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    Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio predicts worse outcomes after acute ischaemic stroke. Deng Q-W,Wang H,Sun C-Z,Xing F-L,Zhang H-Q,Zuo L,Gu Z-T,Yan F-L European journal of neurology BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The effect of the triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (TG/HDL-C) on clinical outcomes of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) patients is unclear. This study sought to determine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio in AIS patients is associated with worse outcomes at 3 months. METHODS:Acute ischaemic stroke patients who were admitted from 2011 to 2014 were enrolled in this study. TG, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were collected on admission. Three end-points were defined according to the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at 3 months after symptom onset (excellent outcome, mRS 0-1; good outcome, mRS 0-2; and death, mRS 6). RESULTS:In all, 1006 patients were included (median age 68.5 years; 58.2% male). Higher TG, non-HDL-C and TG/HDL-C were strongly associated with the three end-points after adjustments: excellent [odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, OR 1.89 and OR 2.34, respectively] and good (OR 1.48, OR 2.90 and OR 4.12) outcomes, and death (OR 0.59, OR 0.29 and OR 0.26). According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the best discriminating factor was a TG/HDL-C ≥ 0.87 for excellent outcomes [area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.596; sensitivity 73.3%; specificity 42.7%] and non-death (AUC 0.674; sensitivity 67.8%; specificity 60.6%) as well as a TG/HDL-C ≥ 1.01 for a good outcome (AUC 0.652; sensitivity 61.6%; specificity 63.2%). Patients with a TG/HDL-C < 0.87 had a 2.94-fold increased risk of death (95% confidence interval 1.89-4.55) compared with patients with a TG/HDL-C ≥ 0.87. CONCLUSIONS:A lower TG/HDL-C was independently associated with death and worse outcome at 3 months in AIS. 10.1111/ene.13198
    The pre-gestational triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes: A retrospective cohort analysis. Arbib Nissim,Pfeffer-Gik Tamar,Sneh-Arbib Orly,Krispin Eyal,Rosenblat Orgad,Hadar Eran International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics OBJECTIVE:To investigate associations between pre-gestational dyslipidemia, expressed as the ratio between triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS:A retrospective cohort analysis included women with TG and HDL measurements available up to 52 weeks before conception who delivered a singleton, non-anomalous infant. The study population was stratified according to a TG/HDL ratio cutoff of 3. Primary maternal outcomes included gestational diabetes or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes after delivery before 37 weeks. RESULTS:Among 5226 women included, 4446 (85.1%) had TG/HDL <3 and 780 (14.9%) ≥3. TG/HDL ratio ≥3 vs <3 was associated with higher rates of gestational diabetes (13.1% vs 5.2%, P<0.0001) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (5.3% vs 2.2%, P<0.0001). Larger babies (3229.7 ± 520.7 g vs 3181.7 ± 504.4 g, P=0.015) with higher birth weight percentile (59.0 ± 26.4 vs 55.1 ± 26.6, P<0.0001) and increased rates of large-for-gestational-age (14.5% vs 10.8%, P=0.007) and macrosomia (5.6% vs 3.9%, P=0.026) were found. In multivariate analysis, TG/HDL ≥3 remained an independent risk-factor for gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.39) and pre-eclampsia (aOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.82-5.01). CONCLUSIONS:An increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes was reported, mainly gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, when TG/HDL ratio up to 1 year before pregnancy was ≥3. 10.1002/ijgo.13078
    Hyponatraemia on admission to hospital is associated with increased long-term risk of mortality in survivors of myocardial infarction. Burkhardt Katrin,Kirchberger Inge,Heier Margit,Zirngibl Angelika,Kling Elisabeth,von Scheidt Wolfgang,Kuch Bernhard,Meisinger Christa European journal of preventive cardiology BACKGROUND:Hyponatremia is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with heart failure and in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim was to assess the impact of hyponatremia on admission on long-term mortality of patients with first ever STEMI or non-STEMI (NSTEMI). DESIGN:This was a longitudinal observation study METHODS:The study population consisted of 3558 patients, aged 25-74 years, with an incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the years 2000-2008 who survived for at least 28 days. All consecutive patients were registered through the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) Myocardial Infarction Registry. Serum sodium levels were obtained on admission. The association with long-term-mortality was examined using Cox regression models. RESULTS:Hyponatraemia, defined as a sodium level less than 136 mmol/l, was present in 658 (18.5%) patients on admission. During a median follow-up period of six years (interquartile range (IQR) 4.0-8.2 years), 526 patients (14.8%) died. Hyponatraemia was significantly associated with long-term mortality by an 83% higher risk in the age- and sex-adjusted analysis. After further adjustment for reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), glomerular filtration rate, haemoglobin, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, any recanalization therapy, diabetes, medication with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker before admission and other parameters hyponatraemia remained a strong predictor for higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.32-1.97). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with incident AMI and hyponatraemia on admission showed a significantly higher risk of long-term mortality than patients without. This strong predictive value was independent of a number of prognostic factors, including diabetes, glomerular filtration rate or reduced LVEF. 10.1177/2047487314557963
