Transient Activation of Mitoflashes Modulates Nanog at the Early Phase of Somatic Cell Reprogramming. Ying Zhongfu,Chen Keshi,Zheng Lingjun,Wu Yi,Li Linpeng,Wang Rui,Long Qi,Yang Liang,Guo Jingyi,Yao Deyang,Li Yong,Bao Feixiang,Xiang Ge,Liu Jinglei,Huang Qiaoying,Wu Zhiming,Hutchins Andrew Paul,Pei Duanqing,Liu Xingguo Cell metabolism The mechanisms of somatic cell reprogramming have been revealed at multiple levels. However, the lack of tools to monitor different reactive oxygen species (ROS) has left their distinct signals and roles in reprogramming unknown. We hypothesized that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes), recently identified spontaneous bursts of mitochondrial superoxide signaling, play a role in reprogramming. Here we show that the frequency of mitoflashes transiently increases, accompanied by flash amplitude reduction, during the early stages of reprogramming. This transient activation of mitoflashes at the early stage enhances reprogramming, whereas sustained activation impairs reprogramming. The reprogramming-promoting function of mitoflashes occurs via the upregulation of Nanog expression that is associated with decreases in the methylation status of the Nanog promoter through Tet2 occupancy. Together our findings provide a previously unknown role for superoxide signaling mediated epigenetic regulation in cell fate determination. 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.10.002
    Immunometabolism governs dendritic cell and macrophage function. O'Neill Luke A J,Pearce Edward J The Journal of experimental medicine Recent studies on intracellular metabolism in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages provide new insights on the functioning of these critical controllers of innate and adaptive immunity. Both cell types undergo profound metabolic reprogramming in response to environmental cues, such as hypoxia or nutrient alterations, but importantly also in response to danger signals and cytokines. Metabolites such as succinate and citrate have a direct impact on the functioning of macrophages. Immunogenicity and tolerogenicity of DCs is also determined by anabolic and catabolic processes, respectively. These findings provide new prospects for therapeutic manipulation in inflammatory diseases and cancer. 10.1084/jem.20151570
    Self-defense of macrophages against oxidative injury: Fighting for their own survival. Virág László,Jaén Rafael I,Regdon Zsolt,Boscá Lisardo,Prieto Patricia Redox biology Activated macrophages play a central role in both the development and resolution of inflammation. These immune cells need to be functional in harmful conditions with high levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that can damage their basic cell components, which may alter their metabolism. An excessive accumulation of these cell alterations drives macrophages inexorably to cell death, which has been associated to the development of several inflammatory diseases and even with aging in a process termed as "immunosenescence". Macrophages, however, exhibit a prolonged survival in this hostile environment because they equip themselves with a complex network of protective mechanisms. Here we provide an overview of these self-defense mechanisms with special attention being paid to bioactive lipid mediators, NRF2 signaling and metabolic reprogramming. 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101261
    Microenvironmental Metabolism Regulates Antitumor Immunity. Ngwa Verra M,Edwards Deanna N,Philip Mary,Chen Jin Cancer research Metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment are emerging as key factors governing tumor growth, metastasis, and response to therapies including immune checkpoint inhibitors. It has been recognized that rapidly proliferating cancer cells, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and vascular endothelial cells compete for oxygen and nutrients. Tumor cells and other cell types in the microenvironment not only compete for nutrients, but they also simultaneously produce immunosuppressive metabolites, leading to immune escape. In addition, commensal microbial metabolites can influence regulatory T cells and inflammation in the intestine, thus playing an essential role in cancer prevention or cancer promotion. In this review, we summarize recent advances on metabolic interactions among various cell types in the tumor microenvironment, with a focus on how these interactions affect tumor immunity. We also discuss the potential role of blood vessel metabolism in regulating immune cell trafficking and activation. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0617
    A guide to immunometabolism for immunologists. O'Neill Luke A J,Kishton Rigel J,Rathmell Jeff Nature reviews. Immunology In recent years a substantial number of findings have been made in the area of immunometabolism, by which we mean the changes in intracellular metabolic pathways in immune cells that alter their function. Here, we provide a brief refresher course on six of the major metabolic pathways involved (specifically, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid synthesis and amino acid metabolism), giving specific examples of how precise changes in the metabolites of these pathways shape the immune cell response. What is emerging is a complex interplay between metabolic reprogramming and immunity, which is providing an extra dimension to our understanding of the immune system in health and disease. 10.1038/nri.2016.70
