Development and validation of a highly sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of lenalidomide and flavopiridol in human plasma.
Liu Qing,Farley Katherine L,Johnson Amy J,Muthusamy Natarajan,Hofmeister Craig C,Blum Kristie A,Schaaf Larry J,Grever Michael R,Byrd John C,Dalton James T,Phelps Mitch A
Therapeutic drug monitoring
Lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent, and flavopiridol, a broad cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, are active therapies for clinical use in genomic high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay with tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed to simultaneously quantify lenalidomide and flavopiridol in human and mouse plasma to facilitate their combined clinical development. Samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile (ACN)-containing internal standard, genistein, followed by evaporation of solvent and reconstitution in 95/5 H2O/ACN. Lenalidomide and internal standard were separated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a C-18 column using a gradient of H2O and ACN, each with 0.1% formic acid. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode with single reaction monitoring on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was applied to detect transitions of lenalidomide (260.06 > 149.10) and flavopiridol (402.09 > 341.02). Lower limits of quantification of lenalidomide and flavopiridol were 1 and 0.3 nM, respectively. Recoveries of lenalidomide and flavopiridol from human plasma ranged from 99% to 116% throughout their linear ranges. Within- and between-run precision and accuracy of replicate samples were all less than 15%. This is the most sensitive analytical method reported to date for both lenalidomide and flavopiridol. This sensitivity will enable late terminal phase concentration measurements and accurate pharmacokinetic parameter estimation in a planned clinical trial with lenalidomide and flavopiridol in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Novel agents in acute myeloid leukemia.
Ungewickell Alexander,Medeiros Bruno C
International journal of hematology
Although complete remissions can be achieved in most patients younger than 60 years of age with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), only 30-40 % of patients remain long-term survivors. Furthermore, long-term survivors represent only 10-15 % of all AML patients older than 60 years of age and <10 % of all patients with relapsed AML. The development of new treatments for AML is therefore needed. Novel therapies should target specific mechanisms and pathways implicated in the development and maintenance of AML, should strive to have better tolerability than conventional combination chemotherapy, be associated with improved quality of life and minimize utilization of health care resources. In this manuscript, we discuss the role of epigenetic regulators and immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of AML. Also, we review the data on inhibitors of protein homeostasis and its synergistic effect to DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, the potential role for inhibitors of heat shock proteins and the mitotic machinery and a novel formulation of conventional chemotherapeutic agents given at a fixed molar concentration. Finally, we briefly share our views on optimal clinical trial design and patient selection for future studies in AML.
Development and validation of ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of lenalidomide in rabbit and human plasma.
Iqbal Muzaffar,Wani Tanveer A,Khalil Nasr Y,Darwish Ibrahim A
Chemistry Central journal
BACKGROUND:Lenalidomide (LND) is a potent novel thalidomide analog which demonstrated remarkable clinical activity in treatment of multiple myeloma disease via a multiple-pathways mechanism. Validated sensitive method with high throughput is required for the determination of lenalidomide for pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetic studies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is a preeminent analytical tool for rapid biomedical analysis. RESULTS:A simple, highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of LND in rabbit and human plasma. After a simple protein precipitation using methanol, LND and carbamazepine (IS) were separated on Acquity UPLC BEH™ C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, i.d. 1.7 μm, Waters, USA) using a mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:water:formic acid (65:35:0.1%, v/v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. LND and IS were eluted at 0.71 and 1.92 min, respectively. The mass spectrometric determination was carried out using an electrospray interface operated in the positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 260.1 > 149.0 and m/z 237.0 > 179.0 were used to quantify LND and IS, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.23-1000 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation of 0.23 ng/mL. All the validation parameters were in the ranges acceptable by the guidelines of analytical method validation. CONCLUSION:The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive, and hence it could be reliable for pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic study in both animals and humans.
Lenalidomide induces apoptosis and alters gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Kim Karam,An Sungkwan,Cha Hwa Jun,Choi Yeong Min,Choi Sung Jin,An In-Sook,Lee Hong Ghi,Min Yoo Hong,Lee Su-Jae,Bae Seunghee
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most deadly type of cancer worldwide. Although a number of therapies are used in NSCLC treatment, their therapeutic efficacy remains low. Lenalidomide was originally approved for use in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, which are associated with 5q deletions, and multiple myeloma. Recently, lenalidomide was investigated as a new NSCLC treatment, and it exerted anticancer effects. However, the primary cellular mechanism of its effects in NSCLC is largely unknown. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate a molecular portrait of lenalidomide-mediated cellular events in NSCLC. Lenalidomide reduced the viability of several NSCLC cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, array-based gene expression analysis revealed that lenalidomide regulated the expression of several genes associated with cell survival, apoptosis and development, including BH3-interacting domain death agonist (BID), v-fos FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS) and NK2 homeobox1 (NKX2-1). BID and FOS, which are known apoptosis activators, were upregulated by lenalidomide treatment, whereas NKX2-1, which is used as an immunohistochemistry marker for NSCLC, was downregulated. These results provide evidence that lenalidomide directly induces antiproliferative effects by altering the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis.
Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) predicts survival and leukemic evolution of myelodysplastic syndromes significantly better than IPSS and WHO Prognostic Scoring System: validation by the Gruppo Romano Mielodisplasie Italian Regional Database.
Voso Maria Teresa,Fenu Susanna,Latagliata Roberto,Buccisano Francesco,Piciocchi Alfonso,Aloe-Spiriti Maria Antonietta,Breccia Massimo,Criscuolo Marianna,Andriani Alessandro,Mancini Stefano,Niscola Pasquale,Naso Virginia,Nobile Carolina,Piccioni Anna Lina,D'Andrea Mariella,D'Addosio Ada,Leone Giuseppe,Venditti Adriano
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE:The definition of disease-specific prognostic scores plays a fundamental role in the treatment decision-making process in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a group of myeloid disorders characterized by a heterogeneous clinical behavior. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We applied the recently published Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) to 380 patients with MDS, registered in an Italian regional database, recruiting patients from the city of Rome (Gruppo Romano Mielodisplasie). Patients were selected based on the availability of IPSS-R prognostic factors, including complete peripheral-blood and bone marrow counts, informative cytogenetics, and follow-up data. RESULTS:We validated the IPSS-R score as a significant predictor of overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) in MDS (P < .001 for both). When comparing the prognostic value of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), WHO Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS), and IPSS-R, using the Cox regression model and the likelihood ratio test, a significantly higher predictive power for LFS and OS became evident for the IPSS-R, compared with the IPSS and WPSS (P < .001 for both). The multivariate analysis, including IPSS, WPSS, age, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin concentration, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, transfusion dependency, and type of therapy, confirmed the significant prognostic value of IPSS-R subgroups for LFS and OS. Treatment with lenalidomide and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents was shown to be an independent predictor of survival in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION:Our data confirm that the IPSS-R is an excellent prognostic tool in MDS in the era of disease-modifying treatments. The early recognition of patients at high risk of progression to aggressive disease may optimize treatment timing in MDS.