    Serum Chloride and Sodium Interplay in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Analysis From the High-Risk Myocardial Infarction Database Initiative. Ferreira João Pedro,Girerd Nicolas,Duarte Kevin,Coiro Stefano,McMurray John J V,Dargie Henry J,Pitt Bertram,Dickstein Kenneth,Testani Jeffrey M,Zannad Faiez,Rossignol Patrick, Circulation. Heart failure BACKGROUND:Serum chloride levels were recently found to be independently associated with mortality in heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS:We investigated the relationship between serum chloride and clinical outcomes in 7195 subjects with acute myocardial infarction complicated by reduced left ventricular function and HF. The studied outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalization for HF. Both chloride and sodium had a nonlinear association with the studied outcomes (P<0.05 for linearity). Patients in the lowest chloride tertile (chloride ≤100) were older, had more comorbidities, and had lower sodium levels (P<0.05 for all). Serum chloride showed a significant interaction with sodium with regard to all studied outcomes (P for interaction <0.05 for all). The lowest chloride tertile (≤100 mmol/L) was associated with increased mortality rates in the context of lower sodium (≤138 mmol/L; adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for all-cause mortality=1.42 (1.14-1.77); P=0.002), whereas in the context of higher sodium levels (>141 mmol/L), the association with mortality was lost. Spline-transformed chloride and its interaction with sodium did not add significant prognostic information on top of other well-established prognostic variables (P>0.05 for all outcomes). CONCLUSIONS:In post-myocardial infarction with systolic dysfunction and HF, low serum chloride was associated with mortality (but not hospitalization for HF) in the setting of lower sodium. Overall, chloride and its interaction with sodium did not add clinically relevant prognostic information on top of other well-established prognostic variables. Taken together, these data support an integrated and critical consideration of chloride and sodium interplay. 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.116.003500
    A predictive value of hyponatremia for poor outcome and cerebral infarction in high-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients. Zheng B,Qiu Y,Jin H,Wang L,Chen X,Shi C,Zhao S Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry BACKGROUND:The clinical significance of hyponatremia has not been investigated in high-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) patients. Thus, we assessed the predictive value of hyponatremia for poor outcome or cerebral infarction in high grade patients (the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Scale (WFNS) grade 4 or 5) after aSAH. METHODS:Patients with WFNS grade 4 or 5 after aSAH were selected into this study between January 2005 and January 2008. In the same period, patients with WFNS grade 1, 2 or 3 after aSAH (low grade) were also chosen into this study. Hyponatremia was determined with serum sodium measurements obtained within 9 days after aSAH. Prognosis of patients was estimated with Glasgow Outcome Scale at 3 months. The relationship between hyponatremia and poor outcome and association of hyponatremia and cerebral infarction were analysed, respectively. RESULTS:A total of 124 high-grade patients were included in this study. Of those, 78 patients developed hyponatremia. Hyponatremia developed in 32.3% of cases between days 1 and 3 after aSAH, and 30.6% developed hyponatremia after 3 days post-aSAH. Multivariable analysis revealed that hyponatremia was not correlated with poor outcome in high-grade aSAH patients. Furthermore, only late-onset hyponatremia was correlated with cerebral infarction in these patients. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between hyponatremia and poor outcome or cerebral infarction in 259 low-grade aSAH patients. CONCLUSIONS:Hyponatremia does not predict poor outcome in all-grade aSAH patients. However, late-onset hyponatremia in high-grade aSAH patients is associated with cerebral infarction. Therefore, the appropriate management of hyponatremia could be beneficial in those patients. 10.1136/jnnp.2009.180349
    Predictors of early neurological deterioration in patients with acute ischaemic stroke with special reference to blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio & urine specific gravity. Bhatia Kunal,Mohanty Smita,Tripathi B K,Gupta B,Mittal M K The Indian journal of medical research BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES:Early neurological deterioration (END) occurs in about 20 to 40 per cent of patients with acute ischaemic stroke and results in increased mortality and functional disability. In recent studies relative dehydration has been found to be associated with END in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. This study was conducted to identify factors useful for predicting END and to assess the role of blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio (BUN/creatinine) and urine specific gravity (USG) as predictors of END in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. METHODS:The present study was an observational prospective study. Various parameters comprising demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological variables along with stroke severity were assessed and studied as predictors of early neurological deterioration in 114 consecutive patients presenting to the Emergency department during 2012. BUN/creatinine >15 and USG >1.010 were studied as markers of relative dehydration contributing to END. RESULTS:Of the 114 patients enrolled in the study, END was observed in 25 (21.9%) patients. National Institutes Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) ≥ 12 at admission was found to be an independent risk factor for END. Amongst markers of relative dehydration, BUN/creatinine >15 at admission was found to be an independent risk factor for END, as also USG >1.010. Also, cerebral oedema and size of hypodensity >1/3 rd of the middle cerebral artery territory on cranial CT were observed to be independent risk factors for END. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS:Our study findings highlighted a possible association of relative dehydration, as indicated by BUN/creatinine ratio >15, with END along with other parameters like stroke severity at presentation, extent of hypodensity >1/3 rd of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory and cerebral oedema. Dehydration being a treatable condition, the use of BUN/creatinine >15 as a marker of relative dehydration, can be helpful in detecting patients with dehydration early and thus play a role in preventing END. 10.4103/0971-5916.156564
