Otolaryngological complications in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus.
Gutierrez Catalina,Nazar Gonzalo Andres,Torres Juan Pablo
Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
OBJECTIVE:To describe bacterial upper respiratory infections in patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus during the 2009 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN:Case series with chart review. SETTING:May 17 to July 17, 2009, Clinica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Patients with clinical and/or laboratory diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1) who presented to the emergency department or other medical specialists with bacterial upper respiratory infection requiring antibiotic treatment within 2 months of influenza diagnosis. RESULTS:A total of 10,048 cases of influenza A (H1N1) were identified by the emergency department. All patients received oseltamivir. Fifty-four patients (0.55%) who presented with bacterial upper respiratory infection within 2 months after the diagnosis of influenza were selected. The median time to presentation with bacterial respiratory infection was 12 days. Median age was 12 years, and 51.8% were male. The most common bacterial upper respiratory infections were acute rhinosinusitis (46.4%; median age, 17 years), acute otitis media (33.9%; median age, 5 years), and pharyngotonsillitis (14.3%; median age, 17 years). Four patients were hospitalized: 3 with streptococcal tonsillitis with prolonged fever and 1 with acute otitis media who later developed pansinusitis and otomastoiditis. There were no deaths in this group of patients. CONCLUSION:There were few bacterial upper respiratory infections associated with influenza A (H1N1) (0.55%). The most common infections were acute otitis media in young children and acute rhinosinusitis and pharyngotonsillitis in young adults. These complications were more often seen during the 2 months following the influenza infection than at the time of diagnosis with influenza. Outcome was favorable for all patients.
Acute tonsillitis as the first manifestation of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
Nouwen Johan,Smets Françoise,Rombaux Philippe,Hamoir Marc,Sokal Etienne Marc
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication that may follow orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in children. The first symptoms are often in the ear, nose, or throat (ENT) area. This abnormal proliferation of lymphoid cells is related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in immunocompromised children. The incidence of PTLD, EBV status before OLT and at the diagnosis of PTLD, delay between OLT and PTLD, localization, pathological investigations, and the treatment and evolution of PTLD were prospectively evaluated in 77 pediatric liver transplant recipients. Eight patients (10%) developed PTLD, all with an ENT presentation. Seven had acute nonbacterial tonsillitis (with a negative throat swab), and 1 had a pharyngolaryngeal localization at the time of the diagnosis. Four patients had associated involvement outside the ENT area. All patients were EBV-seronegative at the time of OLT; 6 underwent seroconversion at the time of diagnosis, and 2 within 9 and 20 months of diagnosis. All patients presented with low-grade PTLD. All patients with acute tonsillitis associated with EBV seroconversion underwent immediate tonsillectomy, and immunosuppression was decreased as much as tolerated. This therapeutic protocol led to complete recovery in all patients. After OLT in children, nonbacterial tonsillar inflammation or hypertrophy associated with an EBV infection is often the first manifestation of PTLD. Tonsillectomy combined with tapering of immunosuppression offers the best chance for a complete recovery.
Evaluation of cytokines produced by β-hemolytic streptococcus in acute pharyngotonsillitis.
Leão Sydney Correia,Leal Ivanna Oliveira,Rocha Hertaline Menezes do Nascimento,Rodrigues Tania Maria de Andrade
Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
INTRODUCTION:The most common pathogen in bacteria lpharyngotonsillitis is group A β-hemolytic streptococcus, although groups B, C, F,and G have also been associated with pharyngotonsillitis. OBJECTIVE:To assess the levels of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6,IL-4, and IL-10 in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A and non-A (groups B, C, F and G) β-hemolytic streptococcus. METHODS:The study was conducted at a pediatric emergency care unit. The sample comprised children (5-9 years old) with acute bacterial pharyngotonsillitis diagnosed between December of 2011 and May of 2012. The research involved collection of blood samples from the patients, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of TNF-α, IL-6,IL-4, and IL-10, and collection of two oropharyngeal swabs for bacterial isolation. Additionally, the medical history of the study participants was also collected. RESULTS:In the studied group (mean age: 5.93 years), higher pharyngotonsillitis incidence was observed in the female gender (64.76%). Higher incidence of tonsillar exudates was observed with groups A and C. No statistically significant differences in cytokine levels were observed among groups. However, the group A and the control group showed a difference in the IL-6 level (p=0.0016). CONCLUSIONS:The Groups A and C showed higher cytokine levels than the Groups B and control, suggesting similar immunological patterns.
Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Peritonsillar Abscess: Is It Related to Seasonal Variations?
Seyhun Nurullah,Çalış Zeynep Aslı Batur,Ekici Merve,Turgut Suat
Turkish archives of otorhinolaryngology
Objective:Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is defined as pus accumulation between the tonsillar capsule and constrictor pharyngeal muscle. It can be seen as a complication of acute tonsillitis, but other mechanisms have also been proposed. In this study we aimed to reveal the seasonal variations and epidemiologic features of PTA. Methods:This is a retrospective, observational study. We reviewed 221 patients, and together with 24 recurrent cases, 245 admissions were reviewed in total. Age, gender, the duration of admission, seasonal and monthly distribution of cases, diabetes and smoking status, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were recorded. Monthly and seasonal incidences of PTA were reviewed to see if there is any association of climate variations and PTA incidence rate. Features associated with the length of hospitalization and recurrence were also analyzed. Results:A total of 245 PTA cases were admitted to our clinic between June 2014 and June 2017. The highest amount of cases was observed in spring and winter. The C-reactive protein and white blood cell count (WBC) levels were found to be positively correlated with the length of hospitalization. There was no statistically significant correlation with recurrence and smoking, the WBC levels, CRP levels, and length of prior hospitalization. Diabetes status was not found to be associated with length of hospitalization and CRP levels. Conclusion:The present study reflects the epidemiologic and clinical features of PTA in İstanbul. Our findings showed that seasonal variation was not significant, consistent with previous studies. The highest incidence rate was observed in spring and winter. Length of hospitalization was found to be positively correlated with C-reactive protein and white blood cell count (WBC) levels. Recurrence was not statistically correlated with and smoking, the WBC levels, CRP levels, and length of hospitalization. More studies are recommended to reveal the different epidemiologic factors affecting the incidence of PTA.
Prevalence and Incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Events Are Elevated Prior to the Development of Rheumatoid Arthritis in First-Degree Relatives.
Arleevskaya Marina I,Albina Shafigullina,Larionova Regina V,Gabdoulkhakova Aida G,Lemerle Julie,Renaudineau Yves
Frontiers in immunology
The aim of this study was to characterize infection events in a longitudinal cohort of first-degree relatives (FDR) of probands with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore their associations with RA development. To this end, newly diagnosed RA patients ( = 283), unaffected related FDR and age-matched healthy women were ascertained from the Caucasian triple women prospective Tatarstan cohort. In this cohort initiated in 1997, 26/283 (9.2%) FDR developed RA (incidence: 9.1 cases/1,000/year). At baseline and during the follow-up, information regarding infectious events (prevalence) and their incidence and duration per year were collected from all individuals. Results reveal in the unaffected FDR developing RA subgroup: (i) a higher prevalence and/or incidence at baseline of upper respiratory infections (URI), otitis, tonsillitis, herpes reactivation, and skin infections; (ii) detection was increased during pregnancy; (iii) a peak of infections started in the 3 years preceding RA onset, and thereafter decreased following RA diagnosis and treatment initiation with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) when considering URI, and acute tonsillitis; (iv) herpes virus reactivation, at baseline, was associated with a higher report of morning stiffness and arthralgia while independent from rheumatoid factors and anti-citrullinated peptide (CCP)2 Ab positivity; and (v) infection events represent an independent environmental factor associated with RA development. In conclusion, an annual increase of respiratory tract infections was found at the pre-clinical stage of RA. This could be due to alterations in the immune system that result in susceptibility to infection, controlled by DMARDs, or that the infectious events predispose to RA.