A limited sampling model to estimate exposure to lenalidomide in multiple myeloma patients.
Shida Seiji,Takahashi Naoto,Miura Masatomo,Niioka Takenori,Matsumoto Morio,Hagihara Masao,Kobayashi Takahiro,Abumiya Maiko,Kameoka Yoshihiro,Fujishima Naohito,Tagawa Hiroyuki,Hirokawa Makoto,Sawada Kenichi
Therapeutic drug monitoring
BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict the area under the lenalidomide plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients using a limited sampling strategy. METHODS:Forty-six hospitalized Japanese MM patients (25 men and 21 women) participated in this study. On days 3-10 of lenalidomide therapy, whole-blood samples were collected just before oral lenalidomide administration, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours thereafter. Plasma concentrations of lenalidomide were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS:The AUC0-24 predicted from a single lenalidomide plasma concentration measured 8 hours after the administration (C8h) showed the highest correlation with the measured AUC0-24 of lenalidomide (AUC0-24 = 13.0 × C8h + 1305.0; r = 0.832). To enhance the correlation between the predicted and the actual AUC0-24 of lenalidomide, we included information regarding lenalidomide elimination by entering creatinine clearance (CCr) data in the predictive formula of lenalidomide AUC0-24. Predicting the AUC0-24 of lenalidomide using data from 2 time points, C0h and C4h, along with CCr data further strengthened the correlation with the measured AUC0-24 of lenalidomide [AUC0-24 = 37.1 × C0h + 6.4 × C4h - 32.1 × CCr + 3265.6; r = 0.842]. CONCLUSIONS:The AUC0-24 of lenalidomide can be predicted using plasma concentrations measured at only 2 time points, C0h and C4h, in combination with CCr. Our study also suggests that the limited sampling strategy approach might help to identify patients with renal function impairment and who, despite dose adjustments, accumulate the drug, leading to a high AUC.
An open-label, pharmacokinetic study of lenalidomide and dexamethasone therapy in previously untreated multiple myeloma (MM) patients with various degrees of renal impairment - validation of official dosing guidelines.
Chen Christine I,Cao Yanshuo,Trudel Suzanne,Reece Donna E,Kukreti Vishal,Tiedemann Rodger,Prica Anca,Paul Harminder,Le Lisa W,Levina Olga,Kakar Sumeet,Lau Anthea,Chen Hongzhuan,Chen Eric
Leukemia & lymphoma
Lenalidomide is a backbone agent in the treatment of multiple myeloma, but dose adjustment is required for those with renal impairment (RI). We evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of lenalidomide and dexamethasone as frontline pre-transplant induction, with doses adjusted at start of each cycle based on creatinine clearance, as per the official dosing guidelines. After 4 cycles, PK studies showed that patients with moderate RI (30 ≤ CrCl < 60 mL/min) receiving 10 mg dosing may be under-dosed and those with severe RI (CrCl <30ml/min) appeared appropriately dosed initially, but sustained significant decreases in maximum serum concentration (Cmax) after repeated dosing, due to rapid clinical improvement and enhanced drug clearance. PK drug monitoring during cycle 1 may facilitate appropriate and timely dose adjustments. Adverse events rates did not vary based on severity of RI. No patient discontinued lenalidomide for toxicity. This supports the feasibility and safety of frontline lenalidomide in transplant-eligible patients with RI.
Factors Associated with Dose Modification of Lenalidomide Plus Dexamethasone Therapy in Multiple Myeloma.
Kado Yoko,Tsujimoto Masayuki,Fuchida Shin-Ichi,Okano Akira,Hatsuse Mayumi,Murakami Satoshi,Sugii Hikofumi,Ueda Kumi,Toda Yuki,Minegaki Tetsuya,Nishiguchi Kohshi,Muraki Yuichi,Shimazaki Chihiro,Ashihara Eishi
Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
Long-term combination treatment with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone is important to achieve a curative effect in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). In this study, the plasma concentration of lenalidomide was measured at 3 h after oral administration, when the drug is in the elimination phase and can be easily measured in outpatients, to identify factors that may lead to the discontinuation of this combination therapy. Patients were assigned to continuation or discontinuation of therapy groups, and the baseline characteristics of patients, lenalidomide concentration, and concentration/dose (C/D) ratios reflecting oral clearance were compared between the two groups. The efficacy and severity of adverse events were also compared. The results showed that patients who discontinued or modified treatment had low plasma concentrations of lenalidomide and C/D ratios, indicating high oral clearance of lenalidomide. The estimated creatinine clearance rate was negatively correlated with the C/D ratio. The plasma concentrations of lenalidomide were independent from kidney function and differed significantly among patients. Taken together, the results indicate that low plasma concentrations of lenalidomide and low C/D ratios may lead to discontinuation of combination therapy in patients with MM. This suggests that early measurement of lenalidomide plasma continuation would help to prevent discontinuation of therapy or a delay in modifying the dose of lenalidomide.
The immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and pomalidomide enhance the potency of AMG 701 in multiple myeloma preclinical models.