    Predictive value of blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio in the long-term prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated with acute heart failure. Qian Hao,Tang Chengchun,Yan Gaoliang Medicine At present, the long-term prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after emergency percutaneous coronary intervention is the focus of attention, and relevant research is actively investigating the risk factors associated with prognosis. Poor prognosis often exists in Patients with AMI complicated with acute heart failure (AHF). In recent years, some studies have found that blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr) can better predict the prognosis of patients with AHF than single BUN or Cr. The relationship between long-prognosis of patients with AMI, as one of the common causes of AHF, and BUN/Cr is unknown. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether BUN/Cr has a predictive value for long-term prognosis in patients with AMI complicated with AHF.In this study, 389 consecutive patients with AMI were enrolled. According to AHF and a median BUN/Cr at admission of 15.32, the patients were divided into four groups (non-AHF + low BUN/Cr, non-AHF + high BUN/Cr, AHF + low BUN/Cr, and AHF + high BUN/Cr groups). A 1-year follow-up was implemented, and the study endpoint was defined as all-cause mortality. Predictors associated with 1-year mortality were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazard analysis, and the Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the survival rates.AHF occurred in 163 patients (41.9%) during hospital admission and 29 patients died during the 1-year follow-up. The Cox proportional hazard analysis proved an association between the combination of AHF and high BUN/Cr and mortality; however, the association with AHF + low BUN/Cr was not statistically significant.AHF combined with elevated BUN/Cr is linked with an increased risk of mortality in patients with AMI, which suggests that BNU/Cr has a predictive value for prognosis in patients with AMI complicated with AHF. 10.1097/MD.0000000000014845
    Association between Blood Urea Nitrogen-to-creatinine Ratio and Three-Month Outcome in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. Deng Linghui,Wang Changyi,Qiu Shi,Bian Haiyang,Wang Lu,Li Yuxiao,Wu Bo,Liu Ming Current neurovascular research BACKGROUND:Hydration status significantly affects the clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr) is a biomarker of hydration status. However, it is not known whether there is a relationship between BUN/Cr and three-month outcome as assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score in AIS patients. METHODS:AIS patients admitted to West China Hospital from 2012 to 2016 were prospectively and consecutively enrolled and baseline data were collected. Poor clinical outcome was defined as three-month mRS > 2. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between BUN/Cr and three-month outcome. Confounding factors were identified by univariate analysis. Stratified logistic regression analysis was performed to identify effect modifiers. RESULTS:A total of 1738 patients were included in the study. BUN/Cr showed a positive correlation with the three-month outcome (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03, p=0.04). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the correlation was no longer significant (p=0.95). An interaction between BUN/Cr and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was discovered (p=0.03), with a significant correlation between BUN/Cr and three-month outcome in patients with higher HDL (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, p=0.04). CONCLUSION:Elevated BUN/Cr is associated with poor three-month outcome in AIS patients with high HDL levels. 10.2174/1567202616666190412123705
    Relation of admission high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry). Acharjee Subroto,Roe Matthew T,Amsterdam Ezra A,Holmes DaJuanicia N,Boden William E The American journal of cardiology Despite recent therapeutic advances, significant residual risk for in-hospital mortality persists among patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), a known independent predictor of increased cardiovascular events, may be an important modulator of heightened risk after acute MI. We evaluated admission HDL-C levels among 98,276 patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with acute MI from the Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With the Guidelines (ACTION Registry-GWTG) program who were enrolled from 490 United States hospitals from January 2007 to December 2010. Clinical characteristics, treatments, atherosclerotic burden, and in-hospital outcomes were analyzed by quartiles of admission HDL-C (Q1: 10 to 30 mg/dl; Q2: 30.1 to 36.9 mg/dl; Q3: 37 to 45 mg/dl; and Q4: 45.1 to 100 mg/dl). Logistic regression was used to explore the relation among HDL-C quartiles, coronary artery disease severity, and in-hospital mortality. Almost half of the patients with acute MI had low admission levels of HDL-C (less than the median 36.9 mg/dl). Such patients were younger, more often men, white, obese, diabetic, smokers, and had higher rates of previous cardiovascular events. After multivariate adjustment, patients with low HDL-C levels had greater extent of severe angiographic multivessel coronary narrowings and higher mortality. Among the 26% of patients in the lowest HDL-C quartile (≤30 mg/dl), there was a 16% greater risk of in-hospital mortality compared with patients in the highest HDL-C quartile (p = 0.012). In conclusion, low levels of HDL-C were common in patients admitted with acute MI and were associated with more extensive angiographic coronary disease. Very low levels of admission HDL-C were observed in one-quarter of patients and associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.05.050
