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    Cancer-associated mutation and beyond: The emerging biology of isocitrate dehydrogenases in human disease. Tommasini-Ghelfi Serena,Murnan Kevin,Kouri Fotini M,Mahajan Akanksha S,May Jasmine L,Stegh Alexander H Science advances Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) are critical metabolic enzymes that catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (αKG), NAD(P)H, and CO. IDHs epigenetically control gene expression through effects on αKG-dependent dioxygenases, maintain redox balance and promote anaplerosis by providing cells with NADPH and precursor substrates for macromolecular synthesis, and regulate respiration and energy production through generation of NADH. Cancer-associated mutations in and represent one of the most comprehensively studied mechanisms of IDH pathogenic effect. Mutant enzymes produce ()-2-hydroxyglutarate, which in turn inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenase function, resulting in a global hypermethylation phenotype, increased tumor cell multipotency, and malignancy. Recent studies identified wild-type IDHs as critical regulators of normal organ physiology and, when transcriptionally induced or down-regulated, as contributing to cancer and neurodegeneration, respectively. We describe how mutant and wild-type enzymes contribute on molecular levels to disease pathogenesis, and discuss efforts to pharmacologically target IDH-controlled metabolic rewiring. 10.1126/sciadv.aaw4543
    Blocking anaplerotic entry of glutamine into the TCA cycle sensitizes K-Ras mutant cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs. Saqcena M,Mukhopadhyay S,Hosny C,Alhamed A,Chatterjee A,Foster D A Oncogene Cancer cells undergo a metabolic transformation that allows for increased anabolic demands, wherein glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates are shunted away for the synthesis of biological molecules required for cell growth and division. One of the key shunts is the exit of citrate from the mitochondria and the TCA cycle for the generation of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A that can be used for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. With the loss of mitochondrial citrate, cancer cells rely on the 'conditionally essential' amino acid glutamine (Q) as an anaplerotic carbon source for TCA cycle intermediates. Although Q deprivation causes G1 cell cycle arrest in non-transformed cells, its impact on the cancer cell cycle is not well characterized. We report here a correlation between bypass of the Q-dependent G1 checkpoint and cancer cells harboring K-Ras mutations. Instead of arresting in G1 in response to Q-deprivation, K-Ras-driven cancer cells arrest in either S- or G2/M-phase. Inhibition of K-Ras effector pathways was able to revert cells to G1 arrest upon Q deprivation. Blocking anaplerotic utilization of Q mimicked Q deprivation--causing S- and G2/M-phase arrest in K-Ras mutant cancer cells. Significantly, Q deprivation or suppression of anaplerotic Q utilization created synthetic lethality to the cell cycle phase-specific cytotoxic drugs, capecitabine and paclitaxel. These data suggest that disabling of the G1 Q checkpoint could represent a novel vulnerability of cancer cells harboring K-Ras and possibly other mutations that disable the Q-dependent checkpoint. 10.1038/onc.2014.207
    Rescue of TCA Cycle Dysfunction for Cancer Therapy. Marquez Jubert,Flores Jessa,Kim Amy Hyein,Nyamaa Bayalagmaa,Nguyen Anh Thi Tuyet,Park Nammi,Han Jin Journal of clinical medicine Mitochondrion, a maternally hereditary, subcellular organelle, is the site of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, electron transport chain (ETC), and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-the basic processes of ATP production. Mitochondrial function plays a pivotal role in the development and pathology of different cancers. Disruption in its activity, like mutations in its TCA cycle enzymes, leads to physiological imbalances and metabolic shifts of the cell, which contributes to the progression of cancer. In this review, we explored the different significant mutations in the mitochondrial enzymes participating in the TCA cycle and the diseases, especially cancer types, that these malfunctions are closely associated with. In addition, this paper also discussed the different therapeutic approaches which are currently being developed to address these diseases caused by mitochondrial enzyme malfunction. 10.3390/jcm8122161
