Toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials: Reviewing recent reports in medical and biological systems. Madannejad Rasoul,Shoaie Nahid,Jahanpeyma Fatemeh,Darvishi Mohammad Hasan,Azimzadeh Mostafa,Javadi Hamidreza Chemico-biological interactions Application of nanomaterials in our daily life is increasing, day in day out and concerns have raised about their toxicity for human and other organisms. In this manner, carbon-based nanomaterials have been applied to different products due to their unique physicochemical, electrical, mechanical properties, and biological compatibility. But, there are several reports about the negative effects of these materials on biological systems and cellular compartments. This review article describes the various types of carbon-based nanomaterials and methods that use for determining these toxic effects that are reported recently in the papers. Then, extensively discussed the toxic effects of these materials on the human and other living organisms and also their toxicity routs including Neurotoxicity, Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity, Immunotoxicity, Cardiotoxicity, Genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity, Dermatotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity. 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.04.036
    Electron Transfer Directed Antibacterial Properties of Graphene Oxide on Metals. Panda Sunita,Rout Tapan K,Prusty Agnish Dev,Ajayan Pulickel M,Nayak Sasmita Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles and graphene-based composites are known to exhibit biocidal activities. However, interactions with surrounding medium or supporting substrates can significantly influence this activity. Here, it is shown that superior antimicrobial properties of natural shellac-derived graphene oxide (GO) coatings is obtained on metallic films, such as Zn, Ni, Sn, and steel. It is also found that such activities are directly correlated to the electrical conductivity of the GO-metal systems; the higher the conductivity the better is the antibacterial activity. GO-metal substrate interactions serve as an efficient electron sink for the bacterial respiratory pathway, where electrons modify oxygen containing functional groups on GO surfaces to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). A concerted effect of nonoxidative electron transfer mechanism and consequent ROS mediated oxidative stress to the bacteria result in an enhanced antimicrobial action of naturally derived GO-metal films. The lack of germicidal effect in exposed cells for GO supported on electrically nonconductive substrates such as glass corroborates the above hypothesis. The results can lead to new GO coated antibacterial metal surfaces important for environmental and biomedical applications. 10.1002/adma.201702149
    Bio-mimicking nano and micro-structured surface fabrication for antibacterial properties in medical implants. Jaggessar Alka,Shahali Hesam,Mathew Asha,Yarlagadda Prasad K D V Journal of nanobiotechnology Orthopaedic and dental implants have become a staple of the medical industry and with an ageing population and growing culture for active lifestyles, this trend is forecast to continue. In accordance with the increased demand for implants, failure rates, particularly those caused by bacterial infection, need to be reduced. The past two decades have led to developments in antibiotics and antibacterial coatings to reduce revision surgery and death rates caused by infection. The limited effectiveness of these approaches has spurred research into nano-textured surfaces, designed to mimic the bactericidal properties of some animal, plant and insect species, and their topographical features. This review discusses the surface structures of cicada, dragonfly and butterfly wings, shark skin, gecko feet, taro and lotus leaves, emphasising the relationship between nano-structures and high surface contact angles on self-cleaning and bactericidal properties. Comparison of these surfaces shows large variations in structure dimension and configuration, indicating that there is no one particular surface structure that exhibits bactericidal behaviour against all types of microorganisms. Recent bio-mimicking fabrication methods are explored, finding hydrothermal synthesis to be the most commonly used technique, due to its environmentally friendly nature and relative simplicity compared to other methods. In addition, current proposed bactericidal mechanisms between bacteria cells and nano-textured surfaces are presented and discussed. These models could be improved by including additional parameters such as biological cell membrane properties, adhesion forces, bacteria dynamics and nano-structure mechanical properties. This paper lastly reviews the mechanical stability and cytotoxicity of micro and nano-structures and materials. While the future of nano-biomaterials is promising, long-term effects of micro and nano-structures in the body must be established before nano-textures can be used on orthopaedic implant surfaces as way of inhibiting bacterial adhesion. 10.1186/s12951-017-0306-1