    Uric acid as a predictor of in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis. Yan Liru,Liu Zonghong,Zhang Chaoying Cell biochemistry and biophysics Uric acid (UA) is generalized as a byproduct the terminal steps of purine catabolism, which are catalyzed by xanthine oxidoreductase. Xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid synthesis are reported to be increased under tissue ischemia. Therefore, elevated uric acid may act as a prognostic marker of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A few studies have showed that UA is associated with therapeutic outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the prognostic significance of the UA as a predictor of in-hospital mortality. We performed a systematic review and included studies that used both UA and in-hospital mortality from Embase and PubMed. Six studies have been included in this review with totally 5,686 patients. During the follow-up, high UA level was found to be associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality [risk ratios (RR) 2.10 (1.03-4.26), number needed to harm (NNH) 37], MACE [RR 3.44 (2.33-5.08), NNH 17]. High UA level has the potential to be an important prognostic marker for in-hospital mortality in individuals with AMI. 10.1007/s12013-014-0101-7
    Admission oxygen saturation and all-cause in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction patients: data from the MIMIC-III database. Yu Yue,Wang Jun,Wang Qing,Wang Junnan,Min Jie,Wang Suyu,Wang Pei,Huang Renhong,Xiao Jian,Zhang Yufeng,Wang Zhinong Annals of translational medicine Background:Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is mainly caused by a mismatch of blood oxygen supply and demand in the myocardium. However, several studies have suggested that excessively high or low arterial oxygen tension could have deleterious effects on the prognosis of AMI patients. Therefore, the relationship between blood oxygenation and clinical outcomes among AMI patients is unclear, and could be nonlinear. In the critical care setting, blood oxygen level is commonly measured continuously using pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation (SpO). The present study aimed to determine the association between admission SpO levels and all-cause in-hospital mortality, and to elucidate the optimal SpO range with real-world data. Methods:Patients diagnosed with AMI on admission in the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) database were included. A generalized additive model (GAM) with loess smoothing functions was used to determine and visualize the nonlinear relationship between admission SpO levels within the first 24 hours after ICU admission and mortality. Moreover, the Cox regression model was constructed to confirm the association between SpO and mortality. Results:We included 1,846 patients who fulfilled our inclusion criteria, among whom 587 (31.80%) died during hospitalization. The GAM showed that the relationship between admission SpO levels and all-cause in-hospital mortality among AMI patients was nonlinear, as a U-shaped curve was observed. In addition, the lowest mortality was observed for an SpO range of 94-96%. Adjusted multivariable Cox regression analysis confirmed that the admission SpO level of 94-96% was independently associated with decreased mortality compared to SpO levels <94% [hazard ratio (HR) 1.352; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.048-1.715; P=0.028] and >96% (HR 1.315; 95% CI: 1.018-1.658; P=0.030). Conclusions:The relationship between admission SpO levels and all-cause in-hospital mortality followed a U-shaped curve among patients with AMI. The optimal oxygen saturation range was identified as an SpO range of 94-96%, which was independently associated with increased survival in a large and heterogeneous cohort of AMI patients. 10.21037/atm-20-2614
    Increased Mean Platelet Volume is Associated with Higher In-Hospital Mortality Rate in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Liu Xiaoxiao,Wang Shuya,Yuan Ling,Chen Fang,Zhang Lizhu,Ye Xinhe,Han Zhijun,Yang Chengjian Clinical laboratory BACKGROUND:To evaluate the prognostic value of mean platelet volume (MPV) on admission for the in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS:Medical records of 567 AMI patients were retrospectively reviewed, and their baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted. The relationships between the MPV and both clinical and laboratory characteristics were analyzed. The predictive value of the MPV for in-hospital death was estimated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS:The area under the curve (AUC) of MPV for in-hospital death was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.72 - 0.82). At a threshold of 12.5 fL, the sensitivity and specificity of MPV for in-hospital death were 0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48 - 0.67) and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.84 - 0.91), respectively. In a multivariable logistic regression model, MPV > 12.5 fL was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.35 (95% CI, 3.03 - 9.45). CONCLUSIONS:Increased MPV is associated with higher in-hospital mortality rate in patients with AMI. 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2016.160627
    A High Level of Blood Urea Nitrogen Is a Significant Predictor for In-hospital Mortality in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Horiuchi Yu,Aoki Jiro,Tanabe Kengo,Nakao Koichi,Ozaki Yukio,Kimura Kazuo,Ako Junya,Yasuda Satoshi,Noguchi Teruo,Suwa Satoru,Fujimoto Kazuteru,Nakama Yasuharu,Morita Takashi,Shimizu Wataru,Saito Yoshihiko,Hirohata Atsushi,Morita Yasuhiro,Inoue Teruo,Okamura Atsunori,Uematsu Masaaki,Hirata Kazuhito,Shibata Yoshisato,Nakai Michikazu,Nishimura Kunihiro,Miyamoto Yoshihiro,Ishihara Masaharu, International heart journal High levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been demonstrated to significantly predict poor prognosis in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. However, this relationship has not been fully investigated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated whether a high level of BUN is a significant predictor for in-hospital mortality and other clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. The Japanese registry of acute Myocardial INfarction diagnosed by Universal dEfiniTion (J-MINUET) is a prospective, observational, multicenter study conducted in 28 institutions, in which 3,283 consecutive AMI patients were enrolled. We excluded 98 patients in whom BUN levels were not recorded at admission and 190 patients who were undergoing hemodialysis. A total of 2,995 patients were retrospectively analyzed. BUN tertiles were 1.5-14.4 mg/dL (tertile 1), 14.5-19.4 mg/dL (tertile 2), and 19.5-240 mg/dL (tertile 3). Increasing tertiles of BUN were associated with stepwise increased risk of in-hospital mortality (2.5, 5.1, and 11%, respectively; P < 0.001). These relationships were also observed after adjusting for reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (estimated GFR < 60 mL/minute/1.73 m) or Killip classifications. In multivariable analysis, high levels of BUN significantly predicted in-hospital mortality, after adjusting for creatinine and other known predictors (BUN tertile 3 versus 1, adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.59, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.57-4.25, P < 0.001; BUN tertile 2 versus 1, adjusted OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 0.94-2.73, P = 0.081). A high level of BUN could be a useful predictor of in-hospital mortality in AMI patients. 10.1536/ihj.17-009