    Macrophage Immunometabolism: Where Are We (Going)? Van den Bossche Jan,O'Neill Luke A,Menon Deepthi Trends in immunology A growing number of findings highlight the crucial role of metabolic reprogramming in macrophage activation. Metabolic pathways are closely interconnected and recent literature demonstrates the need for glucose metabolism in anti-inflammatory as well as inflammatory macrophages. Moreover, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) not only supports anti-inflammatory responses as described formerly but also drives inflammasome activation in inflammatory macrophages. Hence, defining glycolysis as proinflammatory and FAO as anti-inflammatory may be an oversimplification. Here we review how the rapid growth of the immunometabolism field has improved our understanding of macrophage activation and at the same time has led to an increase in the appearance of contradictory observations. To conclude we discuss current challenges in immunometabolism and present crucial areas for future research. 10.1016/j.it.2017.03.001
    Stealing the Keys to the Kitchen: Viral Manipulation of the Host Cell Metabolic Network. Goodwin Christopher M,Xu Shihao,Munger Joshua Trends in microbiology Host cells possess the metabolic assets required for viral infection. Recent studies indicate that control of the host's metabolic resources is a core host-pathogen interaction. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to usurp the host's metabolic resources, funneling them towards the production of virion components as well as the organization of specialized compartments for replication, maturation, and dissemination. Consequently, hosts have developed a variety of metabolic countermeasures to sense and resist these viral changes. The complex interplay between virus and host over metabolic control has only just begun to be deconvoluted. However, it is clear that virally induced metabolic reprogramming can substantially impact infectious outcomes, highlighting the promise of targeting these processes for antiviral therapeutic development. 10.1016/j.tim.2015.08.007
    Complement-Mediated Regulation of Metabolism and Basic Cellular Processes. Hess Christoph,Kemper Claudia Immunity Complement is well appreciated as a critical arm of innate immunity. It is required for the removal of invading pathogens and works by directly destroying them through the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. However, complement activation and function is not confined to the extracellular space but also occurs within cells. Recent work indicates that complement activation regulates key metabolic pathways and thus can impact fundamental cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and autophagy. Newly identified functions of complement include a key role in shaping metabolic reprogramming, which underlies T cell effector differentiation, and a role as a nexus for interactions with other effector systems, in particular the inflammasome and Notch transcription-factor networks. This review focuses on the contributions of complement to basic processes of the cell, in particular the integration of complement with cellular metabolism and the potential implications in infection and other disease settings. 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.08.003
    Defining trained immunity and its role in health and disease. Netea Mihai G,Domínguez-Andrés Jorge,Barreiro Luis B,Chavakis Triantafyllos,Divangahi Maziar,Fuchs Elaine,Joosten Leo A B,van der Meer Jos W M,Mhlanga Musa M,Mulder Willem J M,Riksen Niels P,Schlitzer Andreas,Schultze Joachim L,Stabell Benn Christine,Sun Joseph C,Xavier Ramnik J,Latz Eicke Nature reviews. Immunology Immune memory is a defining feature of the acquired immune system, but activation of the innate immune system can also result in enhanced responsiveness to subsequent triggers. This process has been termed 'trained immunity', a de facto innate immune memory. Research in the past decade has pointed to the broad benefits of trained immunity for host defence but has also suggested potentially detrimental outcomes in immune-mediated and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we define 'trained immunity' as a biological process and discuss the innate stimuli and the epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming events that shape the induction of trained immunity. 10.1038/s41577-020-0285-6
