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    Combating Biofilms by a Chitosan-PEG-Peptide Conjugate via Changes in Assembled Structure. Ju Xiaoyan,Chen Jun,Zhou Mengxue,Zhu Meng,Li Zhuang,Gao Sijia,Ou Jinzhao,Xu Dandan,Wu Man,Jiang Shidong,Hu Yi,Tian Ye,Niu Zhongwei ACS applied materials & interfaces () biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from chronic tissue diseases to implanted medical devices. In a biofilm, the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) causes an inhibited penetration of antibacterial agents, leading to a 100-1000 times tolerance of the bacteria. In view of the water-filled channels in biofilms and the highly negative charge of EPS, we design a chitosan-polyethylene glycol-peptide conjugate (CS-PEG-LK) in this study. The CS-PEG-LK prefers a neutrally charged assembly at a size of ∼100 nm in aqueous environment, while undergoes disassembly to expose the α-helical peptide at the bacterial cell membrane. This behavior provides CS-PEG-LK superiorities in both penetrating the biofilms and inactivating the bacteria. At a concentration of 8 times the minimum inhibitory concentration, CS-PEG-LK has a much higher antibacterial efficiency (72.70%) than LK peptide (15.24%) and tobramycin (33.57%) in an in vitro biofilm. Moreover, CS-PEG-LK behaves comparable capability of combating an implanted biofilm to highly excess tobramycin. This work has implications for the design of new antibacterial agents in biofilm combating. 10.1021/acsami.0c02034
    Nanocarriers with conjugated antimicrobials to eradicate pathogenic biofilms evaluated in murine in vivo and human ex vivo infection models. Liu Yong,Ren Yijin,Li Yuanfeng,Su Linzhu,Zhang Yumin,Huang Fan,Liu Jinjian,Liu Jianfeng,van Kooten Theo G,An Yingli,Shi Linqi,van der Mei Henny C,Busscher Henk J Acta biomaterialia Conventional antimicrobials are becoming increasingly ineffective for treating bacterial infection due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. In addition, the biofilm-mode-of-growth of infecting bacteria impedes antimicrobial penetration in biofilms. Here, we report on poly(ethylene)glycol-poly(β-amino esters) (PEG-PAE) micelles with conjugated antimicrobials, that can uniquely penetrate biofilms, target themselves to bacterial cell surfaces once inside the low-pH environment of a biofilm and release conjugated antimicrobials through degradation of their ester-linkage with PAE by bacterial lipases. In vitro, PEG-PAE micelles with conjugated Triclosan (PEG-PAE-Triclosan) yielded no inadvertent leakage of their antimicrobial cargo and better killing of MDR Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and oral streptococcal biofilms than Triclosan in solution. In mice, PEG-PAE-Triclosan micelles with conjugated Triclosan yielded better eradication efficacy towards a MDR S. aureus-infection compared with Triclosan in solution and Triclosan-loaded micelles at equal Triclosan-equivalent concentrations. Ex vivo exposure of multi-species oral biofilms collected from orthodontic patients to PEG-PAE-Triclosan micelles, demonstrated effective bacterial killing at 30-40 fold lower Triclosan-equivalent concentrations than achieved by Triclosan in solution. Importantly, Streptococcus mutans, the main causative organism of dental caries, was preferentially killed by PEG-PAE-Triclosan micelles. Thus PEG-PAE-Triclosan micelles present a promising addendum to the decreasing armamentarium available to combat infection in diverse sites of the body. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: pH-adaptive polymeric micelles with conjugated antimicrobials can efficiently eradicate infectious biofilms from diverse body sites in mice and men. An antimicrobial was conjugated through an ester-linkage to a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/poly(β-amino ester) block copolymer to create micellar nanocarriers. Stable micelle structures were formed by the hydrophobic poly(β-amino ester) inner core and a hydrophilic PEG outer shell. Thus formed PEG-PAE-Triclosan micelles do not lose their antimicrobial cargo underway to an infection site through the blood circulation, but penetrate and accumulate in biofilms to release antimicrobials once inside a biofilm through degradation of its ester-linkage by bacterial lipases, to kill biofilm-embedded bacteria at lower antimicrobial concentrations than when applied in solution. PEG-PAE-Triclosan micelles effectively eradicate biofilms of multi-drug-resistant pathogens and oral bacteria, most notably highly cariogenic Streptococcus mutans, in mice and men respectively, and possess excellent clinical translation possibilities. 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.08.038
