FYY on HCT116 and SW480 human CRC cell lines and evaluated the underlying molecular mechanism. A subcutaneous xenograft mouse model was used to confirm the antitumor effect . The components and targets of FYY were collected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP) database. CRC targets were collected via the GeneCards and OMIM databases. Protein-protein interactions were explored using the STRING platform. Cytoscape was used to construct drug-disease-target networks. KEGG and GO analyses were performed to investigate common FYY and CRC targets. FYY significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced HCT116 and SW480 cell apoptosis. Cell proliferation was blocked at the G0/G1 phase, while cell apoptosis was promoted at the early stage. According to the network pharmacological analysis, quercetin and kaempferol were the most bioactive compounds of FYY. The key targets of FYY were cyclin-D1, MAPK8, and EGFR. GO analysis showed that core targets included the apoptotic signaling pathway, response to steroid hormone, and cellular response to organic cyclic compound. The KEGG pathway analysis showed that FYY may affect CRC through the PI3K/Akt pathway. , FYY significantly inhibited tumor growth. Pathway analysis confirmed that FYY induced cell apoptosis by modulating PI3K/Akt signaling and BCL-2 family proteins. Hence, our findings indicate that FYY may be a promising adjuvant therapy for CRC. 10.3389/fcell.2020.00704
    Antiproliferative effects of combinational therapy of Lycopodium clavatum and quercetin in colon cancer cells. Banerjee Antara,Pathak Surajit,Jothimani Ganesan,Roy Susmita Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent form of cancer and fourth leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Surgical resection remains the only curative approach for CRC, but recurrence following surgery is the main problem and ultimate cause of death. Lycopodium clavatum and quercetin have been found to exert its anticancer properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether quercetin or L. clavatum extract and combination of both have any profound role in reducing major inflammatory cytokines in Colo-320 cells. Methods L. clavatum and Quercetin alone or in combination was administered to colon cancer cells and various toxicity markers, gene expression analyses of apototic genes and gelatin zymmography were performed. Results Quercetin (50 μm) in combination with L. clavatum extract (10 μL) distinctly reduced cell growth and highlighted their potential effects in extirpation of colon cancer cells. Treatment with increased dose of L. clavatum extract in combination with quercetin reduced the colony size and proliferation potential when compared to the sole treatment of plant extracts. In the antimicrobial assays, it was observed that Lycopodium alone exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Characterization of L. clavatum extract and quercetin was performed and confirmed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids. Treatment with Lycopodium and quercetin combination induced significant down-regulation in activities of MMP2 and MMP9 tested by gelatin zymography. The combined treatment greatly affected the mRNA expression of p53, Bcl2, Bax, Caspase 3, Wnt 1, Cyclin D1, and Catalase genes in colon cancer cells. Conclusion The synergistic effect between Lycopodium and quercetin might bring forward the enhanced antitumorigenic properties of combinational therapy with natural products to successfully combat the cancer progression with minimal side effects and resistance to drugs. 10.1515/jbcpp-2019-0193
    Transcriptome and proteome profiling of colon mucosa from quercetin fed F344 rats point to tumor preventive mechanisms, increased mitochondrial fatty acid degradation and decreased glycolysis. Dihal Ashwin A,van der Woude Hester,Hendriksen Peter J M,Charif Halima,Dekker Lennard J,Ijsselstijn Linda,de Boer Vincent C J,Alink Gerrit M,Burgers Peter C,Rietjens Ivonne M C M,Woutersen Ruud A,Stierum Rob H Proteomics Quercetin has been shown to act as an anticarcinogen in experimental colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to characterize transcriptome and proteome changes occurring in the distal colon mucosa of rats supplemented with 10 g quercetin/kg diet for 11 wk. Transcriptome data analyzed with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that quercetin significantly downregulated the potentially oncogenic mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mapk) pathway. In addition, quercetin enhanced expression of tumor suppressor genes, including Pten, Tp53, and Msh2, and of cell cycle inhibitors, including Mutyh. Furthermore, dietary quercetin enhanced genes involved in phase I and II metabolism, including Fmo5, Ephx1, Ephx2, and Gpx2. Quercetin increased PPARalpha target genes, and concomitantly enhanced expression of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) degradation. Proteomics performed in the same samples revealed 33 affected proteins, of which four glycolysis enzymes and three heat shock proteins were decreased. A proteome-transcriptome comparison showed a low correlation, but both pointed out toward altered energy metabolism. In conclusion, transcriptomics combined with proteomics showed that dietary quercetin evoked changes contrary to those found in colorectal carcinogenesis. These tumor-protective mechanisms were associated with a shift in energy production pathways, pointing at decreased cytoplasmic glycolysis and toward increased mitochondrial FA degradation. 10.1002/pmic.200700364
    Cilostazol and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin attenuate experimental colitis and colon cancer in mice by inhibiting cell proliferation and inflammation. Kangawa Yumi,Yoshida Toshinori,Maruyama Kiyoshi,Okamoto Minako,Kihara Tohru,Nakamura Michi,Ochiai Masako,Hippo Yoshitaka,Hayashi Shim-Mo,Shibutani Makoto Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association We previously reported the anti-inflammatory effects of cilostazol, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3, and two antioxidants, enzymatically modified isoquercitrin and α-lipoic acid in a dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis mouse model. We further examined the chemopreventive effects of these substances in a murine azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate -induced colorectal carcinoma model and compared the effects with those of the well-known anticancer natural plant pigment, anthocyanin. In addition, the effects on cell proliferation activity were evaluated in colon cancer cell lines and mucosal epithelial cells in a model of acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis. Cilostazol and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin improved the outcome of azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate-induced colorectal cancer along with anthocyanin though inhibiting inflammation and cell proliferation, but the effect of α-lipoic acid was minimal. Inhibition of cell proliferation by cilostazol was confirmed in vitro. In the acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis model, cilostazol and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin prevented the decrease in epithelial proliferative cells. These results indicate that cilostazol and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin first exhibited an anti-dextran sodium sulphate effect at the initial stage of colitis and then showed antitumour effects throughout subsequent inflammation-related cancer developmental stages. 10.1016/j.fct.2016.12.018