Effect of pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) on outpatient antimicrobial purchases: a double-blind, cluster randomised phase 3-4 trial.
Palmu Arto A,Jokinen Jukka,Nieminen Heta,Rinta-Kokko Hanna,Ruokokoski Esa,Puumalainen Taneli,Borys Dorota,Lommel Patricia,Traskine Magali,Moreira Marta,Schuerman Lode,Kilpi Terhi M
The Lancet. Infectious diseases
BACKGROUND:Antimicrobial drugs are frequently prescribed to children for respiratory tract infections such as otitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, and pneumonia. We assessed the effect of the ten-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10; GlaxoSmithKline) on antimicrobial purchases. METHODS:In this nationwide phase 3-4 cluster-randomised, double-blind trial, children younger than 19 months were randomly assigned to receive PHiD-CV10 in 52 of 78 clusters or hepatitis B or A vaccine as control in 26 clusters according to three plus one or two plus one schedules (infants younger than 7 months) or catch-up schedules (children aged 7-18 months). The main objective for the antimicrobial treatment outcome was to assess vaccine effectiveness against outpatient prescriptions of antimicrobial drugs recommended by national treatment guidelines for acute otitis media in Finland in children who received at least one dose of study vaccine before 7 months of age. Masked follow-up lasted from the date of first vaccination (from Feb 18, 2009, through Oct 5, 2010) to Dec 31, 2011. We obtained data on all purchased antimicrobial prescriptions through the benefits register of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. This and the nested acute otitis media trial are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00861380 and NCT00839254. FINDINGS:More than 47,000 children were enrolled. In 30,527 infants younger than 7 months at enrollment, 98,436 outpatient antimicrobial purchases were reported with incidence of 1.69 per person-year in the control clusters. Analysis of the main objective included 91% of all antimicrobial purchases: 31,982 in the control and 57,964 in the PHiD-CV10 clusters. Vaccine effectiveness was 8% (95% CI 1-14) and the incidence rate difference 0.12 per person-year corresponding to the number needed to vaccinate of five (95% CI 3-67) to prevent one purchase during the 2 year follow-up for combined PHiD-CV10 three plus one and two plus one infant schedules. The vaccine effectiveness was identical for the two infant schedules. In the catch-up schedules, the vaccine effectiveness was 3% (95% CI -4 to 10). INTERPRETATION:Despite low relative rate reductions the absolute rate reductions were substantial because of the high incidence of the outcome. This reduction would lead to over 12,000 fewer antimicrobial purchases per year in children younger than 24 months in Finland (birth cohort of 60,000 children).
[Relevance of the chronic tonsillitis problem].
Kriukov A I,Izotova G N,Zakharova A F,Chumakov P L,Kiseleva O A
This study was designed to analyse dynamic characteristics of planned and emergency surgical care provided to patients with chronic tonsillitis (CT) in 3 large hospital of Moscow during the period between 2002 to 2006. The number of planed surgical interventions for the treatment of chronic tonsillitis performed during 5 years decreased almost two-fold. In contrast, the total number of urgent operations for surgical drainage of paratonisillar abscess in all clinics of the city during the last 10 years increased by a factor of 2. Results of bacteriological studies of species composition of microflora in patients with CT suggest the relationship between the incidence of this pathology and acute rheumatic fever. Analysis of activities aimed at the prevention of chronic tonsillitis (based in the first place at specialized dispensary facilities) has demonstrated that the number of patients involved in relevant monitoring programs is rather small and those in need of radical sanation of inflammatory CT foci are not referred for surgical treatment at the early stages of the disease as required by the current diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the management of chronic tonsillitis.
Tonsillitis and sore throat in children.