    Vitamin D, intermediary metabolism and prostate cancer tumor progression. Wang Wei-Lin W,Tenniswood Martin Frontiers in physiology Epidemiological data have demonstrated an inverse association between serum vitamin D3 levels, cancer incidence and related mortality. However, the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer biology and its utility for prevention of prostate cancer progression are not as well-defined. The data are often conflicting: some reports suggest that vitamin D3 induces apoptosis in androgen dependent prostate cancer cell lines, while others suggest that vitamin D3 only induces cell cycle arrest. Recent molecular studies have identified an extensive synergistic crosstalk between the vitamin D- and androgen-mediated mRNA and miRNA expression, adding an additional layer of post-transcriptional regulation to the known VDR- and AR-regulated gene activation. The Warburg effect, the inefficient metabolic pathway that converts glucose to lactate for rapid energy generation, is a phenomenon common to many different types of cancer. This process supports cell proliferation and promotes cancer progression via alteration of glucose, glutamine and lipid metabolism. Prostate cancer is a notable exception to this general process since the metabolic switch that occurs early during malignancy is the reverse of the Warburg effect. This "anti-Warburg effect" is due to the unique biology of normal prostate cells that harbor a truncated TCA cycle that is required to produce and secret citrate. In prostate cancer cells, the TCA cycle activity is restored and citrate oxidation is used to produce energy for cancer cell proliferation. 1,25(OH)2D3 and androgen together modulates the TCA cycle via transcriptional regulation of zinc transporters, suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 and androgen maintain normal prostate metabolism by blocking citrate oxidation. These data demonstrate the importance of androgens in the anti-proliferative effect of vitamin D in prostate cancer and highlight the importance of understanding the crosstalk between these two signaling pathways. 10.3389/fphys.2014.00183
    Oxidation of glutamine in HeLa cells: role and control of truncated TCA cycles in tumour mitochondria. Piva T J,McEvoy-Bowe E Journal of cellular biochemistry The oxidative metabolism of glutamine in HeLa cells was investigated using intact cells and isolated mitochondria. The concentrations of the cytoplasmic amino acids were found to be aspartate, 8.0 mM; glutamate, 22.2 mM; glutamine, 11.3 mM; glycine, 9.8 mM; taurine, 2.3 mM; and alanine, < 1 mM. Incubation of the cells with [14C]glutamine gave steady-state recoveries of 14C-label (estimated as exogenous glutamine) in the glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate pools, of 103%, 80%, and 25%, respectively, indicating that glutamine synthetase activity was absent and that a significant proportion of glutamate oxidation proceeded through aspartate aminotransferase. No label was detected in the alanine pool, suggesting that alanine aminotransferase activity was low in these cells. The clearance rate of [14C]glutamine through the cellular compartment was 65 nmol/min per mg protein. There was a 28 s delay after [14C]glutamine was added to the cell before 14C-label was incorporated into the cytoplasm, while the formation of glutamate commenced 10 s later. Aspartate was the major metabolite formed when the mitochondria were incubated in a medium containing either glutamine, glutamate, or glutamate plus malate. The transaminase inhibitor AOA inhibited both aspartate efflux from the mitochondria and respiration. The addition of 2-oxoglutarate failed to relieve glutamate plus malate respiration, indicating that 2-oxoglutarate is part of a well-coupled truncated cycle, of which aspartate aminotransferase has been shown to be a component [Parlo and Coleman (1984): J Biol Chem 259:9997-10003]. This was confirmed by the observation that, although it inhibited respiration, AOA did not affect the efflux of citrate from the mitochondria. Thus citrate does not appear to be a cycle component and is directly transported to the medium. Therefore, it was concluded that the truncated TCA cycle in HeLa cells is the result of both a low rate of citrate synthesis and an active citrate transporter. DNP (10 microM) induced a state III-like respiration only in the presence of succinate, which supports the evidence that NAD-linked dehydrogenases were not coupled to respiration, and suggests that these mitochondria may have a defect in complex I of the electron transport chain. Arising from the present results with HeLa cells and results extant in the literature, it has been proposed that a major regulating mechanism for the flux of glutamate carbon in tumour cells is the competitive inhibition exerted by 2-oxoglutarate on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases. This has been discussed and applied to the data. 10.1002/(sici)1097-4644(19980201)68:2<213::aid-jcb8>3.0.co;2-y