    Micro/nano materials regulate cell morphology and intercellular communication by extracellular vesicles. Liu Mengya,Wang Dan,Gu Shuangying,Tian Baoxiang,Liang Jiaqi,Suo Qian,Zhang Zhijun,Yang Guoyuan,Zhou Yue,Li Song Acta biomaterialia Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important nano-cargo carriers for cell-cell communication, yet how biophysical factors regulate EV-mediated signaling is not well understood. Here we show that microgrooves can modulate the morphology of endothelial cells (ECs), and regulate the phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through EVs in co-culture. Elongated ECs, in comparison with polygonal ECs, increased the expression of contractile markers in SMCs. Depletion of EVs in the culture medium abolished this effect. Further analysis demonstrated that elongated ECs significantly upregulated miR-143/miR-145, leading to the increase of these microRNAs in EC-secreted EVs that were transferred to SMCs under a co-culture condition. Inhibition of EV secretion from ECs abolished the EC-SMC communication and the increased expression of SMC contractile markers. Moreover, electrospun nano-fibrous scaffolds with aligned fibers had the same effects as microgrooves to induce EC secretion of EVs to regulate SMC phenotypic marker expression. These results demonstrate that micro and nano materials can be used to engineer cell morphology and regulate EV secretion for cell-cell communication, which will have significant implications in the engineering of blood vessels and other tissues. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: By manipulating EC morphology with micro/nano materials, we show that EV-mediated signaling can regulate SMC phenotypic marker expression. This is a very thorough and unique study to demonstrate the function of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as important nano-carriers in cell-cell communication. The originality of this study is to demonstrate that EC morphology modulates the phenotype of smooth muscle cells via extracellular vesicles enclosing miR143/miR145. These findings underscore the important role of biophysical changes in cell-cell communications, and provide a rational basis for engineering micro/nano materials to control cell-cell communications for cell and tissue engineering. 10.1016/j.actbio.2021.02.003
    Nanomaterials, inflammation, and tissue engineering. Padmanabhan Jagannath,Kyriakides Themis R Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties that are absent in the bulk material because decreasing material size leads to an exponential increase in surface area, surface area to volume ratio, and effective stiffness, resulting in altered physiochemical properties. Diverse categories of nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanoporous scaffolds, nanopatterned surfaces, nanofibers, and carbon nanotubes can be generated using advanced fabrication and processing techniques. These materials are being increasingly incorporated in tissue engineering scaffolds to facilitate the development of biomimetic substitutes to replace damaged tissues and organs. Long-term success of nanomaterials in tissue engineering is contingent upon the inflammatory responses they elicit in vivo. This review seeks to summarize the recent developments in our understanding of biochemical and biophysical attributes of nanomaterials and the inflammatory responses they elicit, with a focus on strategies for nanomaterial design in tissue engineering applications. 10.1002/wnan.1320
    Development of endogenous enzyme-responsive nanomaterials for theranostics. Mu Jing,Lin Jing,Huang Peng,Chen Xiaoyuan Chemical Society reviews The development of stimuli-responsive nanomaterials provides great potential for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment and precision theranostics. Among the sources of endogenous stimuli (e.g. enzymes, pH, redox, hypoxia, etc.) and exogenous stimuli (e.g. temperature, light, magnetic field, ultrasound, light, etc.), enzymes with intrinsic merits such as high relevance for numerous diseases, specific substrate selectivity and high catalytic efficiency have been widely employed for the design of responsive materials. The catalytic mechanisms mainly include the reduction/oxidation of substrates and the formation/cleavage of chemical bonds. So far, many enzymes such as proteases, phosphatases, kinases and oxidoreductases have been used in stimuli-responsive nanomaterials for theranostics. This tutorial review summarizes the recent progress in endogenous enzyme-responsive nanomaterials based on different building blocks such as polymers, liposomes, small organic molecules, or inorganic/organic hybrid materials; their design principles are also elaborated. In the end, the challenges and prospects of enzyme-responsive biomaterials-based theranostics are also discussed. 10.1039/c7cs00663b