    Network Pharmacology Analysis to Uncover the Potential Mechanisms of Lycium barbarum on Colorectal Cancer. Lu Yi,Sun Jiachen,Hu Minhui,Kong Xianhe,Zhong Weijie,Li Chujun Interdisciplinary sciences, computational life sciences BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that extracts from Lycium barbarum exerted protective effects against colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We used the network pharmacology method to determine the effects of L. barbarum on CRC and to predict core targets, biological functions, pathways, and mechanisms of action. METHOD:We obtained the active compounds and their targets in L. barbarum via use of the Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology Database (TCMSP), gathered the CRC targets from Malacards, TTD, GeneCards, and DisGeNET, and chosen the overlapped targets as the candidate targets. After protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, 20 with the highest node degree were selected as the core targets, and their enrichment and pathways were analyzed. Furthermore, we employed iGEMDOCK to validate the compound-target relation. RESULT:Eventually, 103 overlapped targets were chosen as the candidate targets. Targets with the top 20 highest node degree were selected as the core targets. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that the core targets were enriched in cell proliferation regulation, extracellular space, cytokine receptor binding, and so on. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis proved that the core targets were significantly enriched in bladder cancer, pathways in cancer. The docking results demonstrated that beta-sitosterol, glycitein, and quercetin had good binding activity to CRC putative targets. CONCLUSION:Our work successfully predicted the functioning ingredients and potential targets of L. barbarum in CRC and illustrated the potential pathways and mechanisms comprehensively. Nevertheless, these results still call for in vitro and in vivo experiments to validate. 10.1007/s12539-020-00397-1
    Network Pharmacology-Based Prediction and Verification of the Active Ingredients and Potential Targets of Zuojinwan for Treating Colorectal Cancer. Huang Siqi,Zhang Zheyu,Li Wenqun,Kong Fanhua,Yi Pengji,Huang Jianhua,Mao Dan,Peng Weijun,Zhang Sifang Drug design, development and therapy Background:Zuojinwan (ZJW), a famous Chinese medicine formula, has been widely used to treat colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its bioactive compounds, potential targets, and molecular mechanism remain largely elusive. Aim:A network pharmacology-based strategy combined with molecular docking studies and in vitro validation were employed to investigate bioactive compounds, potential targets, and molecular mechanism of ZJW against CRC. Materials and Methods:Bioactive compounds and potential targets of ZJW, as well as related genes of CRC, were acquired from public databases. Important ingredients, potential targets, and signaling pathways were determined through bioinformatics analysis, including protein-protein interaction (PPI), the Gene Ontology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Subsequently, molecular docking and cell experiments were performed to further verify the findings. Results:A total of 36 bioactive ingredients of ZJW and 163 gene targets of ZJW were identified. The network analysis revealed that quercetin, baicalein, wogonin, beta-sitosterol, and isorhamnetin may be candidate agents. The AKT1, JUN, CDKN1A, BCL2L1, and NCOA1 could become potential drug targets. The KEGG indicated that PI3K-AKT signaling pathway may play an important role in the effect of ZJW against CRC. Molecular docking suggested that quercetin, baicalein, and wogonin combined well with AKT1 and JUN. The in vitro experiment showed that quercetin, the most important ingredient of ZJW, could induce apoptosis of HCT116 cells through PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. This finding was congruent with the prediction obtained through the network pharmacology approach. Conclusion:This study comprehensively illuminated the active ingredients, potential targets, and molecular mechanism of ZJW against CRC. It also provided a promising approach to uncover the scientific basis and therapeutic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula treating for disease. 10.2147/DDDT.S250991
    The Role of Bioactive Dietary Components in Modulating miRNA Expression in Colorectal Cancer. Gavrilas Laura I,Ionescu Corina,Tudoran Oana,Lisencu Cosmin,Balacescu Ovidiu,Miere Doina Nutrients Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world and considered to be one of the most diet-related types of cancer. Extensive research has been conducted but still the link between diet and colorectal cancer is complex. Recent studies have highlight microRNAs (miRNAs) as key players in cancer-related pathways in the context of dietary modulation. MicroRNAs are involved in most biological processes related to tumor development and progression; therefore, it is of great interest to understand the underlying mechanisms by which dietary patterns and components influence the expression of these powerful molecules in colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss relevant dietary patterns in terms of miRNAs modulation in colorectal cancer, as well as bioactive dietary components able to modify gene expression through changes in miRNA expression. Furthermore, we emphasize on protective components such as resveratrol, curcumin, quercetin, α-mangostin, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D and dietary fiber, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms in the context of prevention and even treatment. In addition, several bioactive dietary components that have the ability to re-sensitize treatment resistant cells are described. 10.3390/nu8100590
    New Oleoyl Hybrids of Natural Antioxidants: Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation as Inducers of Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells. Carullo Gabriele,Mazzotta Sarah,Koch Adrian,Hartmann Kristin M,Friedrich Oliver,Gilbert Daniel F,Vega-Holm Margarita,Schneider-Stock Regine,Aiello Francesca Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) Nowadays, the beneficial role of a healthy lifestyle, particularly emphasizing the quality of foods and cancer management, is accepted worldwide. Polyphenols and oleic acid play a key role in this context, but are still scarcely used as anti-cancer agents due to their bio-accessibility limits. Therefore, we aimed to synthesize a set of new oleoyl-hybrids of quercetin, morin, pinocembrin, and catechin to overcome the low bioavailability of polyphenols, throughout a bio-catalytic approach using pancreatic porcine lipase as a catalyst. The in vitro assays, using a wide panel of human cancer cell lines showed, mainly for two novel regioisomer oleoyl-hybrids of quercetin, a remarkable increase in apoptotic cell populations. We suggested that the DNA damage shown as ɣH2AX signals might be the major cause of apoptotic cell death. Finally, we demonstrated convincing data about two novel polyphenol-based hybrids displaying a highly selective anti-cancer cytotoxicity and being superior compared to their reference/parental compounds. 10.3390/antiox9111077
    Quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD133(+) cancer stem cells of human colorectal HT29 cancer cell line and enhances anticancer effects of doxorubicin. Atashpour Shekoufeh,Fouladdel Shamileh,Movahhed Tahereh Komeili,Barzegar Elmira,Ghahremani Mohammad Hossein,Ostad Seyed Nasser,Azizi Ebrahim Iranian journal of basic medical sciences OBJECTIVES:The colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) with the CD133(+) phenotype are a rare fraction of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal, unlimited proliferation and resistance to treatment. Quercetin has anticancer effects with the advantage of exhibiting low side effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anticancer effects of quercetin and doxorubicin (Dox) in HT29 cancer cells and its isolated CD133(+) CSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The CSCs from HT29 cells were isolated using CD133 antibody conjugated to magnetic beads by MACS. Anticancer effects of quercetin and Dox alone and in combination on HT29 cells and CSCs were evaluated using MTT cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction. RESULTS:The CD133(+) CSCs comprised about 10% of HT29 cells. Quercetin and Dox alone and in combination inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. Quercetin enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of Dox at low concentration in both cell populations. Quercetin and Dox and their combination induced G2/M arrest in the HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. CONCLUSION:The CSCs were a minor population with a significantly high level of drug resistance within the HT29 cancer cells. Quercetin alone exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on HT29 cells and also increased cytoxicity of Dox in combination therapy. Altogether, our data showed that adding quercetin to Dox chemotherapy is an effective strategy for treatment of both CSCs and bulk tumor cells.