    Disrupting Mitochondrial Pyruvate Uptake Directs Glutamine into the TCA Cycle away from Glutathione Synthesis and Impairs Hepatocellular Tumorigenesis. Tompkins Sean C,Sheldon Ryan D,Rauckhorst Adam J,Noterman Maria F,Solst Shane R,Buchanan Jane L,Mapuskar Kranti A,Pewa Alvin D,Gray Lawrence R,Oonthonpan Lalita,Sharma Arpit,Scerbo Diego A,Dupuy Adam J,Spitz Douglas R,Taylor Eric B Cell reports Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a devastating cancer increasingly caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Disrupting the liver Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier (MPC) in mice attenuates NAFLD. Thus, we considered whether liver MPC disruption also prevents HCC. Here, we use the N-nitrosodiethylamine plus carbon tetrachloride model of HCC development to test how liver-specific MPC knock out affects hepatocellular tumorigenesis. Our data show that liver MPC ablation markedly decreases tumorigenesis and that MPC-deficient tumors transcriptomically downregulate glutathione metabolism. We observe that MPC disruption and glutathione depletion in cultured hepatomas are synthetically lethal. Stable isotope tracing shows that hepatocyte MPC disruption reroutes glutamine from glutathione synthesis into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. These results support a model where inducing metabolic competition for glutamine by MPC disruption impairs hepatocellular tumorigenesis by limiting glutathione synthesis. These findings raise the possibility that combining MPC disruption and glutathione stress may be therapeutically useful in HCC and additional cancers. 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.07.098
    Fumarate induces redox-dependent senescence by modifying glutathione metabolism. Zheng Liang,Cardaci Simone,Jerby Livnat,MacKenzie Elaine D,Sciacovelli Marco,Johnson T Isaac,Gaude Edoardo,King Ayala,Leach Joshua D G,Edrada-Ebel RuAngelie,Hedley Ann,Morrice Nicholas A,Kalna Gabriela,Blyth Karen,Ruppin Eytan,Frezza Christian,Gottlieb Eyal Nature communications Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) are associated with a highly malignant form of renal cancer. We combined analytical chemistry and metabolic computational modelling to investigate the metabolic implications of FH loss in immortalized and primary mouse kidney cells. Here, we show that the accumulation of fumarate caused by the inactivation of FH leads to oxidative stress that is mediated by the formation of succinicGSH, a covalent adduct between fumarate and glutathione. Chronic succination of GSH, caused by the loss of FH, or by exogenous fumarate, leads to persistent oxidative stress and cellular senescence in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the ablation of p21, a key mediator of senescence, in Fh1-deficient mice resulted in the transformation of benign renal cysts into a hyperplastic lesion, suggesting that fumarate-induced senescence needs to be bypassed for the initiation of renal cancers. 10.1038/ncomms7001
    Loss of succinate dehydrogenase activity results in dependency on pyruvate carboxylation for cellular anabolism. Lussey-Lepoutre Charlotte,Hollinshead Kate E R,Ludwig Christian,Menara Mélanie,Morin Aurélie,Castro-Vega Luis-Jaime,Parker Seth J,Janin Maxime,Martinelli Cosimo,Ottolenghi Chris,Metallo Christian,Gimenez-Roqueplo Anne-Paule,Favier Judith,Tennant Daniel A Nature communications The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway responsible for supplying reducing potential for oxidative phosphorylation and anabolic substrates for cell growth, repair and proliferation. As such it thought to be essential for cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis. However, since the initial report of an inactivating mutation in the TCA cycle enzyme complex, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in paraganglioma (PGL), it has become clear that some cells and tissues are not only able to survive with a truncated TCA cycle, but that they are also able of supporting proliferative phenotype observed in tumours. Here, we show that loss of SDH activity leads to changes in the metabolism of non-essential amino acids. In particular, we demonstrate that pyruvate carboxylase is essential to re-supply the depleted pool of aspartate in SDH-deficient cells. Our results demonstrate that the loss of SDH reduces the metabolic plasticity of cells, suggesting vulnerabilities that can be targeted therapeutically. 10.1038/ncomms9784