GMS current topics in otorhinolaryngology, head and neck surgery
Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of healthy children even bear strepptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for three to five days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy and the standard ten days therapy. On the other hand, only the ten days antibiotic therapy has proven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100,000 children of school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late haemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after three weeks. Life-threatening haemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every haemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behaviour in case of haemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important addresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in small children can be especially life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the danger of aspiration with asphyxia. A massive haemorrhage is an extreme challenge for every paramedic or emergency doctor because of the difficult airway management. Intubation is only possible with appropriate inflexible suction tubes. All different surgical techniques have the risk of haemorrhage and even the best surgeon will experience a postoperative haemorrhage. The lowest risk of haemorrhage is after cold dissection with ligature or suturing. All "hot" techniques with laser, radiofrequency, coblation, mono- or bipolar forceps have a higher risk of late haemorrhage. Children with a hereditary coagulopathy have a higher risk of haemorrhage. It is possible, that these children were not identified before surgery. Therefore it is recommended by the Society of paediatrics, anaesthesia and ENT, that a standardised questionnaire should be answered by the parents before tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This 17-point-checklist questionnaire is more sensitive and easier to perform than a screening with blood tests (e.g. INR and PTT). Unfortunately, a lot of surgeons still screen the children preoperatively by coagulative blood tests, although these tests are inappropriate and incapable of detecting the von Willebrand disease, which is the most frequent coagulopathy in Europe. The preoperative information about the surgery should be done with the child and the parents in a calm and objective atmosphere with a written consent. A copy of the consent with the signature of the surgeon and both custodial parents has to be handed out to the parents.
Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media.
Di Pierro Francesco,Donato Guido,Fomia Federico,Adami Teresa,Careddu Domenico,Cassandro Claudia,Albera Roberto
International journal of general medicine
BACKGROUND:The oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been shown clearly to antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans, by releasing two bacteriocins named salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B. Unpublished observations indicate that it can also antagonize the growth of other bacteria involved in acute otitis media. Because of its ability to colonize the oral cavity and its safety profile, we have tested its efficacy in reducing the incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis and episodes of acute otitis media. METHODS:We enrolled 82 children, including 65 with and 17 without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology. Of those with recurrent pathology, 45 were treated daily for 90 days with an oral slow-release tablet containing five billion colony-forming units of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis(®)), and the remaining 20 served as an untreated control group. The 17 children without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral pathology were used as an additional control group. After 90 days of treatment, a 6-month follow-up period without treatment was included to evaluate a possible persistent protective role for the previously administered product. RESULTS:The 41 children who completed the 90-day course of Bactoblis showed a reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (about 90%) and/or acute otitis media (about 40%), calculated by comparing infection rates in the previous year. The 90-day treatment also reduced the reported incidence of pharyngeal and ear infections by about 65% in the 6-month follow-up period during which the product was not administered. Subjects tolerated the product well, with no side effects or dropouts reported. CONCLUSION:Prophylactic administration of S. salivarius K12 to children with a history of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology reduced episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infections and/or tonsillitis as well as episodes of acute otitis media.
ENT problems in Dutch children: trends in incidence rates, antibiotic prescribing and referrals 2002-2008.