    Mitigation of Amyloidosis with Nanomaterials. Ke Pu Chun,Pilkington Emily H,Sun Yunxiang,Javed Ibrahim,Kakinen Aleksandr,Peng Guotao,Ding Feng,Davis Thomas P Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Amyloidosis is a biophysical phenomenon of protein aggregation with biological and pathogenic implications. Among the various strategies developed to date, nanomaterials and multifunctional nanocomposites possessing certain structural and physicochemical traits are promising candidates for mitigating amyloidosis in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underpinning protein aggregation and toxicity are introduced, and opportunities in materials science to drive this interdisciplinary field forward are highlighted. Advancement of this emerging frontier hinges on exploitation of protein self-assembly and interactions of amyloid proteins with nanoparticles, intracellular and extracellular proteins, chaperones, membranes, organelles, and biometals. 10.1002/adma.201901690
    A Review on the Biodistribution, Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Bismuth-Based Nanomaterials. Badrigilan Samireh,Heydarpanahi Fatemeh,Choupani Jalal,Jaymand Mehdi,Samadian Hadi,Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Mojtaba,Webster Thomas J,Tayebi Lobat International journal of nanomedicine Here, bismuth-based nanomaterials (Bi-based NMs) are introduced as promising theranostic agents to enhance image contrast as well as for the therapeutic gain for numerous diseases. However, understanding the interaction of such novel developed nanoparticles (NPs) within a biological environment is a requisite for the translation of any promising agent from the lab bench to the clinic. This interaction delineates the fate of NPs after circulation in the body. In an ideal setting, a nano-based therapeutic agent should be eliminated via the renal clearance pathway, meanwhile it should have specific targeting to a diseased organ to reach an effective dose and also to overcome off-targeting. Due to their clearance pathway, biodistribution patterns and pharmacokinetics (PK), Bi-based NMs have been found to play a determinative role to pass clinical approval and they have been investigated extensively in vivo to date. In this review, we expansively discuss the possible toxicity induced by Bi-based NMs on cells or organs, as well as biodistribution profiles, PK and the clearance pathways in animal models. A low cytotoxicity of Bi-based NMs has been found in vitro and in vivo, and along with their long-term biodistribution and proper renal clearance in animal models, the translation of Bi-based NMs to the clinic as a useful novel theranostic agent is promising to improve numerous medical applications. 10.2147/IJN.S250001
    Probabilistic model for assessing occupational risk during the handling of nanomaterials. Schmidt José Renato Alves,Nogueira Diego José,Nassar Silvia Modesto,Vaz Vitor Pereira,da Silva Marlon Luiz Neves,Vicentini Denice Schulz,Matias William Gerson Nanotoxicology Exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) can be considered as human, occupational or environmental. Occupational exposure may be experienced by the workers and/or researchers who develop and produce these products and the hazards inherent to exposure are not yet fully known. Quantitative and qualitative methods are available to estimate the occupational risks associated with the handling of NMs, however, both have limitations. In this context, the objective of this study was to create a Bayesian network (BN) that will allow an assessment of the occupational risk associated with the handling of NMs in research laboratories. The BN was developed considered variables related to exposure, the hazards associated with NMs and also the existing control measures in the work environment, such as collective protection equipment (CPE), administrative measures and personal protection equipment (PPE). In addition to assessing the occupational risk, simulations were carried out by the laboratory manager to obtain information on which actions should be taken to reduce the risk. The development of a BN to assess the occupational risk associated with the handling of NMs is a novel aspect of this study. As a distinctive feature, the BN has measurement control variables in addition to considering CPE, administrative measures and PPE. An advantage of this network in relation to other risk assessment models is that it allows the easy execution of simulations and provides a guide for a decision making by identifying which actions should be taken to minimize the risk. 10.1080/17435390.2020.1815094