    Prognostic Value of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio for In-hospital Mortality in Elderly Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Guo Tang-Meng,Cheng Bei,Ke Li,Guan Si-Ming,Qi Ben-Ling,Li Wen-Zhu,Yang Bin Current medical science Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease in which inflammation plays a central role. This study aimed to investigate the association of inflammatory markers such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score with in-hospital mortality of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in an attempt to explore the prognostic value of these indices for elderly AMI patients. One thousand consecutive CAD patients were divided into two groups based on age 60. The laboratory and clinical characteristics were assessed retrospectively by reviewing the medical records. The NLR and GRACE score were calculated. In the elderly (≥60 years), patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) had significantly higher NLR than did those with unstable angina (UA) and stable angina pectoris (SAP) (P<0.01). The NLR was considerably elevated in older AMI patients compared with their younger counterparts (<60 years) (P<0.05). In elderly AMI patients, the NLR was considerably higher in the high-risk group than in both the low-risk and medium-risk groups based on the GRACE score (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), and the NLR was positively correlated with the GRACE score (r=0.322, P<0.001). Either the NLR level or the GRACE score was significantly higher in the death group than in the surviving group (P<0.05). By curve receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, the optimal cut-off levels of 9.41 for NLR and 174 for GRACE score predicted in-hospital death [ROC area under the curve (AUC) 0.771 and 0.787, respectively, P<0.001]. It was concluded that an elevated NLR is a potential predictor of in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with AMI. 10.1007/s11596-018-1887-0
    Relationship between fasting glucose levels and in-hospital mortality in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study. Liang Hao,Guo Yi Chen,Chen Li Ming,Li Min,Han Wei Zhong,Zhang Xu,Jiang Shi Liang BMC cardiovascular disorders BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that elevated admission and fasting glucose (FG) is associated with worse outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the quantitative relationship between FG levels and in-hospital mortality in patients with AMI remains unknown. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of elevated FG levels in hospitalized Chinese patients with AMI and diabetes mellitus and to determine the quantitative relationship between FG levels and the in-hospital mortality as well as the optimal level of FG in patients with AMI and diabetes mellitus. METHODS:A retrospective study was carried out in 1856 consecutive patients admitted for AMI and diabetes mellitus from 2002 to 2013. Clinical variables of baseline characteristics, in-hospital management and in-hospital adverse outcomes were recorded and compared among patients with different FG levels. RESULTS:Among all patients recruited, 993 patients (53.5 %) were found to have FG ≥100 mg/dL who exhibited a higher in-hospital mortality than those with FG < 100 mg/dL (P < 0.001). Although there was a high correlation between FG levels and in-hospital mortality in all patients (r = 0.830, P < 0.001), the relationship showed a J-curve configuration with an elevated mortality when FG was less than 80 mg/dL. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we identified that age, FG levels and Killip class of cardiac function were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in AMI patients with diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS:More than half of patients with AMI and diabetes mellitus have FG ≥100 mg/dL and the relationship between in-hospital mortality and FG level was a J-curve configuration. Both FG ≥ 100 mg/dL and FG <80 mg/dL were identified to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality and thus the optimal FG level in AMI patients with diabetes mellitus appears to be 80-100 mg/dL. 10.1186/s12872-016-0331-2
    The association of concomitant serum potassium and glucose levels and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Soroka acute myocardial infarction II (SAMI-II) project. Plakht Ygal,Gilutz Harel,Shiyovich Arthur International journal of cardiology BACKGROUND:Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with significant systemic metabolic changes. These changes include increased plasma concentrations of counter-regulatory hormones and changes in potassium (K, mEq/L) and glucose (mg/dL) levels. The latter are associated with outcomes and investigated as potential focus for intervention; glucose-insulin‑potassium (GIK) solution. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the associations of concomitant K and glucose (K/glucose) levels with in-hospital mortality in AMI patients. METHODS:AMI patients hospitalized in a tertiary Medical Center through 2002-2012 were studied. K/glucose levels were divided into equally sized categories. The intermediate category (glucose 124-143 mg/dL, K 4-4.9 mEq/L) was the reference group. The associations of these tests with the outcome were assessed using Generalized Estimating Equations model which included the interaction of K and glucose levels, adjusted for the patient's baseline characteristics and other laboratory results. RESULTS:17,670 AMI admissions (mean age 67.8 ± 4.0 years, 66.6% males, mortality rate 7.7%) were included; 112,531 results of K/glucose tests were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that K/glucose levels were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality, with highest risk being in patients with concomitant low K (<3.7 mEq/L) and high glucose (≥217 mg/dL), adjOR = 2.53. It seems that low-normal glucose levels attenuate the increased risk associated with low K. CONCLUSIONS:The highest independent risk for mortality is found with low K and concomitant high glucose levels. Additional studies evaluating mechanisms and therapeutic interventions in K/glucose levels in this setting are warranted. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.02.031