    Opportunities in discovery and delivery of anticancer drugs targeting mitochondria and cancer cell metabolism. Pathania Divya,Millard Melissa,Neamati Nouri Advanced drug delivery reviews Cancer cells are characterized by self-sufficiency in the absence of growth signals, their ability to evade apoptosis, resistance to anti-growth signals, sustained angiogenesis, uncontrolled proliferation, and invasion and metastasis. Alterations in cellular bioenergetics are an emerging hallmark of cancer. The mitochondrion is the major organelle implicated in the cellular bioenergetic and biosynthetic changes accompanying cancer. These bioenergetic modifications contribute to the invasive, metastatic and adaptive properties typical in most tumors. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA mutations complement the bioenergetic changes in cancer. Several cancer management therapies have been proposed that target tumor cell metabolism and mitochondria. Glycolytic inhibitors serve as a classical example of cancer metabolism targeting agents. Several TCA cycle and OXPHOS inhibitors are being tested for their anticancer potential. Moreover, agents targeting the PDC/PDK (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex/pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) interaction are being studied for reversal of Warburg effect. Targeting of the apoptotic regulatory machinery of mitochondria is another potential anticancer field in need of exploration. Additionally, oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers, potassium channel modulators, and mitochondrial redox are under investigation for their anticancer potential. To this end there is an increased demand for agents that specifically hit their target. Delocalized lipophilic cations have shown tremendous potential in delivering anticancer agents selectively to tumor cells. This review provides an overview of the potential anticancer agents that act by targeting cancer cell metabolism and mitochondria, and also brings us face to face with the emerging opportunities in cancer therapy. 10.1016/j.addr.2009.05.010
    The Emerging Hallmarks of Cancer Metabolism. Pavlova Natalya N,Thompson Craig B Cell metabolism Tumorigenesis is dependent on the reprogramming of cellular metabolism as both direct and indirect consequence of oncogenic mutations. A common feature of cancer cell metabolism is the ability to acquire necessary nutrients from a frequently nutrient-poor environment and utilize these nutrients to both maintain viability and build new biomass. The alterations in intracellular and extracellular metabolites that can accompany cancer-associated metabolic reprogramming have profound effects on gene expression, cellular differentiation, and the tumor microenvironment. In this Perspective, we have organized known cancer-associated metabolic changes into six hallmarks: (1) deregulated uptake of glucose and amino acids, (2) use of opportunistic modes of nutrient acquisition, (3) use of glycolysis/TCA cycle intermediates for biosynthesis and NADPH production, (4) increased demand for nitrogen, (5) alterations in metabolite-driven gene regulation, and (6) metabolic interactions with the microenvironment. While few tumors display all six hallmarks, most display several. The specific hallmarks exhibited by an individual tumor may ultimately contribute to better tumor classification and aid in directing treatment. 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.12.006
    Cytosolic Aspartate Availability Determines Cell Survival When Glutamine Is Limiting. Alkan H Furkan,Walter Katharina E,Luengo Alba,Madreiter-Sokolowski Corina T,Stryeck Sarah,Lau Allison N,Al-Zoughbi Wael,Lewis Caroline A,Thomas Craig J,Hoefler Gerald,Graier Wolfgang F,Madl Tobias,Vander Heiden Matthew G,Bogner-Strauss Juliane G Cell metabolism Mitochondrial function is important for aspartate biosynthesis in proliferating cells. Here, we show that mitochondrial aspartate export via the aspartate-glutamate carrier 1 (AGC1) supports cell proliferation and cellular redox homeostasis. Insufficient cytosolic aspartate delivery leads to cell death when TCA cycle carbon is reduced following glutamine withdrawal and/or glutaminase inhibition. Moreover, loss of AGC1 reduces allograft tumor growth that is further compromised by treatment with the glutaminase inhibitor CB-839. Together, these findings argue that mitochondrial aspartate export sustains cell survival in low-glutamine environments and AGC1 inhibition can synergize with glutaminase inhibition to limit tumor growth. 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.07.021