    Itaconate: the poster child of metabolic reprogramming in macrophage function. O'Neill Luke A J,Artyomov Maxim N Nature reviews. Immunology Itaconate is one of the best examples of the consequences of metabolic reprogramming during immunity. It is made by diverting aconitate away from the tricarboxylic acid cycle during inflammatory macrophage activation. The main reason macrophages exhibit this response currently appears to be for an anti-inflammatory effect, with itaconate connecting cell metabolism, oxidative and electrophilic stress responses and immune responses. A role for itaconate in the regulation of type I interferons during viral infection has also been described, as well as in M2 macrophage function under defined circumstances. Finally, macrophage-specific itaconate production has also been shown to have a pro-tumour effect. All of these studies point towards itaconate being a critical immunometabolite that could have far-reaching consequences for immunity, host defence and tumorigenesis. 10.1038/s41577-019-0128-5
    The Intersection of Epigenetics and Metabolism in Trained Immunity. Fanucchi Stephanie,Domínguez-Andrés Jorge,Joosten Leo A B,Netea Mihai G,Mhlanga Musa M Immunity The last few years have witnessed an increasing body of evidence that challenges the traditional view that immunological memory is an exclusive trait of the adaptive immune system. Myeloid cells can show increased responsiveness upon subsequent stimulation with the same or a different stimulus, well after the initial challenge. This de facto innate immune memory has been termed "trained immunity" and is involved in infections, vaccination and inflammatory diseases. Trained immunity is based on two main pillars: the epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of cells. In this review we discuss the latest insights into the epigenetic mechanisms behind the induction of trained immunity, as well as the role of different cellular metabolites and metabolic networks in the induction, regulation and maintenance of trained immunity. 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.011
    Metabolic reprogramming in macrophages and dendritic cells in innate immunity. Kelly Beth,O'Neill Luke A J Cell research Activation of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) by pro-inflammatory stimuli causes them to undergo a metabolic switch towards glycolysis and away from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), similar to the Warburg effect in tumors. However, it is only recently that the mechanisms responsible for this metabolic reprogramming have been elucidated in more detail. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an important role under conditions of both hypoxia and normoxia. The withdrawal of citrate from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle has been shown to be critical for lipid biosynthesis in both macrophages and DCs. Interference with this process actually abolishes the ability of DCs to activate T cells. Another TCA cycle intermediate, succinate, activates HIF-1α and promotes inflammatory gene expression. These new insights are providing us with a deeper understanding of the role of metabolic reprogramming in innate immunity. 10.1038/cr.2015.68
    Reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism by innate immunity. Garaude Johan Current opinion in immunology The reprogramming of cellular metabolism has emerged as a major aspect of innate immune cell activation. Mitochondria, which are well known for their critical functions in cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, also serve innate immune purposes by providing specific signaling platforms. Latest advances in our understanding of innate immune receptor-mediated metabolic reprogramming have unraveled specific immune functions of mitochondrial metabolites that place mitochondrial metabolism and particularly the mitochondrial respiratory chain at the center of innate immunity. This review highlights some recent studies that support mitochondrial metabolism as major immune signaling rheostat upon microbe recognition by innate immune cells. 10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.010
    The mitochondrial respiratory chain: A metabolic rheostat of innate immune cell-mediated antibacterial responses. Sander Leif E,Garaude Johan Mitochondrion Upon microbial infection, cells of the innate immune system undergo profound metabolic reprogramming in order to eradicate pathogens, promote inflammation, and eventually restore tissue homeostasis. Mitochondria are at the core of these adaptations, given their dual role as metabolic hubs and innate immune signaling platforms. The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is very well characterized at the genetic, molecular, structural, and biochemical level. In contrast, the role for mitochondrial ETC and metabolites beyond fulfilling cellular ATP synthesis in innate immune cell biology was not understood until recently. Here we discuss the latest advances in our understanding of immune functions of mitochondria and particularly the mitochondrial respiratory chain. 10.1016/j.mito.2017.10.008
    Pivotal Role of Mitochondria in Macrophage Response to Bacterial Pathogens. Ramond Elodie,Jamet Anne,Coureuil Mathieu,Charbit Alain Frontiers in immunology Mitochondria are essential organelles that act as metabolic hubs and signaling platforms within the cell. Numerous mitochondrial functions, including energy metabolism, lipid synthesis, and autophagy regulation, are intimately linked to mitochondrial dynamics, which is shaped by ongoing fusion and fission events. Recently, several intracellular bacterial pathogens have been shown to modulate mitochondrial functions to maintain their replicative niche. Through selected examples of human bacterial pathogens, we will discuss how infection induces mitochondrial changes in infected macrophages, triggering modifications of the host metabolism that lead to important immunological reprogramming. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02461
