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    Good neurologic recovery after cardiac arrest using hypothermia through continuous renal replacement therapy. Ma Yu-jie,Ning Bo,Cao Wei-hong,Liu Tao,Liu Lei The American journal of emergency medicine Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is becoming a standard of care to mitigate neurologic injury in cardiac arrest survivors. Several cooling methods are available for use in TH. For maintaining a target temperature, intravascular cooling is superior to, more efficacious than, and safer than surface cooling methods. The use of an intravenous cooling catheter is independently associated with a higher odds ratio for survival. However, many techniques use commercially developed equipment that is expensive to purchase and use. The application and popularization of the intravascular cooling method have been difficult. In patients with pulmonary edema or cardiac insufficiency, liquid is restricted, so intravascular cooling systems cannot be used. Studies have shown abnormalities mimicking the immunologic and coagulation disorders observed in severe sepsis. Continuous renal replacement therapy has been widely used in the intensive care unit to improve clinical parameters and survival in patients with multiple-organ dysfunction of septic origin. Continuous renal replacement therapy can also be used as another type of core cooling method. We used continuous renal replacement therapy as a cooling method to induce TH in a patient who had a cardiac arrest, and the patient regained consciousness 52 hours later. 10.1016/j.ajem.2013.07.012
    Early goal-directed hemodynamic optimization combined with therapeutic hypothermia in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Gaieski David F,Band Roger A,Abella Benjamin S,Neumar Robert W,Fuchs Barry D,Kolansky Daniel M,Merchant Raina M,Carr Brendan G,Becker Lance B,Maguire Cheryl,Klair Amandeep,Hylton Julie,Goyal Munish Resuscitation BACKGROUND:Comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have high in-hospital mortality due to a complex pathophysiology that includes cardiovascular dysfunction, inflammation, coagulopathy, brain injury and persistence of the precipitating pathology. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the only intervention that has been shown to improve outcomes in this patient population. Due to the similarities between the post-cardiac arrest state and severe sepsis, it has been postulated that early goal-directed hemodyamic optimization (EGDHO) combined with TH would improve outcome of comatose cardiac arrest survivors. OBJECTIVE:We examined the feasibility of establishing an integrated post-cardiac arrest resuscitation (PCAR) algorithm combining TH and EGDHO within 6h of emergency department (ED) presentation. METHODS:In May, 2005 we began prospectively identifying comatose (Glasgow Motor Score<6) survivors of OHCA treated with our PCAR protocol. The PCAR patients were compared to matched historic controls from a cardiac arrest database maintained at our institution. RESULTS:Between May, 2005 and January, 2008, 18/20 (90%) eligible patients were enrolled in the PCAR protocol. They were compared to historic controls from 2001 to 2005, during which time 18 patients met inclusion criteria for the PCAR protocol. Mean time from initiation of TH to target temperature (33 degrees C) was 2.8h (range 0.8-23.2; SD=h); 78% (14/18) had interventions based upon EGDHO parameters; 72% (13/18) of patients achieved their EGDHO goals within 6h of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Mortality for historic controls who qualified for the PCAR protocol was 78% (14/18); mortality for those treated with the PCAR protocol was 50% (9/18) (p=0.15). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with ROSC after OHCA, EGDHO and TH can be implemented simultaneously. 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2008.12.015
    Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. Shankaran Seetha Current treatment options in neurology OPINION STATEMENT:Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in full term infants has been associated with a high risk for morbidity and mortality. The patho-physiology of brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia, noted in preclinical models, is a cascade of events resulting from excitotoxic and oxidative injury culminating in cell death. Hypothermia has been noted to be protective by inhibiting various events in the cascade of injury. Major randomized clinical trials in neonatal HIE have demonstrated reduction in death and disability and continued safety and efficacy of neuroprotection in childhood. There is now clinical and imaging evidence for hypothermia as neuroprotection. Hypothermia should be offered to term infants with either severe acidosis at birth or resuscitation needing continued ventilation and evidence of either moderate or severe encephalopathy within 6 hours of birth. The target temperature should be 33° to 34 °C and duration of cooling should be 72 hours, as per the published trials. Rewarming should be slow, at 0.5 °C per hour. Infants should have serial neurological examinations during and at the end of cooling and at discharge. Multiorgan function should be supported and hypocarbia should be avoided during ventilator therapy. If available, the amplitude integrated EEG should be obtained prior to cooling and following rewarming. All infants should have magnetic resonance brain imaging studies within 1 to 2 weeks of age. Information from the neurological examination, aEEG and MRI studies will be helpful in discussing prognosis with parents. All infants should be followed for a minimum of 18 months to evaluate growth parameters and neurodevelopment al outcome. 10.1007/s11940-012-0200-y