    Quercetin restrains TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting Twist1 and regulating E-cadherin expression. Feng Jihong,Song Dalong,Jiang SiYuan,Yang XiaoHui,Ding TingTing,Zhang Hong,Luo Junmin,Liao Jun,Yin Qian Biochemical and biophysical research communications Emerging evidence has indicated that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, thus promoting their motility and invasiveness. Quercetin, a member of the polyphenolic flavonoid family, has been reported to display anticancer activity against a broad range of cancer cell types. Indeed, numerous studies have shown the cancer preventive effects and molecular mechanisms of quercetin in vitro using diverse cell model systems. However, the potential effect of quercetin on EMT remains unclear. In this study, we identified a unique function of quercetin in inhibiting the EMT process induced by TGF-β1. In particular, quercetin rescued the morphological changes and EMT-like phenotypes in TGF-β1-activated SW480 cells, and this inhibition of TGF-β1-induced EMT was mediated via the suppression of Twist1 expression. In addition, quercetin strongly suppressed TGF-β1-induced invasion of SW480 cells. Thus, quercetin may be considered a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of patients with refractory cancer and for the prevention of the metastatic cascade initiated by EMT. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.02.044
    Assessing Anticancer Potential of Blueberry Flavonoids, Quercetin, Kaempferol, and Gentisic Acid, Through Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Parameters on HCT-116 Cells. Sezer Ebru Demirel,Oktay Latife Merve,Karadadaş Elif,Memmedov Hikmet,Selvi Gunel Nur,Sözmen Eser Journal of medicinal food In recent years, natural products gained popularity with their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects mediated by chemical compounds within their composition. Study results offering them as palliative therapy options in cancer or as anticancer agents with high levels of cytotoxicity brought a new approach to combine cancer treatment protocols with these products. From a different perspective, edible types of these products are suggested in daily diets due to their potential cancer preventive effects. Our preliminary work was on blueberry extracts () as a main representative of these natural products, and the contents of the extracts were analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) to reveal the composition and distribution of polyphenolic compounds within. The most abundant polyphenols detected in extracts were quercetin, kaempferol, and a phenolic acid, gentisic acid (GA). The compounds were further evaluated on treated HCT-116 cells for their potential anticancer effects by measuring total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels for evaluation of oxidative stress and through protein array analysis and flow cytometric analysis for evaluation of apoptosis. In analysis of oxidative stress parameters, reduced total oxidant levels and reduced oxidative stress index levels were found in cells treated with the compounds in comparison with untreated cells. In apoptosis-related protein profiles, at least twofold reduction in various apoptotic proteins was observed after quercetin and kaempferol treatment, whereas a different profile was observed for GA. Overall, results of this study showed that quercetin and kaempferol have strong cytotoxic, antioxidant, and apoptotic effects, although GA is mostly effective as an antioxidant polyphenol on HCT-116 cells. 10.1089/jmf.2019.0098
    Quercetin supplementation attenuates the progression of cancer cachexia in ApcMin/+ mice. Velázquez Kandy T,Enos Reilly T,Narsale Aditi A,Puppa Melissa J,Davis J Mark,Murphy E Angela,Carson James A The Journal of nutrition Although there are currently no approved treatments for cancer cachexia, there is an intensified interest in developing therapies because of the high mortality index associated with muscle wasting diseases. Successful treatment of the cachectic patient focuses on improving or maintaining body weight and musculoskeletal function. Nutraceutical compounds, including the natural phytochemical quercetin, are being examined as potential treatments because of their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin supplementation on the progression of cachexia in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)(Min/+) mouse model of colorectal cancer. At 15 wk of age, C57BL/6 and male Apc(Min/+) mice were supplemented with 25 mg/kg of quercetin or vehicle solution mix of Tang juice and water (V) daily for 3 wk. Body weight, strength, neuromuscular performance, and fatigue were assessed before and after quercetin or V interventions. Indicators of metabolic dysfunction and inflammatory signaling were also assessed. During the treatment period, the relative decrease in body weight in the Apc(Min/+) mice gavaged with V (Apc(Min/+)V; -14% ± 2.3) was higher than in control mice gavaged with V (+0.6% ± 1.0), control mice gavaged with quercetin (-2% ± 1.0), and Apc(Min/+) mice gavaged with quercetin (Apc(Min/+)Q; -9% ± 1.3). At 18 wk of age, the loss of grip strength and muscle mass shown in Apc(Min/+)V mice was significantly attenuated (P < 0.05) in Apc(Min/+)Q mice. Furthermore, Apc(Min/+)V mice had an induction of plasma interleukin-6 and muscle signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, which were significantly (P < 0.05) mitigated in Apc(Min/+)Q mice, despite having a similar tumor burden. Quercetin treatment did not improve treadmill run-time-to-fatigue, hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia in cachectic Apc(Min/+) mice. Overall, quercetin supplementation positively affected several aspects of cachexia progression in mice and warrants further exploration as a potential anticachectic therapeutic. 10.3945/jn.113.188367
    Modulatory effects of quercetin on proliferation and differentiation of the human colorectal cell line Caco-2. Dihal Ashwin A,Woutersen Ruud A,van Ommen Ben,Rietjens Ivonne M C M,Stierum Rob H Cancer letters The effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin was investigated on proliferation and differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Confluent Caco-2 monolayers exposed to quercetin showed a biphasic effect on cell proliferation and a decrease in cell differentiation (0.001<P<0.05). During differentiation Caco-2 cells formed 5 phase II metabolites, of which the amount of 4'-O-methyl-quercetin-3'-O-glucuronide correlated with the differentiation grade (r=0.99, P<0.003). The increment of cell proliferation at low quercetin concentrations and the decrease in cell differentiation are effects opposite to what would be expected for a functional food ingredient with anti-carcinogenic potential. 10.1016/j.canlet.2005.07.007
    Taxifolin, a natural flavonoid interacts with cell cycle regulators causes cell cycle arrest and causes tumor regression by activating Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathway. Razak Suhail,Afsar Tayyaba,Ullah Asad,Almajwal Ali,Alkholief Musaed,Alshamsan Aws,Jahan Sarwat BMC cancer BACKGROUND:New approaches for the prevention of colon cancer perseveres an essential necessity. Though, resistance to existing chemo-preventive drugs is moderately predominant in colon carcinogenesis. Taxifolin (dihydroquercetin) is a flavononol, have shown virile biological activities against few cancers. The current study was designed to investigate and equate antitumor activity of Taxifolin (TAX) in colorectal cancer cell lines and in HCT116 xenograft model in a comprehensive approach. METHODS:Two human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29, were used. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MMT) protocol was performed to elucidate the impact of TAX and β- catenin inhibitor (FH535) on the viability of HCT116 and HT29 cell lines. Apoptosis /cell cycle assay was performed. Data interpretation was done with a FACScan (Becton Dickinson, NJ). About 1 × 10 cells per sample were harvested. Histograms of DNA were analyzed with ModiFitLT software (verity Software House, ME, USA). Western blotting and RT-PCR were performed for protein and gene expression respectively in in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:We found that TAX induced cytotoxicity in colorectal cells in a dose-dependent manner and time dependent approach. Further, our data validated that administration of TAX to human colorectal cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells resulted in cell growth arrest, variation in molecules controlling cell cycle operative in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis in a concentration dependent approach. Further our results concluded that TAX administration decreases expression of β-catenin gene, AKT gene and Survivin gene and protein expression in in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION:Our findings proposed that targeting β-catenin gene may encourage the alterations of cell cycle and cell cycle regulators. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway possibly takes part in the genesis and progression of colorectal cancer cells through regulating cell cycle and the expression of cell cycle regulators. 10.1186/s12885-018-4959-4