Cho Shih-Feng,Lin Liang,Xing Lijie,Li Yuyin,Wen Kenneth,Yu Tengteng,Hsieh Phillip A,Munshi Nikhil,Wahl Joachim,Matthes Katja,Friedrich Matthias,Arvedson Tara,Anderson Kenneth C,Tai Yu-Tzu
We investigated here the novel immunomodulation and anti-multiple myeloma (MM) function of T cells engaged by the bispecific T-cell engager molecule AMG 701, and further examined the impact of AMG 701 in combination with immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs; lenalidomide and pomalidomide). AMG 701 potently induced T-cell-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (TDCC) against MM cells expressing B-cell maturation antigen, including autologous cells from patients with relapsed and refractory MM (RRMM) (half maximal effective concentration, <46.6 pM). Besides inducing T-cell proliferation and cytolytic activity, AMG 701 also promoted differentiation of patient T cells to central memory, effector memory, and stem cell-like memory (scm) phenotypes, more so in CD8 vs CD4 T subsets, resulting in increased CD8/CD4 ratios in 7-day ex vivo cocultures. IMiDs and AMG 701 synergistically induced TDCC against MM cell lines and autologous RRMM patient cells, even in the presence of immunosuppressive bone marrow stromal cells or osteoclasts. IMiDs further upregulated AMG 701-induced patient T-cell differentiation toward memory phenotypes, associated with increased CD8/CD4 ratios, increased Tscm, and decreased interleukin 10-positive T and T regulatory cells (CD25highFOXP3high), which may downregulate T effector cells. Importantly, the combination of AMG 701 with lenalidomide induced sustained inhibition of MM cell growth in SCID mice reconstituted with human T cells; tumor regrowth was eventually observed in cohorts treated with either agent alone (P < .001). These results strongly support AMG 701 clinical studies as monotherapy in patients with RRMM (NCT03287908) and the combination with IMiDs to improve patient outcomes in MM.
Early Intervention with Lenalidomide in Patients with High-risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
Thangavadivel Shanmugapriya,Zhao Qiuhong,Epperla Narendranath,Rike Lindsey,Mo Xiaokui,Badawi Mohamed,Bystry Darlene M,Phelps Mitch A,Andritsos Leslie A,Rogers Kerry A,Jones Jeffrey,Woyach Jennifer A,Byrd John C,Awan Farrukh T
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
PURPOSE:Infectious complications constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients respond poorly to vaccines, particularly pneumococcal polysaccharide and influenza vaccines. In addition, patients with genetically high-risk disease are at increased risk for early disease progression and death. Lenalidomide, an oral immunomodulatory agent with demonstrated clinical activity in CLL, can potentially restore immune system dysfunction associated with CLL while improving disease outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Phase II study randomized 49 patients with genetically high-risk CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma [SLL; defined as unmutated Ig heavy chain variable region, deletion(17p) or (11q), and/or complex abnormal karyotype], to receive lenalidomide either concurrent (arm A) or sequential to (arm B) two doses of 13-valent protein-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) administered 2 months apart, in patients not meeting International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia treatment criteria. RESULTS:Four serotypes (3, 4, 5, 6B) achieved the additional seroprotection definition of a fourfold increase in arm A, and six serotypes (3, 4, 5, 6B, 19A, 19F) in arm B. All patients achieved the defined concentration of 0.35 μg/mL for at least one serotype tested. No significant difference was observed with the addition of lenalidomide. At median time on treatment of 3.6 years, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.1-not reached]. PFS at 1, 2, and 3 years was 85% (95% CI, 72-93), 79% (95% CI, 64-88), and 72% (95% CI, 57-83), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Lenalidomide is efficacious with manageable toxicities as an early intervention strategy in patients with high-risk CLL, but did not enhance humoral response to PCV13 vaccine.
Lenalidomide-Epoetin Alfa Versus Lenalidomide Monotherapy in Myelodysplastic Syndromes Refractory to Recombinant Erythropoietin.
List Alan F,Sun Zhuoxin,Verma Amit,Bennett John M,Komrokji Rami S,McGraw Kathy,Maciejewski Jaroslaw,Altman Jessica K,Cheema Puneet S,Claxton David F,Luger Selina M,Mattison Ryan J,Wassenaar Timothy R,Artz Andrew S,Schiffer Charles A,Litzow Mark R,Tallman Martin S
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE:Impaired response to erythropoietin underlies ineffective erythropoiesis and anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We investigated whether treatment with lenalidomide (LEN), which augments erythropoietin receptor signaling in vitro, can restore and improve hemoglobin response to epoetin (EPO) alfa in patients with lower-risk, non-del(5q) MDS who have anemia that is refractory to or have low probability of benefit from treatment with recombinant erythropoietin. METHODS:In a phase III, US intergroup trial, we randomly assigned patients to receive either LEN and EPO alfa or LEN alone following stratification by serum erythropoietin concentration and prior erythropoietin treatment. RESULTS:A total of 195 evaluable patients were randomly assigned: 99 patients to the LEN-EPO alfa cohort and 96 to LEN alone. After four cycles of treatment, the primary end point of major erythroid response (MER) was significantly higher (28.3%) with the combination compared with LEN alone (11.5%) ( = .004). Among 136 patients who completed 16 weeks of study treatment, 38.9% and 15.6% achieved MER, respectively ( = .004). Additionally, minor erythroid response was achieved in 18.2% and 20.8% of patients, for an overall erythroid response rate of 46.5% versus 32.3%. Among LEN nonresponders, 38 crossed over to the addition of EPO alfa with 10 patients (26.3%) achieving a MER. Responses to the combined treatment were highly durable with a median MER duration of 23.8 months compared with 13 months with LEN alone. CONCLUSION:LEN restores sensitivity to recombinant erythropoietin in growth factor-insensitive, lower-risk, non-del(5q) MDS, to yield a significantly higher rate and duration of MER compared with LEN alone (funded by the National Cancer Institute; E2905 ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02048813).
Anti-B-cell Maturation Antigen Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cell Function against Multiple Myeloma Is Enhanced in the Presence of Lenalidomide.
Works Melissa,Soni Neha,Hauskins Collin,Sierra Catherine,Baturevych Alex,Jones Jon C,Curtis Wendy,Carlson Patrick,Johnstone Timothy G,Kugler David,Hause Ronald J,Jiang Yue,Wimberly Lindsey,Clouser Christopher R,Jessup Heidi K,Sather Blythe,Salmon Ruth A,Ports Michael O
Molecular cancer therapeutics
Anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown promising clinical responses in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory drug, potentiates T cell functionality, drives antimyeloma activity, and alters the suppressive microenvironment; these properties may effectively combine with anti-BCMA CAR T cells to enhance function. Using an anti-BCMA CAR T, we demonstrated that lenalidomide enhances CAR T cell function in a concentration-dependent manner. Lenalidomide increased CAR T effector cytokine production, particularly under low CAR stimulation or in the presence of inhibitory ligand programmed cell death 1 ligand 1. Notably, lenalidomide also enhanced CAR T cytokine production, cytolytic activity, and activation profile relative to untreated CAR T cells in chronic stimulation assays. This unique potentiation of both short-term CAR T activity and long-term functionality during chronic stimulation prompted investigation of the molecular profile of lenalidomide-treated CAR T cells. Signatures from RNA sequencing and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing indicated that pathways associated with T-helper 1 response, cytokine production, T cell activation, cell-cycle control, and cytoskeletal remodeling were altered with lenalidomide. Finally, study of lenalidomide and anti-BCMA CAR T cells in a murine, disseminated, multiple myeloma model indicated that lenalidomide increased CAR T cell counts in blood and significantly prolonged animal survival. In summary, preclinical studies demonstrated that lenalidomide potentiated CAR T activity in low-antigen or suppressive environments and delayed onset of functional exhaustion. These results support further investigation of lenalidomide and anti-BCMA CAR T cells in the clinic.