    Sodium levels during hospitalization with acute myocardial infarction are markers of in-hospital mortality: Soroka acute myocardial infarction II (SAMI-II) project. Plakht Ygal,Gilutz Harel,Shiyovich Arthur Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society OBJECTIVE:Abnormalities in sodium homeostasis are common in hospitalized patients. Hyponatremia upon admission is a poor prognostic marker in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. However, little is known about the association between changes in sodium levels and in-hospital mortality. We delineated changes in sodium levels and studied the association of such changes with in-hospital mortality of AMI patients. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of AMI patients hospitalized for > 6 days. Sodium levels throughout the 6-day post-admission were divided into five equally sized groups (quintiles = Q) and thereafter categorized as follows: Q1 (< 135 mEq/L), Q2-Q4 (135-140 mEq/L, reference group), and Q5 (≥141 mEq/L). PRIMARY OUTCOME:in-hospital mortality. RESULTS:A total of 8306 patients (10,416 admissions) were included (mean age 67.8 ± 14.0 years, 33.4% women, 45.5% STEMI). In-hospital mortality was 6.6%. Q1 and Q5 upon admission were both related to higher risk for in-hospital mortality, compared with the reference group (OR 1.47 and OR 1.33, respectively, p < 0.001 each). Q1 was more frequent in non-survivors throughout the entire study period, while the prevalence of Q5 levels was similar in survivors and non-survivors upon admission carrying increasing mortality risk thereafter: for Q1 consistent OR 1.50, while for Q5 it, increased from OR 1.32 upon admission to OR 1.90 on the sixth day, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS:Low and high sodium levels are associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality in patients with AMI. The risk is unchanged for hyponatremia, while it consistently increases for increased sodium levels. 10.1007/s00392-018-1268-5
    The Neutrophil Percentage to Albumin Ratio as a New Predictor of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Cui Hehe,Ding Xiaosong,Li Weiping,Chen Hui,Li Hongwei Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research BACKGROUND Neutrophil and albumin are respective indicators of inflammation and malnutrition. Whether combining those 2 markers can predict acute prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of neutrophil percentage to albumin ratio (NPAR) for in-hospital mortality in STEMI patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 1024 patients hospitalized with acute STEMI retrospectively enrolled in this study. Demographic, clinical, and admission laboratory data were extracted from medical record. NPAR was calculated as neutrophil percentage numerator divided by albumin in the admission blood samples. In-hospital mortality was designed as the primary outcome in the study, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and cardiac death were recorded as the secondary clinical outcomes. RESULTS The rates of in-hospital mortality, MACE, and cardiac death in high NPAR group were significantly higher than those in the low NPAR group (P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed worse outcomes in higher NPAR group (P<0.001). NPAR levels and age independently predicted in-hospital mortality. A NPAR value >1.9 was identified as an effective cut point in STEMI for in-hospital mortality (P<0.001, sensitivity 82%, specificity 52%). CONCLUSIONS Admission NPAR was independently correlated with in-hospital mortality in patients with STEMI. 10.12659/MSM.917987
    Serum calcium levels independently predict in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Shiyovich A,Plakht Y,Gilutz H Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD BACKGROUND AND AIM:Serum calcium levels (sCa) were reported to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, incidence of coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The current study evaluated the association between sCa and in-hospital mortality among AMI patients. METHODS AND RESULTS:Patients admitted in a tertiary medical center for AMI throughout 2002-2012 were analyzed. For each patient, mean sCa, corrected to albumin, was calculated and categorized to seven equally-sized groups: <8.9, 8.9-9.12, 9.12-9.3, 9.3-9.44, 9.44-9.62, 9.62-9.86, ≥9.86 mg/dL. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Out of 12,121 AMI patients, 11,446 were included, mean age 67.1 ± 14 years, 68% Males. Mean number of sCa values for patient was 4.2 ± 7.3. Mean sCa was 9.4 ± 0.53 mg/dL, range 5.6-13.2 mg/dL sCa was significantly associated with cardiovascular risk-factors, in-hospital complications, more frequent 3-vessel coronary artery disease and decreased rate of revascularization, often in a U-shaped association. Overall 794 (6.9%) patients died in-hospital. Multivariate analysis showed a significant U-shaped association between sCa and in-hospital mortality with sCa below 9.12 mg/dL and above 9.86 mg/dL as independent predictors of significantly increased in-hospital mortality: OR = 2.4 (95% CI:1.7-3.3) and 1.7 (95%CI:1.2-2.4), for Ca<8.9 and Ca≥9.86 mg/dL respectively p < 0.01, as compared with middle rage sCa group (9.3-9.44 mg/dL). CONCLUSION:sCa is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with AMI with a U-shaped association. Both increased and decreased sCa levels are associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality. 10.1016/j.numecd.2018.01.013
    Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Transformation After Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Retrospective Single-Center Study. Xu Xiahong,Li Changsong,Wan Ting,Gu Xiaobo,Zhu Wenxia,Hao Junjie,Bao Huan,Zuo Lian,Hu Hui,Li Gang World neurosurgery OBJECTIVE:To investigate the risk factors for hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after intravenous thrombolysis using a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) in acute cerebral infarction. METHODS:Patients with acute cerebral infarction receiving r-tPA thrombolysis in Shanghai Eastern Hospital were retrospectively studied. Based on the cranial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging examination, after the intravenous thrombolysis, the patients were divided into 2 groups: an HT group and a non-HT group. The information was collected before or after thrombolysis. RESULTS:A total of 162 patients were included in the analysis. The age ranged from 25 to 86 years, with an average age of 65.6 ± 10.6 years. The average time from disease onset to thrombolysis was 188 ± 53.1 minutes. Cranial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging showed that 20 patients (12.3%) had HT after thrombolysis. Using univariate analysis, history of atrial fibrillation, positive expression of urinary protein, and high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score before thrombolysis, we found that there was a significant difference between the HT and non-HT group (P < 0.05) in the level of mean systolic pressure (MSP) 24 hours after thrombolysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age ≥80 years, MSP ≥140 mm Hg, NIHSS score, and fibrinogen concentration before thrombolysis were risk factors for HT after thrombolysis in patients with acute cerebral infarction. CONCLUSIONS:Age, MSP, NIHSS score, and fibrinogen concentration before thrombolysis are risk factors for HT after thrombolysis in acute cerebral infarction. These 4 factors should be carefully taken into account before thrombolysis. 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.01.091
    Effects of Danhong injection on hemodynamics and the inflammation-related NF-κB signaling pathway in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Jiang Y,Lian Y J Genetics and molecular research : GMR The objective of the current study was to investigate effects of Danhong injection on hemodynamics, inflammatory cytokines, and the NF-κB pathway in acute cerebral infarction. In total, 246 patients with acute cerebral infarction were divided into control (N = 121) and observation (N = 125) groups based on treatment. The control group underwent conventional treatment, while the observation group was treated with conventional medicine and Danhong injection. Fourteen days later, the curative effect, hemorheology, mRNA, and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β) in peripheral white blood cells, and changes in the NF-κB signaling pathway were analyzed. The observation group had a significantly higher curative effect compared to the control group. The hemodynamic indices (high shear viscosity, low shear viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, platelet aggregation rate, and erythrocyte aggregation index) were significantly improved in both groups, although changes were more remarkable in the observation group. Peripheral white blood cells from patients in the observation group had significantly lower mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β after treatment compared to cells from patients in the control group. NF-κB p65 in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells of the observation group increased significantly after treatment compared to that of the control group, while nuclear NF-κB p65 decreased compared to that in the control group. In conclusion, Danhong injection has a significant curative effect on patients with acute cerebral infarction, lowers inf‍lammation, and improves hemodynamic changes; therefore, it is worth clinical application. 10.4238/2015.December.14.21
    Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events. Cho Sung Woo,Kim Byung Gyu,Kim Byung Ok,Byun Young Sup,Goh Choong Won,Rhee Kun Joo,Kwon Hyuck Moon,Lee Byoung Kwon Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia BACKGROUND:Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. METHODS:708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. RESULTS:Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. CONCLUSION:Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients. 10.5935/abc.20150146
    Correlation between plasma fibrinogen levels and white blood cell count after cerebral infarction. D'Erasmo E,Acca M,Celi F S,Mazzuoli G Stroke
    Hemorheological disturbances and cognitive function in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Velcheva I,Nikolova G Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation The aim of the study was to follow the relationship of the hemorheological variables with the cognitive functions in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The patient material comprised 117 patients with CVD, distributed in two main groups: 44 with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) and 73 with chronic cerebral infarctions (CCI), 48 of them being unilateral (UCI) and 25 bilateral (BCI). Additional relative distribution according to the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) values or to the presence of pathological asymmetries of the hemispheric cerebral blood flow (CBF) was made. The main hemorheological variables: hematocrit (Ht), fibrinogen (Fib) and plasma viscosity (PV) were examined. The cognitive functions were assessed with a psychological test battery for evaluation of the general cognitive state, the nonverbal intellect, the episodic memory, the selective attention and the executive functions. The hemorheological investigation revealed predominant increase of PV. The results of all neuropsychological tests showed significant impairment in the patients with CCI in comparison to TIAs. Fibrinogen correlated best with the psychological parameters. Its increase was associated with disturbance of the nonverbal intellect and the general cognitive capacity in the patients with CCI and BCI. In the presence of lower MABP or lack of pathological asymmetries the correlations of Fib and PV with the psychological scores predominated. The results of our study reveal distinct association between the blood rheological properties and the cognitive functions in the patients with ischemic CVD, which is probably based not only on vascular but also on other nonvascular mechanisms.