Uijen Johannes Hjm,Bindels Patrick Je,Schellevis François G,van der Wouden Johannes C
Scandinavian journal of primary health care
BACKGROUND. Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common in childhood and are important reasons to visit the general practitioner. OBJECTIVE. To examine trends in incidence rates, antibiotic prescribing, and referrals of five common ENT problems in children. DESIGN. Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH), a nationally representative general practice database. Setting. A total of 50 000 children, aged 0-17 years, registered in Dutch general practice over the period 2002-2008. METHODS. Incidence rates were calculated and trends were analysed using linear regression analysis, with incidence rates per age group, proportion treated with antibiotics, and referrals as dependent variables and year of observation as independent variable. RESULTS. In general, incidence rates of acute otitis media, serous otitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and tonsil hypertrophy remained stable over the period 2002-2008. An increasing trend was observed for serous otitis media in children aged 0-4 years (RR = 1.04, p < 0.001). A decreasing trend was observed for sinusitis in children aged 5-11 and for tonsillitis in children aged 11-17 years (RR 0.99, p < 0.001 and RR 0.94, p < 0.001, respectively). Antibiotics were prescribed in 10-60% of the diagnoses. An increasing trend for antibiotic prescription was found for acute otitis media (beta = 0.07, p < 0.001), mainly on account of amoxicillin. Although antibiotic treatment of tonsillitis remained stable, pheneticillin prescriptions showed a downward trend (beta = -0.10, p < 0.001). First-choice antibiotics were prescribed in >80% of cases. CONCLUSIONS. This study showed remarkably stable trends in incidence rates, antibiotic prescribing, and referrals of common ENT problems. The low proportion of antibiotic treatment in ENT problems did not show negative consequences.
A review on the mechanism of sore throat in tonsillitis.
Bathala S,Eccles R
The Journal of laryngology and otology
BACKGROUND:Sore throat is a common condition associated with acute upper respiratory tract infection, and recurrent episodes of infection may result in chronic tonsillitis. The current UK and USA guidelines for tonsillectomy use the incidence of sore throat episodes as an indication for surgery. However, the mechanism of sore throat is poorly described in the literature. OBJECTIVES:This review will provide basic information for the clinician regarding: the causes, pathophysiology and neurophysiology of sore throat; the mechanism of inflammation; and the role of transient receptor potential ion channels as nociceptors involved in sore throat. The review will present new ideas on the mechanism of ice therapy as an analgesic for post-tonsillectomy pain, and the role of vanilloid and cold receptors.
Acute myopericarditis complicating acute tonsillitis: beware the young male patient with tonsillitis complaining of chest pain.
Talmon Yoav,Gilbey Peter,Fridman Nancy,Wishniak Alice,Roguin Nathan
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
OBJECTIVES:We describe 11 cases of myopericarditis complicating bacterial tonsillitis. METHODS:We performed a retrospective study of all cases of myopericarditis treated at one hospital during the years 2005 and 2006. RESULTS:The patients were all young men. The average latency from the onset of throat pain to the onset of chest pain was 4.6 days. All patients complained of chest pain. The most common electrocardiographic finding was transient ST segment elevations. The levels of cardiac enzymes and troponin were elevated in all cases. CONCLUSIONS:Otolaryngologists should be aware of this rare entity. Additional studies are indicated to evaluate the exact incidence of myopericarditis associated with acute streptococcal tonsillitis.
Immune thrombocytopenia of childhood responsive to tonsillectomy in the setting of chronic tonsillitis: A case report and literature review.
Thompson Richard William,Gungor Anil
American journal of otolaryngology
OBJECTIVES:Immune thrombocytopenia of childhood (platelet count <100,000/μL) is the most common cause of thrombocytopenia in children. Patients typically present with bruising and bleeding in the setting of thrombocytopenia. Although it is usually short-lived, some cases persist and are unresponsive to treatment. This can lead to exposure to a variety of treatment regimens including immunosuppressants and splenectomy. The goal of this report is to present a case of chronic ITP of childhood that responded to tonsillectomy addressing the tonsils as a source of chronic infection and inflammation triggering ITP. METHODS:A 4-year-old male with ITP of childhood presented with enlarged tonsils and obstructive sleep apnea. History and physical were consistent with chronic tonsillitis/adenoiditis including malaise, poor oral intake, congestion, rhinorrhea, tonsil hypertrophy, and lymphadenopathy persisting despite antibiotic therapy. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were performed. RESULTS:One, six, and eighteen weeks post-operatively the platelet count was 371, 215, and 205 respectively. Although at 12months two relapses had occurred, during the observed period, he had decreased incidence and severity of disease. CONCLUSION:In around 60% of ITP there is a history of prior infection within the last month but no systemic symptoms at time of diagnosis. Additionally, chronic ITP is characterized by relapses coinciding with infection. This case is unique because the patient had chronic ITP and a clinical history and physical exam concerning for a subclinical, indolent inflammatory process that responded to surgical intervention. Given that chronic ITP exacerbation has been associated with recurrent acute infections it seems probable that chronic tonsillitis could serve as a trigger for relapse or contribute to a prolonged and/or more severe disease course. Therefore, tonsillectomy may result in earlier treatment and/or an altered disease course with avoidance of the expense and morbidity associated with frequent exacerbations and multiple treatment regimens.
