A Comprehensive Review on Fused Heterocyclic as DNA Intercalators: Promising Anticancer Agents.
Sharma Vikas,Gupta Mohit,Kumar Pradeep,Sharma Atul
Current pharmaceutical design
Since the discovery of DNA intercalating agents (by Lerman, 1961), a growing number of organic, inorganic, and metallic compounds have been developed to treat life-threatening microbial infections and cancers. Fused-heterocycles are amongst the most important group of compounds that have the ability to interact with DNA. DNA intercalators possess a planar aromatic ring structure that inserts itself between the base pairs of nucleic acids. Once inserted, the aromatic structure makes van der Waals interactions and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the base pairs. The DNA intercalator may also contain an ionizable group that can form ionic interactions with the negatively charged phosphate backbone. After the intercalation, other cellular processes could take place, leading ultimately to cell death. The heterocyclic nucleus present in the DNA intercalators can be considered as a pharmacophore that plays an instrumental role in dictating the affinity and selectivity exhibited by these compounds. In this work, we have carried out a revision of small organic molecules that bind to the DNA molecule via intercalation and cleaving and exert their antitumor activity. A general overview of the most recent results in this area, paying particular attention to compounds that are currently under clinical trials, is provided. Advancement in spectroscopic techniques studying DNA interaction can be examined in-depth, yielding important information on structure-activity relationships. In this comprehensive review, we have focused on the introduction to fused heterocyclic agents with DNA interacting features, from medicinal point of view. The structure-activity relationships points, cytotoxicity data, and binding data and future perspectives of medicinal compounds have been discussed in detail.
Drug-DNA intercalation: from discovery to the molecular mechanism.
Mukherjee Arnab,Sasikala Wilbee D
Advances in protein chemistry and structural biology
The ability of small molecules to perturb the natural structure and dynamics of nucleic acids is intriguing and has potential applications in cancer therapeutics. Intercalation is a special binding mode where the planar aromatic moiety of a small molecule is inserted between a pair of base pairs, causing structural changes in the DNA and leading to its functional arrest. Enormous progress has been made to understand the nature of the intercalation process since its idealistic conception five decades ago. However, the biological functions were detected even earlier. In this review, we focus mainly on the acridine and anthracycline types of drugs and provide a brief overview of the development in the field through various experimental methods that led to our present understanding of the subject. Subsequently, we discuss the molecular mechanism of the intercalation process, free-energy landscapes, and kinetics that was revealed recently through detailed and rigorous computational studies.