Lenalidomide in the myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 5q deletion.
List Alan,Dewald Gordon,Bennett John,Giagounidis Aristotle,Raza Azra,Feldman Eric,Powell Bayard,Greenberg Peter,Thomas Deborah,Stone Richard,Reeder Craig,Wride Kenton,Patin John,Schmidt Michele,Zeldis Jerome,Knight Robert,
The New England journal of medicine
BACKGROUND:Severe, often refractory anemia is characteristic of the myelodysplastic syndrome associated with chromosome 5q31 deletion. We investigated whether lenalidomide (CC5013) could reduce the transfusion requirement and suppress the abnormal 5q31- clone in patients with this disorder. METHODS:One hundred forty-eight patients received 10 mg of lenalidomide for 21 days every 4 weeks or daily. Hematologic, bone marrow, and cytogenetic changes were assessed after 24 weeks of treatment by an intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS:Among the 148 patients, 112 had a reduced need for transfusions (76%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 68 to 82) and 99 patients (67%; 95% CI, 59 to 74) no longer required transfusions, regardless of the karyotype complexity. The response to lenalidomide was rapid (median time to response, 4.6 weeks; range, 1 to 49) and sustained; the median duration of transfusion independence had not been reached after a median of 104 weeks of follow-up. The maximum hemoglobin concentration reached a median of 13.4 g per deciliter (range, 9.2 to 18.6), with a corresponding median rise of 5.4 g per deciliter (range, 1.1 to 11.4), as compared with the baseline nadir value before transfusion. Among 85 patients who could be evaluated, 62 had cytogenetic improvement, and 38 of the 62 had a complete cytogenetic remission. There was complete resolution of cytologic abnormalities in 38 of 106 patients whose serial bone marrow samples could be evaluated. Moderate-to-severe neutropenia (in 55% of patients) and thrombocytopenia (in 44%) were the most common reasons for interrupting treatment or adjusting the dose of lenalidomide. CONCLUSIONS:Lenalidomide can reduce transfusion requirements and reverse cytologic and cytogenetic abnormalities in patients who have the myelodysplastic syndrome with the 5q31 deletion. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00065156 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).
Phase I trial of lenalidomide in pediatric patients with recurrent, refractory, or progressive primary CNS tumors: Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study PBTC-018.
Warren Katherine E,Goldman Stewart,Pollack Ian F,Fangusaro Jason,Schaiquevich Paula,Stewart Clinton F,Wallace Dana,Blaney Susan M,Packer Roger,Macdonald Tobey,Jakacki Regina,Boyett James M,Kun Larry E
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE:A phase I trial of lenalidomide was performed in children with recurrent, refractory, or progressive primary CNS tumors to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and to describe the toxicity profile and pharmacokinetics. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Lenalidomide was administered by mouth daily for 21 days, repeated every 28 days. The starting dose was 15 mg/m(2)/d orally, and the dose was escalated according to a modified continuous reassessment method. Correlative studies included pharmacokinetics obtained from consenting patients on course 1, day 1, and at steady-state (between days 7 and 21). RESULTS:Fifty-one patients (median age, 10 years; range, 2 to 21 years) were enrolled. Forty-four patients were evaluable for dose finding, and 49 patients were evaluable for toxicity. The primary toxicity was myelosuppression, but the MTD was not defined because doses up to 116 mg/m(2)/d were well-tolerated during the dose-finding period. Two objective responses were observed (one in thalamic juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma and one in optic pathway glioma) at dose levels of 88 and 116 mg/m(2)/d. Twenty-three patients, representing all dose levels, received ≥ six cycles of therapy. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the lenalidomide area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 hours and maximum plasma concentration increased with dosage over the range studied. CONCLUSION:Lenalidomide was tolerable in children with CNS tumors at doses of 116 mg/m(2)/d during the initial dose-finding period. The primary toxicity is myelosuppression. Antitumor activity, defined by both objective responses and long-term stable disease, was observed, primarily in patients with low-grade gliomas.
Dose escalation of lenalidomide in relapsed or refractory acute leukemias.
Blum William,Klisovic Rebecca B,Becker Heiko,Yang Xiaoxia,Rozewski Darlene M,Phelps Mitch A,Garzon Ramiro,Walker Alison,Chandler Jason C,Whitman Susan P,Curfman John,Liu Shujun,Schaaf Larry,Mickle Jon,Kefauver Cheryl,Devine Steven M,Grever Michael R,Marcucci Guido,Byrd John C
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE:Lenalidomide is effective in myeloma and low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with deletion 5q. We report results of a phase I dose-escalation trial of lenalidomide in relapsed or refractory acute leukemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Thirty-one adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and four adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were enrolled. Lenalidomide was given orally at escalating doses of 25 to 75 mg daily on days 1 through 21 of 28-day cycles to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), as well as to provide pharmacokinetic and preliminary efficacy data. RESULTS:Patients had a median age of 63 years (range, 22 to 79 years) and a median of two prior therapies (range, one to four therapies). The DLT was fatigue; 50 mg/d was the MTD. Infectious complications were frequent. Plasma lenalidomide concentration increased proportionally with dose. In AML, five (16%) of 31 patients achieved complete remission (CR); three of three patients with cytogenetic abnormalities achieved cytogenetic CR (none with deletion 5q). Response duration ranged from 5.6 to 14 months. All responses occurred in AML with low presenting WBC count. No patient with ALL responded. Two of four patients who received lenalidomide as initial therapy for AML relapse after allogeneic transplantation achieved durable CR after development of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease, without donor leukocyte infusion. CONCLUSION:Lenalidomide was safely escalated to 50 mg daily for 21 days, every 4 weeks, and was active with relatively low toxicity in patients with relapsed/refractory AML. Remissions achieved after transplantation suggest a possible immunomodulatory effect of lenalidomide, and results provide enthusiasm for further studies in AML, either alone or in combination with conventional agents or other immunotherapies.