    Bacterial biofilm destruction by size/surface charge-adaptive micelles. Chen Maohua,Wei Jiaojun,Xie Songzhi,Tao Xinyan,Zhang Zhanlin,Ran Pan,Li Xiaohong Nanoscale Biofilms formed by pathogenic bacteria are one of the most important reasons for multidrug resistance. One of the major limitations in the biofilm treatment is the existence of intensive matrices, which greatly block the diffusion of antimicrobial agents. In the current study, we designed poly(aspartamide)-derived micelles self-assembled from cationic copolymers with azithromycin-conjugated and pH-sensitive copolymers, followed by loading cis-aconityl-d-tyrosine (CA-Tyr) via electrostatic interactions. In response to the acidic microenvironment of the biofilm matrix, the hydrophilic transition of the pH-sensitive copolymers and the removal of CA-Tyr led to a sharp decrease in micelle size from 107 nm to 54 nm and a rapid shift in their zeta potential from -11.7 mV to +26.4 mV, which facilitated the penetration of the micelles into biofilms. The acid-labile release of d-tyrosine disintegrated the biofilm matrix, and the lipase-triggered release of azithromycin eradicated the bacteria in the biofilms. An in vitro test was performed on pre-established P. aeruginosa biofilms in microwells, while biofilms grown on catheters were surgically implanted in rats for in vivo evaluation. The results demonstrated the capabilities of the size/surface charge-adaptive micelles in the intensive infiltration in the biofilm matrix and spatiotemporal release of biofilm dispersion and antibacterial agents for the comprehensive treatment of biofilm-relevant infections. 10.1039/c8nr05575k
    Laser-induced vapor nanobubbles improve diffusion in biofilms of antimicrobial agents for wound care. Teirlinck E,Fraire J C,Van Acker H,Wille J,Swimberghe R,Brans T,Xiong R,Meire M,De Moor R J G,De Smedt S C,Coenye T,Braeckmans K Biofilm Being responsible for delayed wound healing, the presence of biofilms in infected wounds leads to chronic, and difficult to treat infections. One of the reasons why antimicrobial treatment often fails to cure biofilm infections is the reduced penetration rate of antibiotics through dense biofilms. Strategies that have the ability to somehow interfere with the integrity of biofilms and allowing a better penetration of drugs are highly sought after. A promising new approach is the use of laser-induced vapor nanobubbles (VNB), of which it was recently demonstrated that it can substantially enhance the penetration of antibiotics into biofilms, resulting in a marked improvement of the killing efficiency. In this study, we examined if treatment of biofilms with laser-induced vapor nanobubbles (VNB) can enhance the potency of antimicrobials which are commonly used to treat wound infections, including povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, benzalkonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and mupirocin. Our investigations were performed on and biofilms, which are often implicated in chronic wound infections. Pre-treatment of biofilms with laser-induced VNB did enhance the killing efficiency of those antimicrobials which experience a diffusion barrier in the biofilms, while this was not the case for those compounds for which there is no diffusion barrier. The magnitude of the enhanced potency was in most cases similar to the enhancement that was obtained when the biofilms were completely disrupted by vortexing and sonication. These results show that laser-induced VNB are indeed a very efficient way to enhance drug penetration deep into biofilms, and pave the way towards clinical translation of this novel approach for treatment of wound infections. 10.1016/j.bioflm.2019.100004
    Oral biofilm elimination by combining iron-based nanozymes and hydrogen peroxide-producing bacteria. Wang Yanqiu,Shen Xinyu,Ma Shang,Guo Qianqian,Zhang Wei,Cheng Lu,Ding Liming,Xu Zhuobin,Jiang Jing,Gao Lizeng Biomaterials science Dental caries is a global risk in terms of oral health in many schoolchildren and in a vast majority of adults. The primary factor for caries formation is the attachment of bacteria on the tooth surface to form an oral biofilm which generates acids to demineralize calcium and eventually cause tooth decay. Oral biofilm elimination is still a challenge because bacteria are embedded inside with the biofilm matrix protecting them, preventing the penetration of antibiotics or bactericides. Promising strategies for disrupting oral biofilms have been developed, including the use of natural enzymes to degrade the biofilm matrix and hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. Here we demonstrate a strategy that combines nanozymes with peroxidase-like activity and bacteria generating biogenic hydrogen peroxide to eliminate oral biofilms for caries treatment. By using a saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disc and sectioned human tooth to mimic the real oral environment, we analyze the influence of iron oxide nanozymes or iron sulfide nanozymes on a Streptococcus mutans biofilm in the presence of Streptococcus gordonii which can generate hydrogen peroxide. Bacterial viability assays and biofilm morphology characterization show that the combination of nanozymes and bacteria remarkably reduces the bacteria number (5 lg reduction) and biofilm matrix (85% reduction). Therefore, the combination of iron-based nanozymes and hydrogen peroxide-generating bacteria may provide a new strategy for oral biofilm elimination in dental caries treatment. 10.1039/c9bm01889a