    Immunohematologic characteristics of infection-associated cerebral infarction. Ameriso S F,Wong V L,Quismorio F P,Fisher M Stroke We evaluated 50 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke to assess the prevalence of systemic infection preceding the neurological event. We analyzed the immunohematologic characteristics of patients with and without signs and/or symptoms of a preceding infectious process. Patients were examined less than or equal to 7 days after cerebral infarction and evaluated for fibrinogen, anticardiolipin antibodies, fibrin D-dimer (a fragment of cross-linked fibrin), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and protein S. Of the 50 patients, 17 had symptoms of infection beginning less than or equal to 1 month before the stroke (11 had upper respiratory tract infections, three urinary tract infections, two subacute bacterial endocarditis, and one pneumonia). Compared with patients without infection, patients with infection had significant increases in fibrin D-dimer concentration (5.3 +/- 1.1 versus 4.7 +/- 0.9 log-transformed ng/ml, p less than 0.05) and cardiolipin immunoreactivity, IgG isotype (1.8 +/- 1.3 versus 1.1 +/- 0.9 log-transformed phospholipid units, p less than 0.04), and, when studied less than or equal to 2 days after the stroke, increased fibrinogen levels (459 +/- 126 versus 360 +/- 94 mg/dl, p less than 0.05). In conclusion, infection-associated cerebral infarction is common and is associated with substantial immunohematologic abnormalities.
    Leucocyte count indicates carotid plaque instability in stroke patients. Minić Gordana Arandjelović Vojnosanitetski pregled BACKGROUND/AIM:Increasing evidence points to the inflammatory character of atherosclerosis and several parameters of inflammation have been proposed as cerebrovascular risk markers. The objective of the research was to examine the connection of serum inflammatory parameters and ultrasound (US) characteristics of the structure and size of carotid plaque. We assumed that the number of leukocytes (Le) was an indicator of carotid plaque instability and an increased risk of stroke. METHODS:Serum inflammatory parameters: erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the first (ESR I) and second hour (ESR II), the number of Le, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen were measured by standard methods. All the subjects (n = 75) were divided into 3 groups (symptomatic, asymptomatic and control). US evaluation of extracranial carotid arteries was performed in a duplex system. Plaques were classified into categories according to stenosis percentage (≥ 50%, < 50%) and pursuant to echomorphological characteristics (Gray-Weale classification). In the subjects with stroke an ischemic lesion was confirmed by computed tomography. RESULTS:The average values of biochemical parameters in the symptomatic group were: ESR I 29.57 ± 29.87 cm, ESR II 51.60 ± 36.87 cm, the number of Le 10.10 ± 3.20 x 10⁹ U/L, hsCRP 8.15 ± 5.50 mg/L and fibrinogen 4.03 ± 0.70 g/L. The average values of all testing biochemical parameters in symptomatic patients were significantly higher than in the asymptomatic ones and the control group: for ESR I (p < 0.05) and ESR II (p < 0.05); for the number of Le (p < 0.001); for hsCRP (p < 0.001) and fibrinogen (p < 0.001). Category I of echomorphological characteristics in the symptomatic group was present in 66.7% of the cases and it was significantly higher than in the asymptomatic (40.0%; p < 0.05) and the control group (20.0%; p < 0.01). Univariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that all testing biochemical parameters are indicators of stroke risk. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant correlation of the number of Le and stroke risk, while the increase in the value by a unit of measurement was associated with the growth of risk by 3.22 times (from 1.67 to 6.22). CONCLUSION:The number of Le is associated with the phenomenon of carotid plaque instability and may be a useful additional marker of increased risk for developing acute cerebral infarction.