    Association of dietary quercetin with reduced risk of proximal colon cancer. Djuric Zora,Severson Richard K,Kato Ikuko Nutrition and cancer Quercetin is a flavonol that appears to be protective against several cancers, but its possible role in prevention of colorectal cancer is not yet well studied. We evaluated dietary intakes of quercetin and risk of colorectal cancer in a large case-control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan (N = 2664). The protective effects of quercetin intake, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, were confined to risk of proximal colon cancer. Stratified analyses showed that the protective effects of quercetin on risk of proximal colon cancer were significant only when fruit intake or the Healthy Eating Index score was high, or when tea intake was low, with odds ratios (OR) for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of 0.49, 0.44, and 0.51, respectively. Increased quercetin intake had no protective effects when tea intake was high. Interestingly, increased intake of quercetin was associated with increased risk of distal colon cancer when total fruit intake was low (OR for the highest vs. the lowest quartile = 1.99). These results suggest that quercetin can have disparate effects on colon cancer risk depending on whether dietary intakes of fruit or tea are high, and that quercetin had protective effects only on proximal, not distal, colon cancer. 10.1080/01635581.2012.658950
    Enhancing the anti-colon cancer activity of quercetin by self-assembled micelles. Xu Guangya,Shi Huashan,Ren Laibin,Gou Hongfeng,Gong Daoyin,Gao Xiang,Huang Ning International journal of nanomedicine Colorectal cancer, a type of malignant neoplasm originating from the epithelial cells lining the colon and/or rectum, has been the third most frequent malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the US. As a bioflavonoid with high anticancer potential, quercetin (Qu) has been proved to have a prospective applicability in chemotherapy for a series of cancers. However, quercetin is a hydrophobic drug, the poor hydrophilicity of which hinders its clinical usage in cancer therapy. Therefore, a strategy to improve the solubility of quercetin in water and/or enhance the bioavailability is desired. Encapsulating the poorly water-soluble, hydrophobic agents into polymer micelles could facilitate the dissolution of drugs in water. In our study, nanotechnology was employed, and quercetin was encapsulated into the biodegradable nanosized amphiphilic block copolymers of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL), attempting to present positive evidences that this drug delivery system of polymeric micelles is effective. The quercetin-loaded MPEG-PCL nanomicelles (Qu-M), with a high drug loading of 6.85% and a minor particle size of 34.8 nm, completely dispersed in the water and released quercetin in a prolonged period in vitro and in vivo. At the same time, compared with free quercetin, Qu-M exhibited improved apoptosis induction and cell growth inhibition effects in CT26 cells in vitro. Moreover, the mice subcutaneous CT26 colon cancer model was established to evaluate the therapy efficiency of Qu-M in detail, in which enhanced anti-colon cancer effect was proved in vivo: Qu-M were more efficacious in repressing the growth of colon tumor than free quercetin. In addition, better effects of Qu-M on inducing cell apoptosis, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, and restraining cell proliferation were observed by immunofluorescence analysis. Our study indicated that Qu-M were a novel nanoagent of quercetin with an enhanced antitumor activity, which could serve as a promising potential candidate for colon cancer chemotherapy. 10.2147/IJN.S75550
    Quercetin, but not its glycosidated conjugate rutin, inhibits azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in F344 rats. Dihal Ashwin A,de Boer Vincent C J,van der Woude Hester,Tilburgs Chantal,Bruijntjes Joost P,Alink Gerrit M,Rietjens Ivonne M C M,Woutersen Ruud A,Stierum Rob H The Journal of nutrition The effect of the flavonoid quercetin and its conjugate rutin was investigated on (biomarkers of) colorectal cancer (CRC). Male F344 rats (n = 42/group) were fed 0, 0.1, 1, or 10 g quercetin/kg diet or 40 g rutin/kg diet. Two wk after initial administration of experimental diets, rats were given 2 weekly subcutaneous injections with 15 mg/kg body wt azoxymethane (AOM). At wk 38 post-AOM, quercetin dose dependently (P < 0.05) decreased the tumor incidence, multiplicity, and size, whereas tumor incidences were comparable in control (50%) and rutin (45%) groups. The number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in unsectioned colons at wk 8 did not correlate with the tumor incidence at wk 38. Moreover, at wk 8 post-AOM, the number and multiplicity of ACF with or without accumulation of beta-catenin were not affected by the 10 g quercetin/kg diet. In contrast, another class of CRC-biomarkers, beta-catenin accumulated crypts, contained less beta-catenin than in controls (P < 0.05). After enzymatic deconjugation, the plasma concentration of 3'-O-methyl-quercetin and quercetin at wk 8 was inversely correlated with the tumor incidence at wk 38 (r = -0.95, P </= 0.05). Rats supplemented with 40 g rutin/kg diet had only 30% of the (3'-O-methyl-) quercetin concentration of 10 g quercetin/kg diet-fed rats (P < 0.001). In conclusion, quercetin, but not rutin, at a high dose reduced colorectal carcinogenesis in AOM-treated rats, which was not reflected by changes in ACF-parameters. The lack of protection by rutin is probably due to its low bioavailability. 10.1093/jn/136.11.2862
    Quercetin-induced apoptosis of HT-29 colon cancer cells via inhibition of the Akt-CSN6-Myc signaling axis. Yang Lin,Liu Yanqing,Wang Mei,Qian Yayun,Dong Xiaoyun,Gu Hao,Wang Haibo,Guo Shiyu,Hisamitsu Tadashi Molecular medicine reports Constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (CSN) consists of a total of eight subunits (CSN1-CSN8) in mammalian cells. CSN6 may promote carcinogenesis by positively regulating v‑myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) and MDM2 proto‑oncogene stability, and is regarded as a potential target for cancer therapy. Quercetin has a substantial anticancer effect on various human cancer cells. The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. It was determined that quercetin inhibited HT‑29 cell viability in a dose‑dependent manner. Cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear collapse were observed in the 50, 100 and 200 µM quercetin groups. The exposure of HT‑29 cells to quercetin led to significant cell cycle arrest in the S‑phase. Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin reduced the protein expression levels of phosphorylated-Akt and increased CSN6 protein degradation; therefore, affecting the expression levels of Myc, p53, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2 associated X protein. The overexpression of CSN6 reduced the effect of quercetin treatment on HT‑29 cells, suggesting that quercetin‑induced apoptosis may involve the Akt‑CSN6‑Myc signaling axis in HT‑29 cells. 10.3892/mmr.2016.5818
    Cannabinoid Receptor-1 Up-regulation in Azoxymethane (AOM)-treated Mice After Dietary Treatment with Quercetin. Tutino Valeria,DE Nunzio Valentina,Tafaro Angela,Bianco Giusy,Gigante Isabella,Scavo Maria Principia,D'Alessandro Rosalba,Refolo Maria Grazia,Messa Caterina,Caruso Maria Gabriella,Notarnicola Maria Anticancer research BACKGROUND/AIM:The expression of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1-R) seems to be modulated by bioactive natural components such as the flavonoid quercetin. The aim of this study was to determine in an animal model of induced-colon cancer, whether quercetin inhibits colon carcinogenesis through changes in the expression of CB1-R. MATERIALS AND METHODS:C57BL/6J male mice were randomly assigned to standard diet or experimental diet supplemented with 0.5% quercetin. Azoxymethane (AOM) (10 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution (PBS) was intraperitoneally injected, once weekly for 6 weeks. RESULTS:The diet supplemented with quercetin induced CB1-R gene expression and protein, inhibiting the protein levels of STAT3 and p-STAT3 (both mediators of cell proliferation). Dietary quercetin also caused a significant increase in Bax/Bcl2 ratio protein expression. CONCLUSION:The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of quercetin in AOM-treated mice are mediated by induction of the protein and gene expression levels of CB1-R. 10.21873/anticanres.12752