Combined treatment with lenalidomide and epoetin alfa in lower-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.
Komrokji Rami S,Lancet Jeffrey E,Swern Arlene S,Chen Nianhang,Paleveda Jennifer,Lush Richard,Saba Hussain I,List Alan F
The erythropoietic effects of lenalidomide are cytokine dependent, suggesting that the erythroid hematologic improvement (HI-E) rate may be augmented by combined treatment (CT) with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhu-EPO) in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the present study, we explored the benefits of CT and the relationship between lenalidomide pharmacokinetics and hematologic toxicity in transfusion-dependent patients with low- to intermediate-1-risk MDS who failed prior rhu-EPO. In stage I, patients received 10 or 15 mg/d of lenalidomide monotherapy. At week 16, erythroid nonresponders (NRs) were eligible for CT with rhu-EPO 40 000 U/wk. Among 39 patients, HI-E response rate to monotherapy was 86% (6 of 7) in del(5q) and 25% (8 of 32) in non-del(5q) patients (10 mg, 17.7%; 15 mg, 33.3%). Twenty-three patients proceeded to CT, with 6 (26.0%) achieving HI-E. In 19 non-del(5q) patients, 4 (21.1%) showed HI-E. Mean baseline serum EPO in non-del(5q) patients was lower in monotherapy and CT responders than in NR (not statistically significant). Thrombocytopenia was significantly correlated with lenalidomide area under the plasma concentration-time curve (P = .0015), but severity of myelosuppression did not. The benefits of lenalidomide plus rhu-EPO are currently under investigation in a phase 3 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)-sponsored intergroup study. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00910858.
Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of [(14)C]-lenalidomide following oral administration in healthy male subjects.
Chen Nianhang,Wen Lian,Lau Henry,Surapaneni Sekhar,Kumar Gondi
Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
PURPOSE:Assessment of the absorption, metabolism and excretion of [(14)C]-lenalidomide in healthy male subjects following a single oral dose. METHODS:Six healthy male subjects were administered a single 25 mg oral suspension dose of [(14)C]-lenalidomide. Blood (plasma), semen and excreta were collected. Mass balance assessments were done by radioactivity measurements. Metabolite profiling and quantitation were accomplished using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and radiochemical detection. RESULTS:[(14)C]-Lenalidomide was rapidly absorbed (T (max) 0.77-1.0 h), and the levels declined with a terminal half-life of approximately 3 h, with similar profiles for total blood and plasma radioactivity as well as plasma lenalidomide. The whole blood to plasma radioactivity exposure levels were comparable, suggesting equal distribution between plasma and blood cells. On average, 94% of the administered radioactivity was recovered within 10 days, with >88% recovered within 24 h. Urinary excretion was the primary route of elimination (90% of radioactive dose), with minor amounts excreted in feces (4%). Semen contained a small amount of the radioactive dose (0.0062%). Lenalidomide was the primary radioactive component in plasma (92% of the [(14)C]-area under the concentration-time curve) and urine (>90% of the radioactivity in urine). The remaining radioactivity was composed of primarily two metabolites: 5-hydroxy-lenalidomide and N-acetyl-lenalidomide, each accounting for less than 5% of the total radioactivity as well as lenalidomide levels in plasma and excreta. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, following oral administration, lenalidomide is highly absorbed and bioavailable, metabolized minimally, and eliminated predominantly via urinary excretion in the unchanged form in humans.
Single-dose pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide in healthy volunteers: dose proportionality, food effect, and racial sensitivity.
Chen N,Kasserra C,Reyes J,Liu L,Lau H
Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
PURPOSE:Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug with efficacy in various hematological malignancies. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide, including dose proportionality, food effect, and racial sensitivity. METHODS:Three studies were conducted including a total of 58 healthy subjects: a randomized, single-blind, alternating group, single-ascending dose study; a randomized, two-way crossover food effect study; and a randomized, double-blind, two-group, within-subject, single-ascending dose study. RESULTS:Oral absorption of lenalidomide was rapid and the maximum plasma concentration (C (max)) was observed approximately 1 h post-dose. Co-administration with a high-fat meal reduced the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and C (max) by approximately 20 and 50 %, respectively, and delayed time to C (max) (t (max)) by 1.63 h. However, phase III trials were dosed without regard to food; therefore, clinical relevance of the food effect was minimal. The terminal elimination half-life (t (½)) was 3-4 h at doses up to 50 mg and was not affected by food. The AUC and C (max) were proportional to lenalidomide single doses (5-400 mg), and total and renal clearance were dose-independent. The R- to S-lenalidomide ratio in plasma was stable over time, approximately 45-55 % of total drug. There were no differences in pharmacokinetic parameters, dose-exposure relationship, or enantiomeric ratio, between Japanese and Caucasian subjects. CONCLUSION:Lenalidomide displayed linear pharmacokinetics from doses 5-400 mg in healthy subjects. Although food reduced bioavailability, this was not considered clinically relevant. Lenalidomide was generally well tolerated in both ethnic groups.
Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Elotuzumab Combined With Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone in Patients With Multiple Myeloma and Various Levels of Renal Impairment: Results of a Phase Ib Study.
Berdeja Jesus,Jagannath Sundar,Zonder Jeffrey,Badros Ashraf,Kaufman Jonathan L,Manges Robert,Gupta Manish,Tendolkar Amol,Lynch Mark,Bleickardt Eric,Paliwal Prashni,Vij Ravi
Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
INTRODUCTION:The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and safety of elotuzumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody against signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-F7, combined with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and renal impairment. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with MM and normal renal function (NRF) (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥ 90 mL/min), severe renal impairment (SRI) (CrCl < 30 mL/min, not requiring dialysis), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (requiring dialysis) were enrolled in this open-label, phase Ib study. Elotuzumab (10 mg/kg), lenalidomide (5-25 mg), and dexamethasone (40 mg) were administered in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity developed. The primary endpoint was single-dose elotuzumab pharmacokinetics. RESULTS:A total of 26 patients (median age, 63 years) were treated (NRF, n = 8; SRI, n = 9; ESRD, n = 9). The median baseline CrCl was 105 mL/min (range, 84-146 mL/min) for those with NRF and 26 mL/min (range, 15-33 mL/min) for those with SRI. Twenty-three patients (89%) had received previous therapy (median, 2 regimens; range, 1-7). Treatment was discontinued in 6 patients with NRF, 4 with SRI, and 5 with ESRD, primarily because of disease progression. The mean elotuzumab serum concentrations were comparable across groups (n = 23). No statistically significant differences were observed in the maximum observed serum concentration, area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last quantifiable serum concentration, or area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity when the SRI and ESRD groups were compared with the NRF group (P > .05). All patients had ≥ 1 adverse event (AE). Of the 8 patients with NRF, 9 with SRI, and 9 with ESRD, 7, 8, and 7 experienced grade 3 to 4 AEs. The overall response rates were 75% in the NRF, 67% in the SRI, and 56% in the ESRD groups. CONCLUSION:The results of the present study support the use of elotuzumab for the treatment of patients with MM and renal dysfunction without dose adjustment.