    Nanomaterials in the environment, human exposure pathway, and health effects: A review. Malakar Arindam,Kanel Sushil R,Ray Chittaranjan,Snow Daniel D,Nadagouda Mallikarjuna N The Science of the total environment Nanomaterials (NMs), both natural and synthetic, are produced, transformed, and exported into our environment daily. Natural NMs annual flux to the environment is around 97% of the total and is significantly higher than synthetic NMs. However, synthetic NMs are considered to have a detrimental effect on the environment. The extensive usage of synthetic NMs in different fields, including chemical, engineering, electronics, and medicine, makes them susceptible to be discharged into the atmosphere, various water sources, soil, and landfill waste. As ever-larger quantities of NMs end up in our environment and start interacting with the biota, it is crucial to understand their behavior under various environmental conditions, their exposure pathway, and their health effects on human beings. This review paper comprises a large portion of the latest research on NMs and the environment. The article describes the natural and synthetic NMs, covering both incidental and engineered NMs and their behavior in the natural environment. The review includes a brief discussion on sampling strategies and various analytical tools to study NMs in complex environmental matrices. The interaction of NMs in natural environments and their pathway to human exposure has been summarized. The potential of NMs to impact human health has been elaborated. The nanotoxicological effect of NMs based on their inherent properties concerning to human health is also reviewed. The knowledge gaps and future research needs on NMs are reported. The findings in this paper will be a resource for researchers working on NMs all over the world to understand better the challenges associated with NMs in the natural environment and their human health effects. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143470
    Radionuclide-Activated Nanomaterials and Their Biomedical Applications. Ferreira Carolina A,Ni Dalong,Rosenkrans Zachary T,Cai Weibo Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) Radio-nanomedicine, or the use of radiolabeled nanoparticles in nuclear medicine, has attracted much attention in the last few decades. Since the discovery of Cerenkov radiation and its employment in Cerenkov luminescence imaging, the combination of nanomaterials and Cerenkov radiation emitters has been revolutionizing the way nanomaterials are perceived in the field: from simple inert carriers of radioactivity to activatable nanomaterials for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the types of nanomaterials that have been used to interact with Cerenkov radiation and the gamma and beta scintillation of radionuclides, as well as on their biological applications. 10.1002/anie.201900594
    Complex silica composite nanomaterials templated with DNA origami. Liu Xiaoguo,Zhang Fei,Jing Xinxin,Pan Muchen,Liu Pi,Li Wei,Zhu Bowen,Li Jiang,Chen Hong,Wang Lihua,Lin Jianping,Liu Yan,Zhao Dongyuan,Yan Hao,Fan Chunhai Nature Genetically encoded protein scaffolds often serve as templates for the mineralization of biocomposite materials with complex yet highly controlled structural features that span from nanometres to the macroscopic scale. Methods developed to mimic these fabrication capabilities can produce synthetic materials with well defined micro- and macro-sized features, but extending control to the nanoscale remains challenging. DNA nanotechnology can deliver a wide range of customized nanoscale two- and three-dimensional assemblies with controlled sizes and shapes. But although DNA has been used to modulate the morphology of inorganic materials and DNA nanostructures have served as moulds and templates, it remains challenging to exploit the potential of DNA nanostructures fully because they require high-ionic-strength solutions to maintain their structure, and this in turn gives rise to surface charging that suppresses the material deposition. Here we report that the Stöber method, widely used for producing silica (silicon dioxide) nanostructures, can be adjusted to overcome this difficulty: when synthesis conditions are such that mineral precursor molecules do not deposit directly but first form clusters, DNA-silica hybrid materials that faithfully replicate the complex geometric information of a wide range of different DNA origami scaffolds are readily obtained. We illustrate this approach using frame-like, curved and porous DNA nanostructures, with one-, two- and three-dimensional complex hierarchical architectures that range in size from 10 to 1,000 nanometres. We also show that after coating with an amorphous silica layer, the thickness of which can be tuned by adjusting the growth time, hybrid structures can be up to ten times tougher than the DNA template while maintaining flexibility. These findings establish our approach as a general method for creating biomimetic silica nanostructures. 10.1038/s41586-018-0332-7