    Natural polyphenols facilitate elimination of HT-29 colorectal cancer xenografts by chemoradiotherapy: a Bcl-2- and superoxide dismutase 2-dependent mechanism. Priego Sonia,Feddi Fatima,Ferrer Paula,Mena Salvador,Benlloch María,Ortega Angel,Carretero Julian,Obrador Elena,Asensi Miguel,Estrela José M Molecular cancer therapeutics Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with chemotherapy and radiation has two major problems: development of tumor resistance to therapy and nonspecific toxicity towards normal tissues. Different plant-derived polyphenols show anticancer properties and are pharmacologically safe. In vitro growth of human HT-29 colorectal cancer cells is inhibited ( approximately 56%) by bioavailable concentrations of trans-pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene; t-PTER) and quercetin (3,3',4',5,6-pentahydroxyflavone; QUER), two structurally related and naturally occurring small polyphenols. I.v. administration of t-PTER and QUER (20 mg/kg x day) inhibits growth of HT-29 xenografts ( approximately 51%). Combined administration of t-PTER + QUER, FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil; a first-line chemotherapy regimen), and radiotherapy (X-rays) eliminates HT-29 cells growing in vivo leading to long-term survival (>120 days). Gene expression analysis of a Bcl-2 family of genes and antioxidant enzymes revealed that t-PTER + QUER treatment preferentially promotes, in HT-29 cells growing in vivo, (a) superoxide dismutase 2 overexpression ( approximately 5.7-fold, via specificity protein 1-dependent transcription regulation) and (b) down-regulation of bcl-2 expression ( approximately 3.3-fold, via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation). Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to human superoxide dismutase 2 and/or ectopic bcl-2 overexpression avoided polyphenols and chemoradiotherapy-induced colorectal cancer elimination and showed that the mangano-type superoxide dismutase and Bcl-2 are key targets in the molecular mechanism activated by the combined application of t-PTER and QUER. 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0363
    Chemopreventive effect of dietary polyphenols in colorectal cancer cell lines. Araújo João R,Gonçalves Pedro,Martel Fátima Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most fatal and the third most diagnosed type of cancer worldwide. Despite having multifactorial causes, most CRC cases are mainly determined by dietary factors. In recent years, a large number of studies have attributed a protective effect to polyphenols and foods containing these compounds (fruits and vegetables) against CRC. Indeed, polyphenols have been reported to interfere with cancer initiation, promotion, and progression, acting as chemopreventive agents. The aim of this review is to summarize the main chemopreventive properties of some polyphenols (quercetin, rutin, myricetin, chrysin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin, catechin, resveratrol, and xanthohumol) against CRC, observed in cell culture models. From the data reviewed in this article, it can be concluded that these compounds inhibit cell growth, by inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis; inhibit proliferation, angiogenesis, and/or metastasis; and exhibit anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. In turn, these effects involve multiple molecular and biochemical mechanisms of action, which are still not completely characterized. Thus, caution is mandatory when attempting to extrapolate the observations obtained in CRC cell line studies to humans. 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.01.006
    Lycopene, sulforaphane, quercetin, and curcumin applied together show improved antiproliferative potential in colon cancer cells in vitro. Langner Ewa,Lemieszek Marta Kinga,Rzeski Wojciech Journal of food biochemistry Lycopene, sulforaphane, quercetin, and curcumin, ingredients of daily diet, show significant anticancer and chemopreventive potential; however, no data are available showing thorough evaluation of jointly used phytochemicals on cancer cell proliferation. Here, we compare anticancer potential of mentioned substances applied separately or in combination (as MIX) by measuring mitochondrial activity (MTT test), DNA synthesis (BrdU test) and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH test) in colon epithelial (CCD841 CoTr), and colon cancer (HT-29, LS174T) cells. Additive inhibitory effect of simultaneously used phytochemicals on cancer cells proliferation has been shown. In epithelial cells, tested combination effectively inhibited mitochondrial activity, but not DNA synthesis. LDH test revealed cytotoxicity of tested mixture against cancer cells without negative effect on normal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MIX enhances antiproliferative effect of common cytostatics: 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Presented data suggest chemopreventive potential of the proposed combination of natural substances and their usefulness as adjuvant strategy during chemotherapy. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. Since its development and progression is strongly correlated with dietary habits, healthy diet as well as supplementation with proved anticancer agents seems to be reasonable strategy of colon cancer prevention and treatment. In the present study, we have focused on four natural compounds abundantly found in daily diet i.e., lycopene, sulforaphane, quercetin, and curcumin, with well established anticancer potential. Their individual and collective impact both on normal colon epithelium cells and colon cancer cells viability, growth, and proliferation was examined. Furthermore, activity of the substances combined as MIX to influence antiproliferative potential of commonly used in colon cancer treatment cytostatics, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatin was verified. Proposed in the study combination of phytochemicals with experimentally proven antiproliferative activity may propose an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of colon cancer. 10.1111/jfbc.12802
    Differential cytotoxic activity of Quercetin on colonic cancer cells depends on ROS generation through COX-2 expression. Raja Subramaniya Bharathi,Rajendiran Vijayabharathi,Kasinathan Nirmal Kumar,P Amrithalakshmi,Venkatabalasubramanian Sivaramakrishnan,Murali Malliga Raman,Devaraj Halagowder,Devaraj Sivasithamparam Niranjali Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Quercetin is a bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study exemplifies the differential cytotoxic activity of Quercetin on two human colonic cancer cell lines, HT29 and HCT15. IC of Quercetin for HT29 and HCT15 cells were 42.5 μM and 77.4 μM, respectively. Activation of caspase-3, increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, decreased levels of pAkt, pGSK-3β and cyclin D1 in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 cells alone. Though, nuclear translocation of NFkB was increased in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 and HCT15 cells, over expression of COX-2 was observed in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 cells, whereas, Quercetin treated HCT15 cells did not expressed COX-2. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed only in Quercetin treated HT29 cells, which is due to over expression of COX-2, as COX-2 silencing inhibited Quercetin induced apoptosis and ROS generation. Insilico analysis provided evidence that Quercetin could partially inhibit COX-2 enzyme by binding to subunit A which has peroxidase activity and serves as source of ROS. However, Quercetin showed minimal effect on normal intestinal epithelial cells i,e IEC-6. To conclude, differential sensitivity of two cancer cells, HT29 and HCT15, to Quercetin depends on COX-2 dependent ROS generation that induces apoptosis and inhibits cell survival. 10.1016/j.fct.2017.05.006
    Dual-mode interaction between quercetin and DNA-damaging drugs in cancer cells. Samuel Temesgen,Fadlalla Khalda,Mosley Lachundra,Katkoori Venkat,Turner Timothy,Manne Upender Anticancer research BACKGROUND:DNA-damaging drugs constitute standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced colorectal cancer. Here, the interactions between quercetin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), etoposide, and camptothecin were examined in cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS:HCT116 colorectal or PPC1 prostate cancer cells were treated with quercetin and the drugs. Clonogenicity assays, cell cycle profiles, and expressions of p53, p21, BAX, survivin and cyclin B1 proteins were used to examine the effects of the treatments. RESULTS:Quercetin synergistically inhibited the clonogenicity of the wild-type cells, but inhibited the cell cycle effects of all the drugs tested. In p53-null cells, the combination of low dose 5-FU with up to 6 μM quercetin promoted clonogenic survival. Treatment of p53-wild-type cells with 50 μM quercetin reduced drug-induced up-regulation of p53, p21 and BAX. The combination of quercetin and the drugs also reduced the levels of cyclin B1 and survivin proteins. CONCLUSION:While high doses of quercetin synergize with DNA-damaging agents, the effect of drug combination with quercetin is influenced by the effective doses and the p53 status of the cells.
    Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer: a case-control study. Kyle Janet A M,Sharp Linda,Little Julian,Duthie Garry G,McNeill Geraldine The British journal of nutrition Diets rich in flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Flavonoids are widely distributed in foods of plant origin, though in the UK tea is the main dietary source. Our objective was to evaluate any independent associations of total dietary and non-tea intake of four flavonoid subclasses and the risk of developing colorectal cancer in a tea-drinking population with a high colorectal cancer incidence. A population-based case-control study (264 cases with histologically confirmed incident colorectal cancer and 408 controls) was carried out. Dietary data gathered by FFQ were used to calculate flavonoid intake. Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were estimated by logistic regression. No linear association between risk of developing colorectal cancer and total dietary flavonol, procyanidin, flavon-3-ol or flavanone intakes was found, but non-tea flavonol intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4, 1.0). Stratification by site of cancer and assessment of individual flavonols showed a reduced risk of developing colon but not rectal cancer with increasing non-tea quercetin intake (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.8; P(trend) < 0.01). We concluded that flavonols, specifically quercetin, obtained from non-tea components of the diet may be linked with reduced risk of developing colon cancer. 10.1017/S0007114509991784
    Quercetin attenuated oxidative DNA damage through NRF2 signaling pathway in rats with DMH induced colon carcinogenesis. Darband Saber Ghazizadeh,Sadighparvar Shirin,Yousefi Bahman,Kaviani Mojtaba,Ghaderi-Pakdel Firouz,Mihanfar Ainaz,Rahimi Yaghoub,Mobaraki Kazhal,Majidinia Maryam Life sciences Accumulating recent studies have demonstrated the preventive and therapeutic effects of polyphonic compounds such as quercetin in colorectal cancer. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms for positive effects of quercetin in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)- induced colorectal cancer. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were classified as 6 groups, including group 1 without any intervention, group 2 as quercetin received rats (50 mg/kg), groups 3 as DMH received rats (20 mg/kg) group 4-6 DMH and quercetin received rats. DNA damage, DNA repair, the expression levels and activities of enzymic antioxidants, non-enzymic antioxidants, and NRF2/Keap1 signaling were evaluated in colon tissues of all groups. Our results showed significant suppression of DNA damage and induction of DNA repair in DMH + Quercetin groups, particularly in entire-period in comparison to other groups (p < .05). The expression levels and activities of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were increased in DMH + Quercetin groups (p < .05). Lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly suppressed in DMH + Quercetin groups (p < .05). In addition, quercetin also modulated NRF2/Keap1 signaling and its targets, detoxifying enzymes in DMH + Quercetin groups. Our finding demonstrated that quercetin supplementation effectively reversed DMH-mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage through targeting NRF2/Keap1 signaling pathway. 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117584
    Luteolin, quercetin and ursolic acid are potent inhibitors of proliferation and inducers of apoptosis in both KRAS and BRAF mutated human colorectal cancer cells. Xavier Cristina P R,Lima Cristovao F,Preto Ana,Seruca Raquel,Fernandes-Ferreira Manuel,Pereira-Wilson Cristina Cancer letters KRAS and BRAF mutations are frequent in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and have the potential to activate proliferation and survival through MAPK/ERK and/or PI3K signalling pathways. Because diet is one of the most important determinants of CRC incidence and progression, we studied the effects of the dietary phytochemicals quercetin (Q), luteolin (L) and ursolic acid (UA) on cell proliferation and apoptosis in two human CRC derived cell lines, HCT15 and CO115, harboring KRAS and BRAF activating mutations, respectively. In KRAS mutated HCT15 cells, Q and L significantly decreased ERK phosphorylation, whereas in BRAF mutated CO115 cells the three compounds decreased Akt phosphorylation but had no effect on phospho-ERK. Our findings show that these natural compounds have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects and simultaneously seem to act on KRAS and PI3K but not on BRAF. These results shed light on the molecular mechanisms of action of Q, L and UA and emphasize the potential of dietary choices for the control of CRC progression. 10.1016/j.canlet.2009.02.041
    Quercetin-POC conjugates: Differential stability and bioactivity profiles between breast cancer (MCF-7) and colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) cell lines. Cho Suh Young,Kim Mi Kyoung,Park Kwang-su,Choo Hyunah,Chong Youhoon Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry In the course of our ongoing efforts to develop novel quercetin conjugates with enhanced stability profiles, we introduced an isopropyloxycarbonylmethoxy (POC) group to 7-OH and/or 3-OH of quercetin and prepared three novel quercetin conjugates. The quercetin-POC conjugates were stable up to 96 h in PBS but slowly hydrolyzed with half-lives of 1-54 h in cell-free culture medium, which is reminiscent of the stability profiles of the previously reported quercetin-POM (pivaloxymethyl) conjugates. However, the quercetin-POC conjugates were more susceptible to passive transport, intracellular hydrolysis, and metabolism in breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line compared with their POM congeners to result in low concentration of quercetin in this cell line and thereby low antiproliferative effect. In contrast, upon incubation with colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells, the quercetin-POC conjugates were shown to undergo slow hydrolysis and metabolism to maintain concentrations of the active quercetin species high enough to exert enhanced cytotoxicity. Taken together, the quercetin-POC conjugates synthesized in this study exhibited cell type-specific stability as well as bioactivity profiles, which warrants further investigation into the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic potential. 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.01.057
    Role of phytochemicals in colorectal cancer prevention. Li Yu-Hua,Niu Yin-Bo,Sun Yang,Zhang Feng,Liu Chang-Xu,Fan Lei,Mei Qi-Bing World journal of gastroenterology Although the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been declining in recent decades, it remains a major public health issue as a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity worldwide. Prevention is one milestone for this disease. Extensive study has demonstrated that a diet containing fruits, vegetables, and spices has the potential to prevent CRC. The specific constituents in the dietary foods which are responsible for preventing CRC and the possible mechanisms have also been investigated extensively. Various phytochemicals have been identified in fruits, vegetables, and spices which exhibit chemopreventive potential. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals including curcumin, polysaccharides (apple polysaccharides and mushroom glucans), saponins (Paris saponins, ginsenosides and soy saponins), resveratrol, and quercetin on CRC and the mechanisms are discussed. This review proposes the need for more clinical evidence for the effects of phytochemicals against CRC in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these phytochemicals might be therapeutic candidates in the campaign against CRC. 10.3748/wjg.v21.i31.9262
    Monocarboxylate transport inhibition potentiates the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorouracil in colorectal cancer cells. Amorim Ricardo,Pinheiro Céline,Miranda-Gonçalves Vera,Pereira Helena,Moyer Mary P,Preto Ana,Baltazar Fátima Cancer letters Cancer cells rely mostly on glycolysis to meet their energetic demands, producing large amounts of lactate that are extruded to the tumour microenvironment by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The role of MCTs in the survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells is scarce and poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to better understand this issue and exploit these transporters as novel therapeutic targets alone or in combination with the CRC classical chemotherapeutic drug 5-Fluorouracil. For that purpose, we characterized the effects of MCT activity inhibition in normal and CRC derived cell lines and assessed the effect of MCT inhibition in combination with 5-FU. Here, we demonstrated that MCT inhibition using CHC (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid), DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) and quercetin decreased cell viability, disrupted the glycolytic phenotype, inhibited proliferation and enhanced cell death in CRC cells. These results were confirmed by specific inhibition of MCT1/4 by RNA interference. Notably, we showed that 5-FU cytotoxicity was potentiated by lactate transport inhibition in CRC cells, either by activity inhibition or expression silencing. These findings provide novel evidence for the pivotal role of MCTs in CRC maintenance and survival, as well as for the use of these transporters as potential new therapeutic targets in combination with CRC conventional therapy. 10.1016/j.canlet.2015.05.015