Evaluation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions when lenalidomide is co-administered with warfarin in a randomized clinical trial setting.
Weiss Daniel,Knight Robert,Zhou Simon,Palmisano Maria,Chen Nianhang
Clinical drug investigation
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Lenalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory drug used to treat multiple myeloma and some other hematological malignancies. Warfarin is often used concomitantly as prophylaxis against potential venous thromboembolism associated with lenalidomide treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions between lenalidomide and warfarin in healthy volunteers. METHODS:This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, two-period crossover study. Eighteen healthy male and female subjects were treated with 10 mg/day lenalidomide or placebo for 9 days. A single oral 25 mg dose of warfarin was administered on Day 4 of each treatment period. Blood was sampled to determine international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (C max) warfarin and lenalidomide. RESULTS:The 90 % confidence intervals (CI) for the ratio of AUC or Cmax geometric means between co-administration with lenalidomide and placebo were within the 80-125 % bioequivalence bounds for R-warfarin and S-warfarin. The 90 % CI for the ratio of area under the INR curve from time zero until 144 hours after dosing (AUCINR, 0-144) or the peak INR geometric means between co-administration with lenalidomide versus placebo was also within the 85-125 % bounds. Additionally, the AUC and C max values of lenalidomide were not altered by co-administration with warfarin. CONCLUSION:Co-administration of lenalidomide with warfarin did not alter the plasma exposure or anticoagulant effect to warfarin or the plasma exposure to lenalidomide, indicating that no dose adjustment of either drug is needed when these two drugs are co-administered.
Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma and renal impairment.
Bridoux Frank,Chen Nianhang,Moreau Stephane,Arnulf Bertrand,Moumas Eric,Abraham Julie,Desport Estelle,Jaccard Arnaud,Fermand Jean Paul
Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
PURPOSE:Renal impairment (RI) is a common comorbidity in multiple myeloma (MM). Current dose adjustments recommended for renally excreted lenalidomide are based on data from noncancer patients. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, efficacy, and exposure-response for lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory MM and stable RI using the recommended dose adjustments. METHODS:This phase 2 multicenter, open-label study stratified patients into 5 groups based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) calculated by Cockcroft-Gault equation: normal renal function (CrCl > 80 mL/min), mild RI (50 ≤ CrCl ≤ 80 mL/min), moderate RI (30 ≤ CrCl < 50 mL/min), severe RI (CrCl < 30 mL/min), and end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis. Dosing was based on the lenalidomide label. RESULTS:Among 38 patients, the median age was 68 (range 62-74) years, and poorer renal function was associated with older age, more advanced disease, and more lines of prior therapy. Lenalidomide clearance declined with decreased CrCl. Mean lenalidomide area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was within ±25 % of the target AUC in each group. Overall response was 76 %, and safety profiles were similar across groups, with no exposure-dependent trend in efficacy or toxicity. Estimated glomerular filtration rates calculated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation highly correlated with lenalidomide clearance and, in 87 % of patients, would lead to assigning the same starting dose of lenalidomide as CrCl. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with stable renal function, the recommended dose adjustments achieved proper plasma exposure and similar safety and efficacy across renal groups.
Bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma without intent for immediate autologous stem-cell transplant (SWOG S0777): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.
Durie Brian G M,Hoering Antje,Abidi Muneer H,Rajkumar S Vincent,Epstein Joshua,Kahanic Stephen P,Thakuri Mohan,Reu Frederic,Reynolds Christopher M,Sexton Rachael,Orlowski Robert Z,Barlogie Bart,Dispenzieri Angela
Lancet (London, England)
BACKGROUND:Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone is a reference treatment for patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. The combination of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone has shown significant efficacy in the setting of newly diagnosed myeloma. We aimed to study whether the addition of bortezomib to lenalidomide and dexamethasone would improve progression-free survival and provide better response rates in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma who were not planned for immediate autologous stem-cell transplant. METHODS:In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma aged 18 years and older from participating Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and National Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) institutions (both inpatient and outpatient settings). Key inclusion criteria were presence of CRAB (C=calcium elevation; R=renal impairment; A=anaemia; B=bone involvement) criteria with measurable disease (measured by assessment of free light chains), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-3, haemoglobin concentration 9 g/dL or higher, absolute neutrophil count 1 × 10 cells per mm or higher, and a platelet count of 80 000/mm or higher. We randomly assigned (1:1) patients to receive either an initial treatment of bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (VRd group) or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (Rd group). Randomisation was stratified based on International Staging System stage (I, II, or III) and intent to transplant (yes vs no). The VRd regimen was given as eight 21-day cycles. Bortezomib was given at 1·3 mg/m intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11, combined with oral lenalidomide 25 mg daily on days 1-14 plus oral dexamethasone 20 mg daily on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12. The Rd regimen was given as six 28-day cycles. The standard Rd regimen consisted of 25 mg oral lenalidomide once a day for days 1-21 plus 40 mg oral dexamethasone once a day on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival using a prespecified one-sided stratified log rank test at a significance level of 0·02. Analyses were intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00644228. FINDINGS:Between April, 2008, and February, 2012, we randomly assigned 525 patients at 139 participating institutions (264 to VRd and 261 to Rd). In the randomly assigned patients, 21 patients in the VRd group and 31 in the Rd group were deemed ineligible based mainly on missing, insufficient, or early or late baseline laboratory data. Median progression-free survival was significantly improved in the VRd group (43 months vs 30 months in the Rd group; stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0·712, 96% CI 0·56-0·906; one-sided p value 0·0018). The median overall survival was also significantly improved in the VRd group (75 months vs 64 months in the Rd group, HR 0·709, 95% CI 0·524-0·959; two-sided p value 0·025). The rates of overall response (partial response or better) were 82% (176/216) in the VRd group and 72% (153/214) in the Rd group, and 16% (34/216) and 8% (18/214) of patients who were assessable for response in these respective groups had a complete response or better. Adverse events of grade 3 or higher were reported in 198 (82%) of 241 patients in the VRd group and 169 (75%) of 226 patients in the Rd group; 55 (23%) and 22 (10%) patients discontinued induction treatment because of adverse events, respectively. There were no treatment-related deaths in the Rd group, and two in the VRd group. INTERPRETATION:In patients with newly diagnosed myeloma, the addition of bortezomib to lenalidomide and dexamethasone resulted in significantly improved progression-free and overall survival and had an acceptable risk-benefit profile. FUNDING:NIH, NCI, NCTN, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Takeda Oncology Company, and Celgene Corporation.