    Polyester-based particles to overcome the obstacles of mucus and biofilms in the lung for tobramycin application under static and dynamic fluidic conditions. Ernst Julia,Klinger-Strobel Mareike,Arnold Kathrin,Thamm Jana,Hartung Anita,Pletz Mathias W,Makarewicz Oliwia,Fischer Dagmar European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V Pulmonary infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are difficult to treat and related with high mortality in some diseases like cystic fibrosis due to the recurrent formation of biofilms. The biofilm formation hinders efficient treatment with inhaled antibiotics due to a low penetration of the antibiotics through the polyanionic biofilm matrix and increased antimicrobial resistance of the biofilm-embedded bacteria. In this study, tobramycin (Tb) was encapsulated in particles based on poly(d,l,-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(d,l,-lactide-co-glycolide) diblock (PEG-PLGA) to overcome the biofilm barrier with particle sizes of 225-231 nm (nanoparticles) and 896-902 nm (microparticles), spherical shape and negative zeta potentials. The effectiveness against biofilms of P. aeruginosa and B. cepacia was strongly enhanced by the encapsulation under fluidic experimental condition as well as under static conditions in artificial mucus. The biofilm-embedded bacteria were killed by less than 0.77 mg/l encapsulated Tb, whereas 1,000 mg/l of free Tb or the bulk mixtures of Tb and the particles were ineffective against the biofilms. Moreover, encapsulated Tb was even effective against biofilms of the intrinsically aminoglycoside-resistant B. cepacia, indicating a supportive effect of PEG and PLGA on Tb. No cytotoxicity was detected in vitro in human lung epithelial cells with any formulation. 10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.07.025
    High-Velocity Microsprays Enhance Antimicrobial Activity in Streptococcus mutans Biofilms. Fabbri S,Johnston D A,Rmaile A,Gottenbos B,De Jager M,Aspiras M,Starke E M,Ward M T,Stoodley P Journal of dental research Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque biofilms play a role in caries development. The biofilm's complex structure enhances the resistance to antimicrobial agents by limiting the transport of active agents inside the biofilm. The authors assessed the ability of high-velocity water microsprays to enhance delivery of antimicrobials into 3-d-old S. mutans biofilms. Biofilms were exposed to a 90° or 30° impact, first using a 1-µm tracer bead solution (10 beads/mL) and, second, a 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) or 0.085% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) solution. For comparison, a 30-s diffusive transport and simulated mouthwash were also performed. Confocal microscopy was used to determine number and relative bead penetration depth into the biofilm. Assessment of antimicrobial penetration was determined by calculating the killing depth detected by live/dead viability staining. The authors first demonstrated that the microspray was able to deliver significantly more microbeads deeper in the biofilm compared with diffusion and mouthwashing exposures. Next, these experiments revealed that the microspray yielded better antimicrobial penetration evidenced by deeper killing inside the biofilm and a wider killing zone around the zone of clearance than diffusion alone. Interestingly the 30° impact in the distal position delivered approximately 16 times more microbeads and yielded approximately 20% more bacteria killing (for both CHX and CPC) than the 90° impact. These data suggest that high-velocity water microsprays can be used as an effective mechanism to deliver microparticles and antimicrobials inside S. mutans biofilms. High shear stresses generated at the biofilm-burst interface might have enhanced bead and antimicrobial delivery inside the remaining biofilm by combining forced advection into the biofilm matrix and physical restructuring of the biofilm itself. Further, the impact angle has potential to be optimized both for biofilm removal and active agents' delivery inside biofilm in those protected areas where some biofilm might remain. 10.1177/0022034516662813