[Tonsillitis and sore throat in childhood].
Laryngo- rhino- otologie
Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcome after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy slowly change in Germany since that. However, there exist no national guidelines and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies in the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under 6 years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i. e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (= tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of the healthy children bear even streptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for 3 to 5 days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy to the standard 10 days therapy, as well. On the other hand, only the 10 days antibiotic therapy has prooven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100.000 children in school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late hemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after 3 weeks. Life-threatening hemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every hemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behavior in case of hemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important adresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of hemorrhage. Especially in small children hemorrhage can be life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the danger of aspiration with asphyxia. A massive hemorrhage is an extreme challenge for every paramedic or emergency doctor because of the difficult airway management. Intubation is only possible with appropriate unflexible suction tubes. All different surgical techniques have the risk of hemorrhage and even the best surgeon will experience a postoperative hemorrhage. The lowest risk of hemorrhage is after cold dissection with ligature or suturing. All "hot" techniques with laser, radiofrequency, coblation, mono- or bipolar forceps have a higher risk of late hemorrhage. Children with a hereditary coagulopathy have a higher risk of hemorrhage. It is possible, that these children were not identified before surgery. Therefore it is recommended by the Society of paediatrics, anaesthesia and ENT, that a standardised questionnaire should be answered by the parents before tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This 17-points-checklist questionnaire is more sensitive and easier to perform than a screening with blood tests (e.g. INR and PTT). Unfortunately, a lot of surgeons still screen the children preoperatively by coagulative blood tests, although these test are inappropiate and incapable of detecting the von Willebrand disease, which is the most often coagulopathy in Europe. The preoperative information about the surgery should be done with the child and the parents in a calm and objective atmosphere with a written consent. A copy of the consent with the signature of the surgeon and both custodial parents has to be handed out to the parents.
Incidence and microbiology of peritonsillar abscess: the influence of season, age, and gender.
Klug T E
European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology
To explore the correlations among the incidence, microbiology, season, gender, and age in patients with peritonsillar abscess (PTA) in order to identify risk factors for PTA development. All patients with PTA treated at private ENT practices in Aarhus County and in the Ear-Nose-Throat Departments at Aarhus University Hospital and Randers Hospital from January 2001 to December 2006 were included in the study. Age- and gender-stratified population data for Aarhus County for the same 6 years were obtained. The incidence rate of PTA increased from childhood to peak in teenage life and declined afterward gradually until old age. Girls predominated over boys until the age of 14 years. Subsequently, men were more frequently affected than women. Fusobacterium necrophorum (FN) was significantly more prevalent than group A Streptococcus (GAS) among patients aged 15-24 years (P < 0.001). In contrast, GAS was significantly more frequently recovered among children aged 0-9 years and adults aged 30-39 years compared with FN (P < 0.001 and P = 0.017 respectively). The seasonal variation of PTA was statistically insignificant (P = 0.437). However, GAS was significantly more frequently recovered in the winter and spring than in the summer (P = 0.002 and P = 0.036 respectively). There was a trend toward a higher incidence of FN infection during the summer than the winter (P = 0.165). Although the collected PTA incidence was stable throughout the year, the microbiology fluctuated with seasons. Patients aged 15-24 years are at an increased risk of PTA due to FN, which may have clinical implications for the diagnostic work-up and treatment of patients with acute tonsillitis.