    Feasibility of the titration method of mild hypothermia in severely head-injured patients with intracranial hypertension. Tateishi A,Soejima Y,Taira Y,Nakashima K,Fujisawa H,Tsuchida E,Maekawa T,Ito H Neurosurgery OBJECTIVE:Clinical strategy to maximize effectiveness and to minimize adverse influences remains to be determined for mild hypothermia therapy for traumatic brain injury. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical feasibility of the titration method of mild hypothermia in severely head-injured patients in whom a reduction in intracranial pressure was regarded as the target effect. METHODS:Nine consecutive patients with severe head injury were studied. Patient age ranged between 18 and 66 years, Glasgow Coma Scale scores were equal to or less than 8, and intracranial pressures were equal to or greater than 20 mm Hg despite removal of intracranial hematoma and drugs, including glycerol and thiopental. During a maximum of 6 days of hypothermia therapy, jugular venous blood or cerebrospinal fluid temperature was titrated to reduce intracranial pressure to less than 20 mm Hg by means of repeated intragastric cooling with our nasoduodenal tube and surface cooling. The feasibility and the effects on systemic complications of this titration method of mild hypothermia were evaluated. RESULTS:Intracranial pressure variably decreased from before to 3 hours after the beginning of all procedures of cooling. The mean intracranial pressure significantly decreased from 24 to 15 mm Hg with cooling, while temperature reduced an average of 2.0 degrees C. Four patients had systemic infection complications. Increased C-reactive protein and decreased platelet count were observed in all patients during hypothermia. The incidence of good recovery and moderate disability according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale was seven of nine patients. CONCLUSION:The titration method of mild hypothermia to control intracranial hypertension in severely head-injured patients is clinically feasible. However, the method failed to reduce the incidence of infectious and hematological complications. 10.1097/00006123-199805000-00066
    Therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in the newborn infant. Thoresen Marianne,Whitelaw Andrew Current opinion in neurology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review examines recent findings from experimental models and clinical trials of induced hypothermia as treatment after cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia in term newborn infants. RECENT FINDINGS:Experimental hypothermia inhibits many steps in the biochemical cascade that produces severe brain injury after hypoxia-ischaemia. This is in contrast to pharmacological agents, which tend to target only one step in the process that leads to brain injury. In adult humans hypothermia initiated immediately after cardiac arrest has improved outcomes. Delayed cooling after brain trauma has also been effective in a subgroup of adult patients. Seventy-two hours of selective head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia (rectal temperature 34.5 degrees C) in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) reduced death or disability in the infants with less severe electroencephalographic changes at entry (no benefit in those with advanced electroencephalographic changes). Cooling had no apparent adverse effects. A smaller randomized clinical trial of 48 h whole body cooling (rectal T 33 degrees C) found a reduction in death and neurological impairment. SUMMARY:In term infants with HIE there is emerging evidence that both selective head cooling and whole body cooling are neuroprotective and safe. This is consistent with a wealth of experimental animal data and adult trials. Neuroprotection seems to be lost if cooling is started after 6 h. The challenge now is to complete ongoing trials. If meta-analysis confirms a therapeutic effect, then this may lead to selection criteria and treatment protocols for very early hypothermia in HIE at term. 10.1097/01.wco.0000162850.44897.c6
    Hypothermia therapy for newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Silveira Rita C,Procianoy Renato S Jornal de pediatria OBJECTIVE:Therapeutic hypothermia reduces cerebral injury and improves the neurological outcome secondary to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. It has been indicated for asphyxiated full-term or near-term newborn infants with clinical signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). SOURCES:A search was performed for articles on therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with perinatal asphyxia in PubMed; the authors chose those considered most significant. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS:There are two therapeutic hypothermia methods: selective head cooling and total body cooling. The target body temperature is 34.5 °C for selective head cooling and 33.5 °C for total body cooling. Temperatures lower than 32 °C are less neuroprotective, and temperatures below 30 °C are very dangerous, with severe complications. Therapeutic hypothermia must start within the first 6h after birth, as studies have shown that this represents the therapeutic window for the hypoxic-ischemic event. Therapy must be maintained for 72 h, with very strict control of the newborn's body temperature. It has been shown that therapeutic hypothermia is effective in reducing neurologic impairment, especially in full-term or near-term newborns with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION:Therapeutic hypothermia is a neuroprotective technique indicated for newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. 10.1016/j.jped.2015.07.004
    Successful use of prolonged mild hypothermia in a patient with severe head injury and diffuse brain swelling. Case report. Murakami Mamoru,Tsukahara Tetsuya,Ishikura Hiroyasu,Hatano Taketo,Nakakuki Takuya,Ogino Eiji,Aoyama Takako Neurologia medico-chirurgica A 19-year-old female was admitted to our hospital after severe head injury in a traffic accident. On admission, she had no spontaneous respiration, but did have heart beat with a blood pressure of 100/60 mmHg. Neurological examination demonstrated that the Glasgow Coma Scale score was 3 and her pupils were fixed and dilated. Computed tomography (CT) showed diffuse brain swelling with disappearance of the perimesencephalic cistern. Chest CT showed bilateral lung contusions. Mild hypothermia with a target temperature of 33 degrees C was immediately induced, and was continued for 28 days to control the persistent increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). Subsequently, she recovered, and 20 months after admission, could speak and walk with slight hemiparesis on the left. Prolonged mild hypothermia may be effective to control persistent increase in ICP due to diffuse brain swelling. 10.2176/nmc.47.116