    Preclinical colorectal cancer chemopreventive efficacy and p53-modulating activity of 3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavonol, a quercetin analogue. Howells Lynne M,Britton Robert G,Mazzoletti Marco,Greaves Peter,Broggini Massimo,Brown Karen,Steward William P,Gescher Andreas J,Sale Stewart Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) Some naturally occurring flavonols, exemplified by quercetin, seem to possess experimental cancer chemopreventive efficacy. Modulation of p53 is a mechanism thought to contribute to their activity. The hypothesis was tested that a synthetic flavonol, 3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavonol (TMFol), can interfere with tumor development and p53 expression in two models of colorectal carcinogenesis, Apc(Min) mice and human-derived HCT116 adenocarcinoma-bearing nude mice. Mice received TMFol with their diet (0.2%) from weaning to week 16 in the case of Apc(Min) or from either day 7 before ("TMFol early") or day 7 after ("TMFol late") tumor inoculation in HCT116 mice. The ability of TMFol to affect tumor proliferation or apoptosis, as reflected by staining for Ki-67 or cleaved caspase-3, respectively, was studied in HCT116 tumors. TMFol tumor levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Consumption of TMFol reduced small intestinal adenoma burden in Apc(Min) mice by 47%, compared with control mice (P < 0.002). The TMFol early regimen approximately halved HCT116 tumor size (P < 0.05), decreased tumor proliferation, and increased apoptosis, whereas the TMFol late regimen had no significant effect when compared with controls. In tumor tissues from mice, in which TMFol reduced tumor development, p53 expression was increased 3-fold in Apc(Min) and 1.5-fold in HCT116 tumor-bearing mice (P = 0.02). TMFol increased p53 also in cells derived from these tumors. TMFol was detected in HCT116 tumors, but levels did not correlate with tumor burden. TMFol was not mutagenic in the Ames test. The results suggest that chemical modification of the flavonol structure may generate safe and efficacious cancer chemopreventive agents. 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0236
    Chemopreventive activity of plant flavonoid isorhamnetin in colorectal cancer is mediated by oncogenic Src and β-catenin. Saud Shakir M,Young Matthew R,Jones-Hall Yava L,Ileva Lilia,Evbuomwan Moses O,Wise Jennifer,Colburn Nancy H,Kim Young S,Bobe Gerd Cancer research Analysis of the Polyp Prevention Trial showed an association between an isorhamnetin-rich diet and a reduced risk of advanced adenoma recurrence; however, the mechanism behind the chemoprotective effects of isorhamnetin remains unclear. Here, we show that isorhamnetin prevents colorectal tumorigenesis of FVB/N mice treated with the chemical carcinogen azoxymethane and subsequently exposed to colonic irritant dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Dietary isorhamnetin decreased mortality, tumor number, and tumor burden by 62%, 35%, and 59%, respectively. MRI, histopathology, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that dietary isorhamnetin resolved the DSS-induced inflammatory response faster than the control diet. Isorhamnetin inhibited AOM/DSS-induced oncogenic c-Src activation and β-catenin nuclear translocation, while promoting the expression of C-terminal Src kinase (CSK), a negative regulator of Src family of tyrosine kinases. Similarly, in HT-29 colon cancer cells, isorhamnetin inhibited oncogenic Src activity and β-catenin nuclear translocation by inducing expression of csk, as verified by RNA interference knockdown of csk. Our observations suggest the chemoprotective effects of isorhamnetin in colon cancer are linked to its anti-inflammatory activities and its inhibition of oncogenic Src activity and consequential loss of nuclear β-catenin, activities that are dependent on CSK expression. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-0525
    Quercetin enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in MSI colorectal cancer cells through p53 modulation. Xavier Cristina P R,Lima Cristovao F,Rohde Mikkel,Pereira-Wilson Cristina Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology PURPOSE:Colorectal tumors (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI) show resistance to chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), the most widely used pharmacological drug for CRC treatment. The aims of this study were to test the ability of quercetin (Q) and luteolin (L) to increase the sensitivity of MSI CRC cells to 5-FU and characterize the dependence of the effects on cells' p53 status. METHODS:Two MSI human CRC-derived cell lines were used: CO115 wild type (wt) for p53 and HCT15 that harbors a p53 mutation. Apoptosis induction in these cells by 5-FU, Q and L alone, and in combinations was evaluated by TUNEL and western blot. The dependence of the effects on p53 was confirmed by small interference RNA (siRNA) in CO115 cells and in MSI HCT116 wt and p53 knockout cells. RESULTS:CO115 p53-wt cells are more sensitive to 5-FU than the p53-mutated HCT15. The combination treatment of 5-FU with L and Q increased apoptosis with a significant effect for Q in CO115. Both flavonoids increased p53 expression in both cell lines, an effect particularly remarkable for Q. The significant apoptotic enhancement in CO115 incubated with Q plus 5-FU involved the activation of the apoptotic mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, knockdown of p53 by siRNA in CO115 cells and p53 knockout in HCT116 cells totally abrogated apoptosis induction, demonstrating the dependence of the effect on p53 modulation by Q. CONCLUSION:This study suggests the potential applicability of these phytochemicals for enhancement 5-FU efficiency in MSI CRC therapy, especially Q in p53 wt tumors. 10.1007/s00280-011-1641-9
    Combination of quercetin and exercise training attenuates depression in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal cancer: Possible involvement of inflammation and BDNF signalling. Sadighparvar Shirin,Darband Saber Ghazizadeh,Yousefi Bahman,Kaviani Mojtaba,Ghaderi-Pakdel Firouz,Mihanfar Ainaz,Babaei Ghader,Mobaraki Kazhal,Majidinia Maryam Experimental physiology NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? What are the alleviative effects of the combination of exercise training and quercetin supplementation on colorectal cancer-related depression in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal cancer and what is the corresponding signalling pathway? What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that the combination of exercise training and quercetin supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in tumour incidence and improvement in depressive-like behaviours through modulation of the BDNF/TrKβ/β-catenin axis in the prefrontal cortex. ABSTRACT:In addition to physical problems, depression is considered to be one of the most important challenges for patients with various types of cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. Inflammation and upregulation of brain neurotrophic factors are two major links between cancer and depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the alleviative effects of quercetin and exercise training on depressive-like behaviours in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal cancer and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Animals were assigned into the following five groups: (i) control group; (ii) DMH (20 mg kg s.c., once a week for 10 weeks); (iii) DMH for 10 weeks, followed by quercetin (50 mg kg p.o., once per week) for 12 weeks; (iv) DMH for 10 weeks, followed by exercise training for 12 weeks; and (v) DMH for 10 weeks, followed by quercetin and exercise training for 12 weeks. The DMH-treated rats showed an increase in depressive-like behaviours in both open field and forced swimming tests. Histopathological examination revealed neural damage and reduced Nissl bodies in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, administration of DMH increased inflammatory cytokines in the serum, prefrontal cortex and tumour tissues and decreased the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase β receptor (TrKβ) and β-catenin in the cortex. In contrast, treatment with quercetin and exercise training effectively alleviated all the above-mentioned DMH-associated behavioural, biochemical and histopathological alterations without changing its anti-tumour activity. Taken together, our results show that the combination of quercetin and exercise training exerts potent anti-tumour and anti-depressive effects through suppression of inflammation and upregulation of the BDNF/TrKβ/β-catenin axis in the prefrontal cortex. 10.1113/EP088605