    Succinate links TCA cycle dysfunction to oncogenesis by inhibiting HIF-alpha prolyl hydroxylase. Selak Mary A,Armour Sean M,MacKenzie Elaine D,Boulahbel Houda,Watson David G,Mansfield Kyle D,Pan Yi,Simon M Celeste,Thompson Craig B,Gottlieb Eyal Cancer cell Several mitochondrial proteins are tumor suppressors. These include succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase, both enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, to date, the mechanisms by which defects in the TCA cycle contribute to tumor formation have not been elucidated. Here we describe a mitochondrion-to-cytosol signaling pathway that links mitochondrial dysfunction to oncogenic events: succinate, which accumulates as a result of SDH inhibition, inhibits HIF-alpha prolyl hydroxylases in the cytosol, leading to stabilization and activation of HIF-1alpha. These results suggest a mechanistic link between SDH mutations and HIF-1alpha induction, providing an explanation for the highly vascular tumors that develop in the absence of VHL mutations. 10.1016/j.ccr.2004.11.022
    Haem oxygenase is synthetically lethal with the tumour suppressor fumarate hydratase. Frezza Christian,Zheng Liang,Folger Ori,Rajagopalan Kartik N,MacKenzie Elaine D,Jerby Livnat,Micaroni Massimo,Chaneton Barbara,Adam Julie,Hedley Ann,Kalna Gabriela,Tomlinson Ian P M,Pollard Patrick J,Watson Dave G,Deberardinis Ralph J,Shlomi Tomer,Ruppin Eytan,Gottlieb Eyal Nature Fumarate hydratase (FH) is an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) that catalyses the hydration of fumarate into malate. Germline mutations of FH are responsible for hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal-cell cancer (HLRCC). It has previously been demonstrated that the absence of FH leads to the accumulation of fumarate, which activates hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) at normal oxygen tensions. However, so far no mechanism that explains the ability of cells to survive without a functional TCA cycle has been provided. Here we use newly characterized genetically modified kidney mouse cells in which Fh1 has been deleted, and apply a newly developed computer model of the metabolism of these cells to predict and experimentally validate a linear metabolic pathway beginning with glutamine uptake and ending with bilirubin excretion from Fh1-deficient cells. This pathway, which involves the biosynthesis and degradation of haem, enables Fh1-deficient cells to use the accumulated TCA cycle metabolites and permits partial mitochondrial NADH production. We predicted and confirmed that targeting this pathway would render Fh1-deficient cells non-viable, while sparing wild-type Fh1-containing cells. This work goes beyond identifying a metabolic pathway that is induced in Fh1-deficient cells to demonstrate that inhibition of haem oxygenation is synthetically lethal when combined with Fh1 deficiency, providing a new potential target for treating HLRCC patients. 10.1038/nature10363
    O-GlcNAcylation of PGK1 coordinates glycolysis and TCA cycle to promote tumor growth. Nie Hao,Ju Haixing,Fan Jiayi,Shi Xiaoliu,Cheng Yaxian,Cang Xiaohui,Zheng Zhiguo,Duan Xiaotao,Yi Wen Nature communications Many cancer cells display enhanced glycolysis and suppressed mitochondrial metabolism. This phenomenon, known as the Warburg effect, is critical for tumor development. However, how cancer cells coordinate glucose metabolism through glycolysis and the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is largely unknown. We demonstrate here that phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), the first ATP-producing enzyme in glycolysis, is reversibly and dynamically modified with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) at threonine 255 (T255). O-GlcNAcylation activates PGK1 activity to enhance lactate production, and simultaneously induces PGK1 translocation into mitochondria. Inside mitochondria, PGK1 acts as a kinase to inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex to reduce oxidative phosphorylation. Blocking T255 O-GlcNAcylation of PGK1 decreases colon cancer cell proliferation, suppresses glycolysis, enhances the TCA cycle, and inhibits tumor growth in xenograft models. Furthermore, PGK1 O-GlcNAcylation levels are elevated in human colon cancers. This study highlights O-GlcNAcylation as an important signal for coordinating glycolysis and the TCA cycle to promote tumorigenesis. 10.1038/s41467-019-13601-8