    [The kangaroo mothers' programme: a simple and cost-effective alternative for protecting the premature newborn or low-birth-weight babies]. Lizarazo-Medina Jenny P,Ospina-Diaz Juan M,Ariza-Riaño Nelly E Revista de salud publica (Bogota, Colombia) OBJECTIVE:Describing the efficacy and achievements of the kangaroo mothers' programme (KMP) regarding preterm or low-birth-weight babies' health and development in Hospital San Rafael in Tunja from November 2007 to December 2009. METHODS:This was a retrospective observational cohort study; 374 infants born prematurely or having low-birth-weight were included to assess household socio-demographic factors, maternal and obstetric history, delivery characteristics and complications and follow-up until 40 weeks post-conception age. RESULTS:There was a high prevalence of teenage pregnancy (17.5 %) and in women older than 35 years (12.6 %), unwanted pregnancy (40.6 %), low quality and poor availability of food in families, complications such as preeclampsia, infection and premature rupture of membranes, 1,969 grams average birth weight, 2,742.9 grams average weight on discharge and 22 grams average weight gain per day. CONCLUSIONS:It was found that KMP methodology substantially improved the mothers' psychological aspects and health status and the newborns' prognosis and led to stabilising body temperature and weight gain rate while decreasing risks of complications and nosocomial infection. It also lowered health care costs and shortened hospital stay. 10.1590/s0124-00642012000800004
    Nursing workload associated with fever in the general intensive care unit. Kiekkas Panagiotis,Sakellaropoulos George C,Brokalaki Hero,Manolis Evangelos,Samios Adamantios,Skartsani Chrisula,Baltopoulos George I American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses BACKGROUND:Fever in a patient in the intensive care unit necessitates several nursing tasks. Moreover, factors associated with increased patient care needs may be associated with fever. OBJECTIVE:To identify relationships between fever and characteristics of fever and nursing workload at the patient level. METHODS:A prospective study was conducted in a medical-surgical intensive care unit. The sample consisted of 361 patients consecutively admitted from October 2005 to August 2006. Each patient's body temperature was measured by using a tympanic membrane or an axillary thermometer. The Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 was used to measure nursing workload. RESULTS:A total of 188 patients (52.1%) had fever. Mean daily scores on the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System and on 5 of its 7 categories were significantly higher for febrile patients than for nonfebrile patients. Fever was an independent predictor of the mean daily scores for all patients (P < .001). Peak body temperature but not duration of fever also was an independent predictor of mean daily scores for febrile patients (P < .001). CONCLUSION:In a general intensive care unit, fever in patients should be taken into consideration for the proper allocation of nursing personnel.
    Shivering management during therapeutic temperature modulation: nurses' perspective. Presciutti Mary,Bader Mary Kay,Hepburn Millie Critical care nurse Therapeutic temperature modulation, which incorporates mild hypothermia and maintenance of normothermia, is being used to manage patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Methods of modulating temperature include intravenous infusion of cold fluids and surface or endovascular cooling. During this therapy, the shiver response is activated as a defense mechanism in response to an altered set-point temperature and causes metabolic and hemodynamic stress for patients. Recognition of shivering according to objective and subjective assessments is vital for early detection of the condition. Once shivering is detected, treatment is imperative to avoid deleterious effects. The Bedside Shivering Assessment Scale can be used to determine the efficacy of interventions intended to blunt thermoregulatory defenses and can provide continual evaluation of patients' responses to the interventions. Nurses' knowledge and understanding of the harmful effects of shivering are important to effect care and prevent injury associated with uncontrolled shivering. 10.4037/ccn2012189
    Using Esophageal Temperature Management to Treat Severe Heat Stroke: A Case Report. Martin Katherine Riley,Naiman Melissa,Espinoza Maurice The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses BACKGROUND:Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is defined by a core body temperature that exceeds 40°C with associated central nervous system dysfunction, skeletal muscle injury, and multiple organ damage. The most important initial focus of treatment involves reduction of patient temperature. First approaches to achieve temperature reduction often include ice packs, water blankets, and cold intravenous fluid administration. When these measures fail, more advanced temperature management methods may be deployed but often require surgical expertise. Esophageal temperature management (ETM) has recently emerged as a new temperature management modality in which an esophageal heat transfer device replaces the standard orogastric tube routinely placed after endotracheal intubation and adds a temperature modulation capability. The objective of this case study is to report the first known use of ETM driven by bedside nursing staff in the treatment of EHS. METHOD:An ETM device was placed after endotracheal intubation in a 28-year-old man experiencing EHS over a 5-day course of treatment. RESULTS:Because the ETM device was left in place, when the patient experienced episodes of increasing temperature as high as 39.1°C, which required active cooling, nursing staff were able to immediately adjust the external heat exchange unit settings to achieve aggressive cooling at bedside. CONCLUSION:This nurse-driven technology offers a new means to rapidly deploy cooling to critically ill patients without needing to implement advanced surgical approaches or obstruct access to the patient, freeing the provider to continue optimal care in high-morbidity conditions. 10.1097/JNN.0000000000000488