Updated analysis of CALGB (Alliance) 100104 assessing lenalidomide versus placebo maintenance after single autologous stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
Holstein Sarah A,Jung Sin-Ho,Richardson Paul G,Hofmeister Craig C,Hurd David D,Hassoun Hani,Giralt Sergio,Stadtmauer Edward A,Weisdorf Daniel J,Vij Ravi,Moreb Jan S,Callander Natalie S,van Besien Koen,Gentile Teresa G,Isola Luis,Maziarz Richard T,Bashey Asad,Landau Heather,Martin Thomas,Qazilbash Muzaffar H,Rodriguez Cesar,McClune Brian,Schlossman Robert L,Smith Scott E,Hars Vera,Owzar Kouros,Jiang Chen,Boyd Molly,Schultz Chelsea,Wilson Marcia,Hari Parameswaran,Pasquini Marcelo C,Horowitz Mary M,Shea Thomas C,Devine Steven M,Linker Charles,Anderson Kenneth C,McCarthy Philip L
The Lancet. Haematology
BACKGROUND:In the CALGB (Alliance) 100104 study, lenalidomide versus placebo after autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) was investigated for patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. That study showed improved time to progression and overall survival and an increase in second primary malignancies for lenalidomide at a median follow-up of 34 months. Here we report an updated intention-to-treat analysis of CALGB (Alliance) 100104 at a median follow-up of 91 months. METHODS:Patients were eligible for this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial if they had symptomatic disease requiring treatment; had received, at most, two induction regimens; and had achieved stable disease or better in the first 100 days after ASCT. We randomly assigned patients to either lenalidomide or placebo groups using permuted block randomisation, with a fixed block size of six. Randomisation was stratified by three factors: normal or elevated β2 microglobulin concentration at registration (≤2·5 mg/L vs >2·5 mg/L), previous use or non-use of thalidomide during induction therapy, and previous use or non-use of lenalidomide during induction therapy. The starting dose was two capsules (10 mg) per day, escalated to three capsules (15 mg) per day after 3 months. The primary endpoint was time to progression (time of progressive disease or death from any cause), with intention-to-treat analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00114101. New patients are no longer being recruited, but some patients remain on treatment and in follow-up. FINDINGS:Between April 14, 2005, and July 2, 2009, 460 patients were randomly assigned to receive either lenalidomide (n=231) or placebo (n=229). After three interim analyses, the study was unblinded at a median follow-up of 18 months, at which point 86 (67%) of 128 patients without progressive disease in the placebo group chose to cross over to the lenalidomide group. The median follow-up for the updated survival analysis, as of Oct 19, 2016, was 91 months (IQR 83·6-103·1). The median time to progression was 57·3 months (95% CI 44·2-73·3) for the lenalidomide group and 28·9 months (23·0-36·3) for the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·57, 95% CI 0·46-0·71; p<0·0001). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (116 [50%] patients in the lenalidomide group and 41 [18%] patients in the placebo group) and thrombocytopenia (34 [15%] patients in the lenalidomide group and 12 [5%] patients in the placebo group). 18 (8%) haematological and 14 (6%) solid tumour second primary malignancies were diagnosed after randomisation and before disease progression in the lenalidomide group, compared with three (1%) haematological and nine (4%) solid tumour second primary malignancies in the placebo group. Three haematological and five solid tumour second primary malignancies in the placebo group were in the crossover subgroup. INTERPRETATION:Despite an increase in haematological adverse events and second primary malignancies, lenalidomide maintenance therapy after ASCT significantly improved time to progression and could be considered a standard of care. FUNDING:The National Cancer Institute.
Pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma previously treated with lenalidomide (OPTIMISMM): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.
Richardson Paul G,Oriol Albert,Beksac Meral,Liberati Anna Marina,Galli Monica,Schjesvold Fredrik,Lindsay Jindriska,Weisel Katja,White Darrell,Facon Thierry,San Miguel Jesus,Sunami Kazutaka,O'Gorman Peter,Sonneveld Pieter,Robak Pawel,Semochkin Sergey,Schey Steve,Yu Xin,Doerr Thomas,Bensmaine Amine,Biyukov Tsvetan,Peluso Teresa,Zaki Mohamed,Anderson Kenneth,Dimopoulos Meletios,
The Lancet. Oncology
BACKGROUND:As lenalidomide becomes increasingly established for upfront treatment of multiple myeloma, patients refractory to this drug represent a population with an unmet need. The combination of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone has shown promising results in phase 1/2 trials of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of this triplet regimen in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who previously received lenalidomide. METHODS:We did a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial at 133 hospitals and research centres in 21 countries. We enrolled patients (aged ≥18 years) with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma and measurable disease, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, who received one to three previous regimens, including a lenalidomide-containing regimen for at least two consecutive cycles. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to bortezomib and dexamethasone with or without pomalidomide using a permutated blocked design in blocks of four, stratified according to age, number of previous regimens, and concentration of β microglobulin at screening. Bortezomib (1·3 mg/m) was administered intravenously until protocol amendment 1 then either intravenously or subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 for the first eight cycles and subsequently on days 1 and 8. Dexamethasone (20 mg [10 mg if age >75 years]) was administered orally on the same days as bortezomib and the day after. Patients allocated pomalidomide received 4 mg orally on days 1-14. Treatment cycles were every 21 days. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population, as assessed by an independent review committee. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study medication. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01734928; patients are no longer being enrolled. FINDINGS:Between Jan 7, 2013, and May 15, 2017, 559 patients were enrolled. 281 patients were assigned pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone and 278 were allocated bortezomib and dexamethasone. Median follow-up was 15·9 months (IQR 9·9-21·7). Pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone significantly improved progression-free survival compared with bortezomib and dexamethasone (median 11·20 months [95% CI 9·66-13·73] vs 7·10 months [5·88-8·48]; hazard ratio 0·61, 95% CI 0·49-0·77; p<0·0001). 278 patients received at least one dose of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone and 270 patients received at least one dose of bortezomib and dexamethasone, and these patients were included in safety assessments. The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (116 [42%] of 278 patients vs 23 [9%] of 270 patients; nine [3%] vs no patients had febrile neutropenia), infections (86 [31%] vs 48 [18%]), and thrombocytopenia (76 [27%] vs 79 [29%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 159 (57%) of 278 patients versus 114 (42%) of 270 patients. Eight deaths were related to treatment; six (2%) were recorded in patients who received pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (pneumonia [n=2], unknown cause [n=2], cardiac arrest [n=1], cardiorespiratory arrest [n=1]) and two (1%) were reported in patients who received bortezomib and dexamethasone (pneumonia [n=1], hepatic encephalopathy [n=1]). INTERPRETATION:Patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who previously received lenalidomide had significantly improved progression-free survival when treated with pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone compared with bortezomib and dexamethasone. Adverse events accorded with the individual profiles of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone. This study supports use of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone as a treatment option in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who previously received lenalidomide. FUNDING:Celgene.