    Metabolic changes related to the IDH1 mutation in gliomas preserve TCA-cycle activity: An investigation at the protein level. Dekker Lennard J M,Wu Suying,Jurriëns Cherise,Mustafa Dana A N,Grevers Frederieke,Burgers Peter C,Sillevis Smitt Peter A E,Kros Johan M,Luider Theo M FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology The discovery of the IDH1 R132H (IDH1 mut) mutation in low-grade glioma and the associated change in function of the IDH1 enzyme has increased the interest in glioma metabolism. In an earlier study, we found that changes in expression of genes involved in the aerobic glycolysis and the TCA cycle are associated with IDH1 mut. Here, we apply proteomics to FFPE samples of diffuse gliomas with or without IDH1 mutations, to map changes in protein levels associated with this mutation. We observed significant changes in the enzyme abundance associated with aerobic glycolysis, glutamate metabolism, and the TCA cycle in IDH1 mut gliomas. Specifically, the enzymes involved in the metabolism of glutamate, lactate, and enzymes involved in the conversion of α-ketoglutarate were increased in IDH1 mut gliomas. In addition, the bicarbonate transporter (SLC4A4) was increased in IDH1 mut gliomas, supporting the idea that a mechanism preventing intracellular acidification is active. We also found that enzymes that convert proline, valine, leucine, and isoleucine into glutamate were increased in IDH1 mut glioma. We conclude that in IDH1 mut glioma metabolism is rewired (increased input of lactate and glutamate) to preserve TCA-cycle activity in IDH1 mut gliomas. 10.1096/fj.201902352R
    Revisiting the TCA cycle: signaling to tumor formation. Raimundo Nuno,Baysal Bora E,Shadel Gerald S Trends in molecular medicine A role for mitochondria in tumor formation is suggested by mutations in enzymes of the TCA cycle: isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH). Although they are all components of the TCA cycle, the resulting clinical presentations do not overlap. Activation of the hypoxia pathway can explain SDH phenotypes, but recent data suggest that FH and IDH mutations lead to tumor formation by repressing cellular differentiation. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the context of both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic components of the TCA cycle, and we propose that extrametabolic roles of TCA cycle metabolites result in reduced cellular differentiation. Furthermore, activation of the pseudohypoxia pathway likely promotes the growth of these neoplasias into tumors. 10.1016/j.molmed.2011.06.001
    Colorectal cancers utilize glutamine as an anaplerotic substrate of the TCA cycle in vivo. Zhao Yiqing,Zhao Xuan,Chen Vanessa,Feng Ying,Wang Lan,Croniger Colleen,Conlon Ronald A,Markowitz Sanford,Fearon Eric,Puchowicz Michelle,Brunengraber Henri,Hao Yujun,Wang Zhenghe Scientific reports Cancer cells in culture rely on glutamine as an anaplerotic substrate to replenish tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates that have been consumed. but it is uncertain whether cancers in vivo depend on glutamine for anaplerosis. Here, following in vivo infusions of [C]-glutamine in mice bearing subcutaneous colon cancer xenografts, we showed substantial amounts of infused [C]-glutamine enters the TCA cycle in the tumors. Consistent with our prior observation that colorectal cancers (CRCs) with oncogenic mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic (PIK3CA) subunit are more dependent on glutamine than CRCs with wild type PIK3CA, labeling from glutamine to most TCA cycle intermediates was higher in PIK3CA-mutant subcutaneous xenograft tumors than in wild type PIK3CA tumors. Moreover, using orthotopic mouse colon tumors estalished from human CRC cells or patient-derived xenografts, we demonstrated substantial amounts of infused [C]-glutamine enters the TCA cycle in the tumors and tumors utilize anaplerotic glutamine to a greater extent than adjacent normal colon tissues. Similar results were seen in spontaneous colon tumors arising in genetically engineered mice. Our studies provide compelling evidence CRCs utilizes glutamine to replenish the TCA cycle in vivo, suggesting that targeting glutamine metabolism could be a therapeutic approach for CRCs, especially for PIK3CA-mutant CRCs. 10.1038/s41598-019-55718-2