    Dietary Flavonoids and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies. Chang Hui,Lei Lin,Zhou Yun,Ye Fayin,Zhao Guohua Nutrients : The aim of this study was to perform an up-to-date meta-analysis of the association between the intake of dietary flavonoids and the risk of colorectal cancer. : The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies. The risk of colorectal cancer for the highest versus the lowest categories of flavonoids intake were assessed. : A total of 12 studies (5 cohort and 7 case-control studies) involving 17,481 cases and 740,859 controls were eligible for meta-analysis. High intake of dietary flavonols, flavones and anthocyanidins may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer; the pooled odds ratio (OR) for the highest intake compared with the lowest was 0.70 (0.54⁻0.90), 0.79 (0.83⁻0.99) and 0.78 (0.64⁻0.95), respectively. No association between the intake of total flavonoids, flavanones or flavan-3-ols and the risk of colorectal cancer was observed. Furthermore, the data showed that high intake of flavonols may decrease the risk of colon cancer [0.80 (0.68⁻0.94)] but not rectal cancer [0.93 (0.74⁻1.18)], while on the contrary, the intake of flavones may decrease rectal cancer risk [0.82 (0.70⁻0.97)] but not colon cancer risk [0.88 (0.69⁻1.13)]. : The present study suggested that high intake of flavonols (such as quercetin) may reduce the risk of colon cancer, and high intake of flavones (such as apigenin) may reduce the risk of rectal cancer. 10.3390/nu10070950
    Quercetrin from Toona sinensis leaves induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via enhancement of oxidative stress in human colorectal cancer SW620 cells. Zhang Yali,Guo Yucheng,Wang Mimi,Dong Huanhuan,Zhang Jingfang,Zhang Liyu Oncology reports Finding effective strategies against colorectal cancer (CRC) is still an emergent health problem. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of quercetrin from Toona sinensis leaves (QTL) and explored the underlying mechanism in human CRC cell line SW620. The cells were treated with various concentrations of QTL and the cytotoxic effects of QTL were determined using the MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle status were detected by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) were assessed using DCF-DA and JC-1 fluorescence spectrophotometry, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to quantify the expression of apoptosis‑related proteins. RT-PCR was applied to determine the mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT). QTL exhibited growth inhibitory effects and caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by increased expression of p53 and p21 proteins. QTL promoted apoptosis which was consistent with the upregulated expression of Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-9, Apaf-1 and caspase-3. In addition, QTL induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered ROS generation, as revealed by the downregulated mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of GPx and CAT. Furthermore, both N‑acetyl cysteine (NAC) and GSH attenuated the QTL-induced growth inhibition observed in SW620 cells along with the increase of ROS levels. These findings revealed that QTL inhibited the growth of CRC cells and facilitated apoptosis by enhancing oxidative stress. QTL may therefore have potential for use in CRC chemotherapy. 10.3892/or.2017.6042
    Inhibitory effect of quercetin on colorectal lung metastasis through inducing apoptosis, and suppression of metastatic ability. Kee Ji-Ye,Han Yo-Han,Kim Dae-Seung,Mun Jeong-Geon,Park Jinbong,Jeong Mi-Young,Um Jae-Young,Hong Seung-Heon Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Quercetin is a major dietary flavonoid found in a various fruits, vegetables, and grains. Although the inhibitory effects of quercetin have previously been observed in several types of cancer cells, the anti-metastatic effect of quercetin on colorectal metastasis has not been determined. PURPOSE:This study investigated whether quercetin exhibits inhibitory effect on colorectal lung metastasis. STUDY DESIGN:The effects of quercetin on cell viability, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lung metastasis were investigated. METHODS:We investigated the effect of quercetin on metastatic colon cancer cells using WST assay, Annexin V assay, real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and gelatin zymography. The anti-metastatic effect of quercetin in vivo was confirmed in a colorectal lung metastasis model. RESULTS:Quercetin inhibited the cell viability of colon 26 (CT26) and colon 38 (MC38) cells and induced apoptosis through the MAPKs pathway in CT26 cells. Expression of EMT markers, such as E-, N-cadherin, β-catenin, and snail, were regulated by non-toxic concentrations of quercetin. Moreover, the migration and invasion abilities of CT26 cells were inhibited by quercetin through expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulation. Quercetin markedly decreased lung metastasis of CT26 cells in an experimental in vivo metastasis model. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that quercetin can inhibit the survival and metastatic ability of CT26 cells, and it can subsequently suppress colorectal lung metastasis in the mouse model. These results indicate that quercetin may be a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.09.011
    Nanoformulated Codelivery of Quercetin and Alantolactone Promotes an Antitumor Response through Synergistic Immunogenic Cell Death for Microsatellite-Stable Colorectal Cancer. Zhang Jing,Shen Limei,Li Xiang,Song Wantong,Liu Yun,Huang Leaf ACS nano Microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer (CRC) is known to be resistant to immunotherapy. The combination of quercetin (Q) and alantolactone (A) was found to induce synergistic immunogenic cell death (ICD) at a molar ratio of 1:4 (Q:A). To achieve ratiometric loading and delivery, the micellar delivery of Q and A (QA-M) was developed with high entrapment efficiency and drug loading at an optimal ratio. QA-M achieved prolonged blood circulation and increased tumor accumulation for both drugs. More importantly, QA-M retained the desired drug ratio (molar ratio of Q to A = 1:4) in tumors at 2 and 4 h after intravenous injection for synergistic immunotherapy. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in murine orthotopic CRC by the treatment of QA-M compared to PBS and the combination of free drugs ( < 0.005). The combination of nanotherapy stimulated the host immune response to induce long-term tumor destruction and induced memory tumor surveillance with a 1.3-fold increase in survival median time compared to PBS ( < 0.0001) and a combination of free drugs ( < 0.0005). The synergistic therapeutic effect induced by codelivery of Q and A is capable of reactivating antitumor immunity by inducing ICD, causing cell toxicity and modulating the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. Such a combination of Q and A with synergistic effects entrapped in a simple and safe nanodelivery system may provide the potential for scale-up manufacturing and clinical applications as immunotherapeutic agents for CRC. 10.1021/acsnano.9b02875
    Quercetin preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer cells via JNK signaling pathways. Yang Yiwen,Wang Tao,Chen Degao,Ma Qizhao,Zheng Yanjiang,Liao Shiping,Wang Yufang,Zhang Ji Cell biology international Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer, and its incidence and mortality are markedly increasing worldwide. Oncogenic mutations of KRAS occur in up to 40% of CRC cases and pose a great challenge in the treatment of the disease. Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid that exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. The current study investigated the anti-proliferative effect of quercetin on CRC cells harboring mutant or wild-type KRAS. The effect of quercetin on cell viability was investigated by MTT and colony formation assays, and apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry by labeling cells with Annexin V-FITC. The expression of the relevant proteins was examined by Western blotting. The data revealed that KRAS-mutant cells were more sensitive to quercetin-induced apoptosis than wild-type cells. Caspase activation was involved in quercetin-induced apoptosis. In addition, quercetin selectively activated the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in KRAS-mutant cells, while inhibition of phospho-JNK by SP600125 blocked quercetin-induced apoptosis. The results of the present study suggest that treatment with quercetin, a common flavonoid in plants, is potentially a useful strategy for the treatment of CRCs carrying KRAS mutations. 10.1002/cbin.11055