    Synergism of Nanomaterials with Physical Stimuli for Biology and Medicine. Shin Tae-Hyun,Cheon Jinwoo Accounts of chemical research Developing innovative tools that facilitate the understanding of sophisticated biological systems has been one of the Holy Grails in the physical and biological sciences. In this Commentary, we discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges in the use of nanomaterials as a precision tool for biology and medicine. 10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00559
    Electrically conductive nanomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering. Ashtari Khadijeh,Nazari Hojjatollah,Ko Hyojin,Tebon Peyton,Akhshik Masoud,Akbari Mohsen,Alhosseini Sanaz Naghavi,Mozafari Masoud,Mehravi Bita,Soleimani Masoud,Ardehali Reza,Ebrahimi Warkiani Majid,Ahadian Samad,Khademhosseini Ali Advanced drug delivery reviews Patient deaths resulting from cardiovascular diseases are increasing across the globe, posing the greatest risk to patients in developed countries. Myocardial infarction, as a result of inadequate blood flow to the myocardium, results in irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes which can lead to heart failure. A sequela of myocardial infarction is scar formation that can alter the normal myocardial architecture and result in arrhythmias. Over the past decade, a myriad of tissue engineering approaches has been developed to fabricate engineered scaffolds for repairing cardiac tissue. This paper highlights the recent application of electrically conductive nanomaterials (carbon and gold-based nanomaterials, and electroactive polymers) to the development of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. Moreover, this work summarizes the effects of these nanomaterials on cardiac cell behavior such as proliferation and migration, as well as cardiomyogenic differentiation in stem cells. 10.1016/j.addr.2019.06.001
    Self-assembled peptide-based nanostructures: Smart nanomaterials toward targeted drug delivery. Habibi Neda,Kamaly Nazila,Memic Adnan,Shafiee Hadi Nano today Self-assembly of peptides can yield an array of well-defined nanostructures that are highly attractive nanomaterials for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery. Some of the advantages of self-assembled peptide nanostructures over other delivery platforms include their chemical diversity, biocompatibility, high loading capacity for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, and their ability to target molecular recognition sites. Furthermore, these self-assembled nanostructures could be designed with novel peptide motifs, making them stimuli-responsive and achieving triggered drug delivery at disease sites. The goal of this work is to present a comprehensive review of the most recent studies on self-assembled peptides with a focus on their "smart" activity for formation of targeted and responsive drug-delivery carriers. 10.1016/j.nantod.2016.02.004
    Engineered Nanomaterials: The Challenges and Opportunities for Nanomedicines. Albalawi Fahad,Hussein Mohd Zobir,Fakurazi Sharida,Masarudin Mas Jaffri International journal of nanomedicine The emergence of nanotechnology as a key enabling technology over the past years has opened avenues for new and innovative applications in nanomedicine. From the business aspect, the nanomedicine market was estimated to worth USD 293.1 billion by 2022 with a perception of market growth to USD 350.8 billion in 2025. Despite these opportunities, the underlying challenges for the future of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in nanomedicine research became a significant obstacle in bringing ENMs into clinical stages. These challenges include the capability to design bias-free methods in evaluating ENMs' toxicity due to the lack of suitable detection and inconsistent characterization techniques. Therefore, in this literature review, the state-of-the-art of engineered nanomaterials in nanomedicine, their toxicology issues, the working framework in developing a toxicology benchmark and technical characterization techniques in determining the toxicity of ENMs from the reported literature are explored. 10.2147/IJN.S288236
    Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses. Kerativitayanan Punyavee,Carrow James K,Gaharwar Akhilesh K Advanced healthcare materials Recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Synergistic interactions between nanomaterials and stem cell engineering offer numerous possibilities to address some of the daunting challenges in regenerative medicine, such as controlling trigger differentiation, immune reactions, limited supply of stem cells, and engineering complex tissue structures. Specifically, the interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment play key roles in controlling stem cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. However, the interactions between nanomaterials and stem cells are not well understood, and the effects of the nanomaterials shape, surface morphology, and chemical functionality on cellular processes need critical evaluation. In this Review, focus is put on recent development in nanomaterial-stem cell interactions, with specific emphasis on their application in regenerative medicine. Further, the emerging technologies based on nanomaterials developed over the past decade for stem cell engineering are reviewed, as well as the potential applications of these nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, stem cell isolation, and drug/gene delivery. It is anticipated that the enhanced understanding of nanomaterial-stem cell interactions will facilitate improved biomaterial design for a range of biomedical and biotechnological applications. 