    TCA Cycle Rewiring as Emerging Metabolic Signature of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Todisco Simona,Convertini Paolo,Iacobazzi Vito,Infantino Vittoria Cancers Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy. Despite progress in treatment, HCC is still one of the most lethal cancers. Therefore, deepening molecular mechanisms underlying HCC pathogenesis and development is required to uncover new therapeutic strategies. Metabolic reprogramming is emerging as a critical player in promoting tumor survival and proliferation to sustain increased metabolic needs of cancer cells. Among the metabolic pathways, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a primary route for bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and redox balance requirements of cells. In recent years, a large amount of evidence has highlighted the relevance of the TCA cycle rewiring in a variety of cancers. Indeed, aberrant gene expression of several key enzymes and changes in levels of critical metabolites have been observed in many solid human tumors. In this review, we summarize the role of the TCA cycle rewiring in HCC by reporting gene expression and activity dysregulation of enzymes relating not only to the TCA cycle but also to glutamine metabolism, malate/aspartate, and citrate/pyruvate shuttles. Regarding the transcriptional regulation, we focus on the link between NF-κB-HIF1 transcriptional factors and TCA cycle reprogramming. Finally, the potential of metabolic targets for new HCC treatments has been explored. 10.3390/cancers12010068
    Mitochondrial dysfunctions in cancer: genetic defects and oncogenic signaling impinging on TCA cycle activity. Desideri Enrico,Vegliante Rolando,Ciriolo Maria Rosa Cancer letters The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central route for oxidative metabolism. Besides being responsible for the production of NADH and FADH2, which fuel the mitochondrial electron transport chain to generate ATP, the TCA cycle is also a robust source of metabolic intermediates required for anabolic reactions. This is particularly important for highly proliferating cells, like tumour cells, which require a continuous supply of precursors for the synthesis of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. A number of mutations among the TCA cycle enzymes have been discovered and their association with some tumour types has been established. In this review we summarise the current knowledge regarding alterations of the TCA cycle in tumours, with particular attention to the three germline mutations of the enzymes succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which are involved in the pathogenesis of tumours, and to the aberrant regulation of TCA cycle components that are under the control of oncogenes and tumour suppressors. 10.1016/j.canlet.2014.02.023
    The emerging role and targetability of the TCA cycle in cancer metabolism. Anderson Nicole M,Mucka Patrick,Kern Joseph G,Feng Hui Protein & cell The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central route for oxidative phosphorylation in cells, and fulfills their bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and redox balance requirements. Despite early dogma that cancer cells bypass the TCA cycle and primarily utilize aerobic glycolysis, emerging evidence demonstrates that certain cancer cells, especially those with deregulated oncogene and tumor suppressor expression, rely heavily on the TCA cycle for energy production and macromolecule synthesis. As the field progresses, the importance of aberrant TCA cycle function in tumorigenesis and the potentials of applying small molecule inhibitors to perturb the enhanced cycle function for cancer treatment start to evolve. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the fuels feeding the cycle, effects of oncogenes and tumor suppressors on fuel and cycle usage, common genetic alterations and deregulation of cycle enzymes, and potential therapeutic opportunities for targeting the TCA cycle in cancer cells. With the application of advanced technology and in vivo model organism studies, it is our hope that studies of this previously overlooked biochemical hub will provide fresh insights into cancer metabolism and tumorigenesis, subsequently revealing vulnerabilities for therapeutic interventions in various cancer types. 10.1007/s13238-017-0451-1