Phase II Clinical Trial of Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone Therapy in Japanese Elderly Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma to Determine Optimal Plasma Concentration of Lenalidomide.
Kobayashi Takahiro,Miura Masatomo,Niioka Takenori,Abumiya Maiko,Ito Fumiko,Kobayashi Isuzu,Ikeda Sho,Yoshioka Tomoko,Kameoka Yoshihiro,Takahashi Naoto
Therapeutic drug monitoring
BACKGROUND:The authors conducted a phase II clinical trial of lenalidomide and dexamethasone combination therapy in Japanese elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma to evaluate its safety and efficacy and to determine whether safety and efficacy correlate with the plasma concentration of lenalidomide. METHODS:Forty patients received oral lenalidomide on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle in addition to weekly doses of dexamethasone. Plasma concentrations of lenalidomide were measured, and the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 hours (AUC0-24) of lenalidomide was predicted using a formula the authors previously reported in this journal. RESULTS:The median age was 75.5 years. Twenty-one patients had renal impairment severe enough to require dose adjustment of lenalidomide. The median initial doses of lenalidomide and dexamethasone were 12.5 and 20 mg, respectively. The overall response rate was 68.6%, and the 2-year overall survival rate was 88.5%. There was no correlation between the response rate and plasma concentration of lenalidomide. Grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs) were observed in 57.5% of patients. The AUC0-24 of lenalidomide was significantly higher in patients with grade 3-4 AEs than in those who did not suffer from AEs (median = 4852.0 versus 2464.9 ng·h·mL, P = 0.027). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the AUC0-24 of lenalidomide was a good predictor of grade 3-4 AEs, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.758 (95% confidence interval, 0.572-0.943, P = 0.027). The cutoff value for best prediction of grade 3-4 AEs was 2613.5 ng·h·mL (sensitivity 86.7%, specificity 54.5%). Multivariate logistic analysis confirmed the significance of this cutoff value. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that overexposure to lenalidomide could contribute to toxicity. Furthermore, the predicted cutoff value of AUC0-24 can be clinically used to prevent severe AEs.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lenalidomide.
Chen Nianhang,Zhou Simon,Palmisano Maria
Lenalidomide is a lead therapeutic in multiple myeloma and deletion 5q myelodysplastic syndromes and shows promising activities in other hematologic malignancies. This article presents a comprehensive review of the clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lenalidomide. Oral lenalidomide is rapidly and highly absorbed (>90 % of dose) under fasting conditions. Food affects oral absorption, reducing area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) by 20 % and maximum concentration (C ) by 50 %. The increase in AUC and C is dose proportional, and interindividual variability in plasma exposure is low to moderate. Lenalidomide distributes into semen but is undetectable 3 days after stopping treatment. Biotransformation of lenalidomide in humans includes chiral inversion, trivial hydroxylation, and slow non-enzymatic hydrolysis. Approximately 82 % of an oral dose is excreted as lenalidomide in urine within 24 h. Lenalidomide has a short half-life (3-4 h) and does not accumulate in plasma upon repeated dosing. Its pharmacokinetics are consistent across patient populations, regardless of the type of hematologic malignancy. Renal function is the only important factor affecting lenalidomide plasma exposure. Lenalidomide has no QT prolongation risk at approved doses, and higher plasma exposure to lenalidomide is associated with increased risk of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Despite being a weak substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro, lenalidomide does not have clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with P-gp substrates/inhibitors in controlled studies. The AUC-matched dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment at the start of therapy. No dose adjustment for lenalidomide is needed on the basis of age, ethnicity, mild hepatic impairment, or drug-drug interactions.
Treatment with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma and renal impairment.
Dimopoulos Meletios A,Terpos Evangelos,Goldschmidt Hartmut,Alegre Adrian,Mark Tomer,Niesvizky Ruben
Cancer treatment reviews
Renal impairment (RI) is a common complication affecting patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Timely identification of MM-related RI and early treatment with novel antimyeloma agents can reverse renal damage in a high proportion of patients and improve outcomes. The IMiDs® immunomodulatory compound lenalidomide (Len) in combination with dexamethasone (Dex) is an effective and well-tolerated regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory (RR) MM. A retrospective analysis of Phase III data has shown that Len/Dex remains effective and well-tolerated in patients with moderate or severe RI, albeit with an increase in myelosuppression. This analysis demonstrated that in a high proportion of patients Len/Dex treatment can reverse MM-related RI and restore normal function. Lenalidomide has a predominantly renal route of excretion and in patients with RI the plasma concentration and half-life of the drug are significantly increased. As a consequence, lower starting doses are required in patients with RI to avoid over-exposure and an increased risk of adverse events, while maintaining good therapeutic index. A prospective cohort study in 50 patients with RRMM has reported that when Len/Dex dosing was adjusted according to renal function, response rates and survival outcomes were similar in patients with and without RI, and there was no increase in adverse events in patients with RI. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the efficacy and tolerability of Len/Dex regimens in MM patients with RI, and to evaluate the impact of reversing renal damage in terms of patient survival.