Sidell Doug,Shapiro Nina L
Infectious disorders drug targets
Acute tonsillitis is an inflammatory process of the tonsillar tissues and is usually infectious in nature. Acute infections of the palatine tonsils predominantly occur in school-aged children, but patients of any age may be affected. Tonsillitis of viral origin is usually treated with supportive care. Bacterial tonsillitis is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Polymicrobial infections and viral pathogens are also important sources of infection. Penicillins remain the treatment of choice for S. pyogenes tonsillitis, and augmented aminopenicillins have gained utility in concert with the increasing incidence of beta-lactamase producing bacteria. We describe the anatomic features and the immunologic function of the palatine tonsils, including a detailed discussion of history and physical examination findings, treatment recommendations, and possible complications of acute tonsillitis. Establishing an accurate diagnosis and initiating appropriate treatment are key components of managing this common pathologic process.
Diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis: a preliminary observational study in General Medicine.
Di Muzio F,Barucco M,Guerriero F
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
OBJECTIVE:According to recent observations, the insufficiently targeted use of antibiotics is creating increasingly resistant bacterial strains. In this context, it seems increasingly clear the need to resort to extreme and prudent rationalization of antibiotic therapy, especially by the physicians working in primary care units. In clinical practice, actually the general practitioner often treats multiple diseases without having the proper equipment. In particular, the use of a dedicated, easy to use diagnostic test would be one more weapon for the correct diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngo-tonsillitis. The disease is a condition frequently encountered in clinical practice but its optimal management remains a controversial topic. In this context, the observational study is intended to demonstrate the usefulness of the rapid test (RAD: Rapid antigen detection) against group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) in everyday clinical practice to identify individuals with acute streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis needing antibiotic therapy and to pursue the following objectives: (1) Getting the answer to an unmet medical need; (2) Promoting the appropriateness of the use of antibiotics; (3) Provide a means of containment in pharmaceutical spending. PATIENTS AND METHODS:50 patients presenting sore throat associated with erythema and/or pharyngeal tonsillar exudate with or without scarlatiniform rash, fever and malaise had been subjected to perform a rapid test (RAD: Rapid antigen detection) for the search of the beta-hemolytic Streptococcus Group A (GABHS). Pharyngeal-tonsillar swabs were tested using Immunospark (relative sensitivity 97.6%, relative specificity 97.5%) according to manufacturer's instructions (runtime/reading response < 10 min). RESULTS:Of the 50 tests, 45 provided a negative response while 5 were positive for the search of the beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group A. No test result has been invalid. CONCLUSIONS:Based on the results obtained, only patients with a positive rapid test were subjected to targeted antibiotic therapy. This has resulted in a significant cost savings in pharmaceutical expenditure, without neglecting the more important and correct application of the Guidelines with performing of a clinically validated test that carries advantages for reducing the use of unnecessary and potentially harmful antibiotics and the consequent lower prevalence and incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.
The effect of tonsillectomy on the morbidity from recurrent tonsillitis.
Douglas C M,Lang K,Whitmer W M,Wilson J A,Mackenzie K
Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery
BACKGROUND:Tonsillitis is a common condition with an incidence in UK general practice of 37 per 1000 population a year. Recurrent tonsillitis results in significant morbidity and impacts on individuals' quality of life. This study assesses the morbidity and quality of life of adults with recurrent tonsillitis, and the impact of surgical intervention on their health state. OBJECTIVES:To describe disease-specific and global quality of life for adults with recurrent tonsillitis 6 months after tonsillectomy, using two instruments: the health impact of throat problems (HITP) and EuroQol-visual analogue scale questionnaire. To assess the overall health benefit from tonsillectomy as an intervention using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI). To assess potential predictors of tonsillectomy benefit. DESIGN:A prospective, observational cohort audit of patients who have fulfilled Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) criteria for tonsillectomy. SETTING: Secondary care, teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS:Seventy patients (57 female), median age 20 years (range 13-41). RESULTS:Median preoperative HITP was 47 (range 15-67), compared to 4 (0-72), (P<.001) 6 months following surgery. Median HITP difference was 39.5 (range -20 to 75). There was no significant change in global Quality of Life. Median overall 6 months GBI was 39 (-3 to 100). Patients had an average of 27 episodes of tonsillitis over a period of seven years before "achieving" tonsillectomy, significantly higher than the SIGN guidelines of three or more episodes over three years. CONCLUSIONS:Recurrent tonsillitis causes a poor disease-specific quality of life. Patients experienced a median of three episodes per year for seven years before tonsillectomy. Following tonsillectomy, patients had a significant improvement in their disease-specific quality of life. Baseline HITP significantly improved after tonsillectomy. The results imply patients with recurrent acute tonsillitis may be experiencing undue delay.