    The roles of sirtuins family in cell metabolism during tumor development. Zhu Shunqin,Dong Zhen,Ke Xiaoxue,Hou Jianbing,Zhao Erhu,Zhang Kui,Wang Feng,Yang Liqun,Xiang Zhonghuai,Cui Hongjuan Seminars in cancer biology Altering energy metabolism to meet the uncontrolled proliferation and metastasis has emerged as one of the most significant hallmarks in tumors. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and regulatory actions underlying have not been fully elucidated. As a family of NAD dependent protein modifying enzymes, sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) have multiple catalytic functions such as deacetylase, desuccinylase, demalonylase, demyristoylase, depalmitoylase, and/or mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase. They play important roles in regulating cell metabolism, especially in glucose and lipid metabolism, thereby exerting complex functions in either increasing or decreasing malignant characteristics in tumors. This review highlights the major function and its mechanisms of sirtuins in cellular metabolic reprogramming, such as glucose metabolism including aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect), oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)/tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glutamine metabolism; lipometabolism including fatty acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, ketone body metabolism and acetate metabolism; as well as leucine metabolism and the urea cycle in tumorigenesis and cancer development. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2018.11.003
    Starvation and Pseudo-Starvation as Drivers of Cancer Metastasis through Translation Reprogramming. García-Jiménez Custodia,Goding Colin R Cell metabolism Considerable progress has been made in identifying microenvironmental signals that effect the reversible phenotypic transitions underpinning the early steps in the metastatic cascade. However, although the general principles underlying metastatic dissemination have been broadly outlined, a common theme that unifies many of the triggers of invasive behavior in tumors has yet to emerge. Here we discuss how many diverse signals that induce invasion converge on the reprogramming of protein translation via phosphorylation of eIF2α, a hallmark of the starvation response. These include starvation as a consequence of nutrient or oxygen limitation, or pseudo-starvation imposed by cell-extrinsic microenvironmental signals or by cell-intrinsic events, including oncogene activation. Since in response to resource limitation single-cell organisms undergo phenotypic transitions remarkably similar to those observed within tumors, we propose that a starvation/pseudo-starvation model to explain cancer progression provides an integrated and evolutionarily conserved conceptual framework to understand the progression of this complex disease. 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.11.018
    The spectrum of T cell metabolism in health and disease. Bantug Glenn R,Galluzzi Lorenzo,Kroemer Guido,Hess Christoph Nature reviews. Immunology In healthy individuals, metabolically quiescent T cells survey lymph nodes and peripheral tissues in search of cognate antigens. During infection, T cells that encounter cognate antigens are activated and - in a context-specific manner - proliferate and/or differentiate to become effector T cells. This process is accompanied by important changes in cellular metabolism (known as metabolic reprogramming). The magnitude and spectrum of metabolic reprogramming as it occurs in T cells in the context of acute infection ensure host survival. By contrast, altered T cell metabolism, and hence function, is also observed in various disease states, in which T cells actively contribute to pathology. In this Review, we introduce the idea that the spectrum of immune cell metabolic states can provide a basis for categorizing human diseases. Specifically, we first summarize the metabolic and interlinked signalling requirements of T cells responding to acute infection. We then discuss how metabolic reprogramming of T cells is linked to disease. 10.1038/nri.2017.99