    AMPK maintains TCA cycle through sequential phosphorylation of PDHA to promote tumor metastasis. Cai Zhen,Peng Danni,Lin Hui-Kuan Cell stress Cancer represents the leading public health problem throughout the world. Globally, about one out of six deaths is related to cancer, which is largely due to the metastatic lesions. However, there are no effective strategies for targeting cancer metastasis. Identification of the key druggable targets maintaining metastasis is crucial for cancer treatment. In our recent study (Cai et al. (2020), Mol Cell, doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2020.09.018), we found that activity of AMPK was enriched in metastatic tumors compared to primary tumors. Depletion of AMPK rendered cancer cells more sensitive to metabolic and oxidative stress, leading to the impairment of breast cancer lung metastasis. Activation of AMPK rewired cancer metabolism towards TCA cycle, which protects disseminated cancer cells from both metabolic and oxidative stress-induced cell death, and facilitates cancer metastasis. Further, AMPK critically maintained the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), the rate limiting enzyme involved in TCA cycle, thus favoring the pyruvate metabolism towards TCA cycle rather than converting it to lactate. Mechanistically, AMPK was shown to co-localize with PDHA, the catalytic subunit of PDH, in the mitochondrial matrix and directly triggered the phosphorylation of PDHA on Ser295 and Ser314. Hyper-phosphorylation of Ser295 and Ser314 of PDHA promotes lung metastasis through elevating activity of PDH. Of note, PDHA Ser314 phosphorylation abrogated the interaction between PDHA and PDHKs leading to the dephosphorylation on previously reported S293 site, whose phosphorylation serves as a negative signal for PDH activation, while S295 phosphorylation serves as an intrinsic catalytic site required for pyruvate metabolism. Our study presented the first evidence for the pro-metastatic property of the AMPK-PDH axis and advance our current understanding of how PDH is activated under physiological and pathological conditions. 10.15698/cst2020.12.238
    Mitochondrial ubiquinol oxidation is necessary for tumour growth. Martínez-Reyes Inmaculada,Cardona Luzivette Robles,Kong Hyewon,Vasan Karthik,McElroy Gregory S,Werner Marie,Kihshen Hermon,Reczek Colleen R,Weinberg Samuel E,Gao Peng,Steinert Elizabeth M,Piseaux Raul,Budinger G R Scott,Chandel Navdeep S Nature The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is necessary for tumour growth and its inhibition has demonstrated anti-tumour efficacy in combination with targeted therapies. Furthermore, human brain and lung tumours display robust glucose oxidation by mitochondria. However, it is unclear why a functional ETC is necessary for tumour growth in vivo. ETC function is coupled to the generation of ATP-that is, oxidative phosphorylation and the production of metabolites by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Mitochondrial complexes I and II donate electrons to ubiquinone, resulting in the generation of ubiquinol and the regeneration of the NAD+ and FAD cofactors, and complex III oxidizes ubiquinol back to ubiquinone, which also serves as an electron acceptor for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-an enzyme necessary for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Here we show impaired tumour growth in cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III. This phenotype was rescued by ectopic expression of Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX), which also oxidizes ubiquinol to ubiquinone. Loss of mitochondrial complex I, II or DHODH diminished the tumour growth of AOX-expressing cancer cells deficient in mitochondrial complex III, which highlights the necessity of ubiquinone as an electron acceptor for tumour growth. Cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III but can regenerate NAD+ by expression of the NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX) targeted to the mitochondria or cytosol were still unable to grow tumours. This suggests that regeneration of NAD+ is not sufficient to drive tumour growth in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that tumour growth requires the ETC to oxidize ubiquinol, which is essential to drive the oxidative TCA cycle and DHODH activity. 10.1038/s41586-020-2475-6