Ambient Temperature Is an Independent Risk Factor for Acute Tonsillitis Incidence.
Chen Jian,Zhang Yibo,Zhang Xin,Jiang Yingfang,Huang Yibo
Ear, nose, & throat journal
OBJECTIVE:Acute tonsillitis is a common disease in otorhinolaryngology. Meteorological factors can affect the incidence of many infectious diseases. This study aims to analyze the correlation between acute tonsillitis and meteorological conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We collected the meteorological data, including daily temperature, humidity, and fine particulate matter (PM) of Shanghai, China, from 2014 to 2015. The monthly number of acute tonsillitis cases in our hospital was also calculated and used as the outcome variable. The associations between them were evaluated, respectively. RESULTS:The average number of patients diagnosed with acute tonsillitis in our hospital per month was 68.67 ± 18.67 from 2014 to 2015. The average temperature, humidity, and PM of Shanghai during the defined period was 16.84 °C ± 7.80 °C, 75.93% ± 5.45%, and 52.38 ± 14.23 μg/m, respectively. The temperature was significantly positively associated with the acute tonsillitis cases number both in Pearson correlation analysis ( = 0.423, = .039) and in multivariate regression analysis (coefficient =2.194, = .012). However, no correlation between the acute tonsillitis cases number and relative humidity or PM was found through a multivariate regression model ( = .225 and = .243), respectively. CONCLUSION:The high temperature was associated with an increased incidence of acute tonsillitis.
Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 to reduce the incidence of pharyngo-tonsillitis and acute otitis media in children: a retrospective analysis in not-recurrent pediatric subjects.
Di Pierro Francesco,Risso Paolo,Poggi Elena,Timitilli Anna,Bolloli Sara,Bruno Maurizio,Caneva Egidio,Campus Riccardo,Giannattasio Alessandro
BACKGROUND:Previous trials, performed in subjects affected by recurrent streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillar infection, have shown that the use for 90 days of Streptococcus salivarius K12 (K12), an oral colonizing probiotic producing lantibiotic bacteriocins, reduces the occurrence of streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and acute otitis media (AOM). The aim was to evaluate the role of K12 in reducing the incidence of streptococcal and viral pharyngo-tonsillitis and AOM when administered in two separate trimesters, from October to December and then from April to June, in pediatric subjects with non-recurrent streptococcal infection. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of pharyngo-tonsillitis and AOM in 133 children by comparing the number of episodes occurring between September 1st, 2014 and August 31st, 2015, when no treatment with K12 was given, with the period between September 1st, 2015 and August 31st, 2016, when K12 was administered. RESULTS:Analysis of the findings for the 133 children demonstrated that K12 use decreased the incidence of pharyngo-tonsillitis by about 90% (P<0.001) and the occurrence of AOM by about 70% (P<0.001) and confirms the high safety profile of the strain. CONCLUSIONS:As already demonstrated in subjects with recurrent streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillar infection, K12, if administered for two trimesters out of 12 months, is associated with a reduced incidence of pharyngitis and AOM in pediatric subjects with non-recurrent streptococcal infection.