    Specific and Complex Reprogramming of Cellular Metabolism in Myeloid Cells during Innate Immune Responses. Stienstra Rinke,Netea-Maier Romana T,Riksen Niels P,Joosten Leo A B,Netea Mihai G Cell metabolism Renewed interest in immune cell metabolism has led to the emergence of a research field aimed at studying the importance of metabolic processes for an effective immune response. In addition to the adaptive immune system, cells of the myeloid lineage have been shown to undergo robust metabolic changes upon activation. Whereas the specific metabolic requirements of myeloid cells after lipopolysaccharide/TLR4 stimulation have been extensively studied, recent evidence suggested that this model does not represent a metabolic blueprint for activated myeloid cells. Instead, different microbial stimuli, pathogens, or tissue microenvironments lead to specific and complex metabolic rewiring of myeloid cells. Here we present an overview of the metabolic heterogeneity in activated myeloid cells during health and disease. Directions for future research are suggested to ultimately provide new therapeutic opportunities. The uniqueness of metabolic signatures accompanying different conditions will require tailor-made interventions to ultimately modulate aberrant myeloid cell activation during disease. 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.06.001
    Reactive Oxygen Species: Involvement in T Cell Signaling and Metabolism. Franchina Davide G,Dostert Catherine,Brenner Dirk Trends in immunology T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response. We discuss here how ROS can directly fine-tune metabolism and effector functions of T cells. 10.1016/j.it.2018.01.005
    NF-κB and mitochondria cross paths in cancer: mitochondrial metabolism and beyond. Capece Daria,Verzella Daniela,Di Francesco Barbara,Alesse Edoardo,Franzoso Guido,Zazzeroni Francesca Seminars in cell & developmental biology NF-κB plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis. This transcription factor is best known for promoting cancer cell survival and tumour-driving inflammation. However, several lines of evidence support a crucial role for NF-κB in governing energy homeostasis and mediating cancer metabolic reprogramming. Mitochondria are central players in many metabolic processes altered in cancer. Beyond their bioenergetic activity, several facets of mitochondria biology, including mitochondrial dynamics and oxidative stress, promote and sustain malignant transformation. Recent reports revealed an intimate connection between NF-κB pathway and the oncogenic mitochondrial functions. NF-κB can impact mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial dynamics, and, reciprocally, mitochondria can sense stress signals and convert them into cell biological responses leading to NF-κB activation. In this review we discuss their emerging reciprocal regulation and the significance of this interplay for anticancer therapy. 10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.05.021
    How long noncoding RNAs enforce their will on mitochondrial activity: regulation of mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, and metabolic reprogramming in cancer. De Paepe Boel,Lefever Steve,Mestdagh Pieter Current genetics The cellular transcriptome contains a wide diversity of untranslated RNAs, of which the class of regulatory long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has only recently been recognized. Evidence swiftly accumulates of lncRNAs influencing mitochondrial activities of eukaryotic cells, and perturbed expression is conspicuously associated with human diseases. In this review, we describe the multifaceted effects of lncRNAs on mitochondrial function, more particularly on the balance between oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, on the production of reactive oxygen species, and on apoptosis in human cells. Emphasis is placed on the involvement of lncRNAs in cancer metabolism, as tumor cells rely heavily on modifications of mitochondrial functioning as an essential component for sustained tumorigenesis and cancer progression. From the nonexhaustive list of lncRNAS described in this review, ANRIL, AScmtRNA, H19, HOTAIR, LincRNA-p21, MALAT1, RMRP, SAMMSON, and VL30 have emerged as potent regulators of mitochondrial metabolism. Due to their key role in cancer progression, they represent potential targets of innovative lncRNA-based treatment strategies. 10.1007/s00294-017-0744-1
    Current and upcoming mitochondrial targets for cancer therapy. Kim Hyoung Kyu,Noh Yeon Hee,Nilius Bernd,Ko Kyung Soo,Rhee Byoung Doo,Kim Nari,Han Jin Seminars in cancer biology Mitochondria are essential intracellular organelles that regulate energy metabolism, cell death, and signaling pathways that are important for cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, mitochondria are fundamentally implicated in cancer biology, including initiation, growth, metastasis, relapse, and acquired drug resistance. Based on these implications, mitochondria have been proposed as a major therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In addition to classical view of mitochondria in cancer biology, recent studies found novel pathophysiological roles of mitochondria in cancer. In this review, we introduce recent concepts of mitochondrial roles in cancer biology including mitochondrial DNA mutation and epigenetic modulation, energy metabolism reprogramming, mitochondrial channels, involvement in metastasis and drug resistance, and cancer stem cells. We also discuss the role of mitochondria in emerging cancer therapeutic strategies, especially cancer immunotherapy and CRISPR-Cas9 system gene therapy. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2017.06.006