10.1002/adhm.201500272
    Clinical Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials in Diagnostics and Therapy. Loh Kian Ping,Ho Dean,Chiu Gigi Ngar Chee,Leong David Tai,Pastorin Giorgia,Chow Edward Kai-Hua Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Nanomaterials have the potential to improve how patients are clinically treated and diagnosed. While there are a number of nanomaterials that can be used toward improved drug delivery and imaging, how these nanomaterials confer an advantage over other nanomaterials, as well as current clinical approaches is often application or disease specific. How the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanodiamonds, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, graphene, and graphene oxides, make them promising nanomaterials for a wide range of clinical applications are discussed herein, including treating chemoresistant cancer, enhancing magnetic resonance imaging, and improving tissue regeneration and stem cell banking, among others. Additionally, the strategies for further improving drug delivery and imaging by carbon nanomaterials are reviewed, such as inducing endothelial leakiness as well as applying artificial intelligence toward designing optimal nanoparticle-based drug combination delivery. While the clinical application of carbon nanomaterials is still an emerging field of research, there is substantial preclinical evidence of the translational potential of carbon nanomaterials. Early clinically trial studies are highlighted, further supporting the use of carbon nanomaterials in clinical applications for both drug delivery and imaging. 10.1002/adma.201802368
    Nanomaterials for Cancer Precision Medicine. Wang Yilong,Sun Shuyang,Zhang Zhiyuan,Shi Donglu Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Medical science has recently advanced to the point where diagnosis and therapeutics can be carried out with high precision, even at the molecular level. A new field of "precision medicine" has consequently emerged with specific clinical implications and challenges that can be well-addressed by newly developed nanomaterials. Here, a nanoscience approach to precision medicine is provided, with a focus on cancer therapy, based on a new concept of "molecularly-defined cancers." "Next-generation sequencing" is introduced to identify the oncogene that is responsible for a class of cancers. This new approach is fundamentally different from all conventional cancer therapies that rely on diagnosis of the anatomic origins where the tumors are found. To treat cancers at molecular level, a recently developed "microRNA replacement therapy" is applied, utilizing nanocarriers, in order to regulate the driver oncogene, which is the core of cancer precision therapeutics. Furthermore, the outcome of the nanomediated oncogenic regulation has to be accurately assessed by the genetically characterized, patient-derived xenograft models. Cancer therapy in this fashion is a quintessential example of precision medicine, presenting many challenges to the materials communities with new issues in structural design, surface functionalization, gene/drug storage and delivery, cell targeting, and medical imaging. 10.1002/adma.201705660
    Redox-responsive theranostic nanoplatforms based on inorganic nanomaterials. Han Lu,Zhang Xiao-Yong,Wang Yu-Long,Li Xi,Yang Xiao-Hong,Huang Min,Hu Kun,Li Lu-Hai,Wei Yen Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society Spurred on by advances in materials chemistry and nanotechnology, scientists have developed many novel nanopreparations for cancer diagnosis and therapy. To treat complex malignant tumors effectively, multifunctional nanomedicines with targeting ability, imaging properties and controlled drug release behavior should be designed and exploited. The therapeutic efficiency of loaded drugs can be dramatically improved using redox-responsive nanoplatforms which can sense the differences in the redox status of tumor tissues and healthy ones. Redox-sensitive nanocarriers can be constructed from both organic and inorganic nanomaterials; however, at present, drug delivery nanovectors progressively lean towards inorganic nanomaterials because of their facile synthesis/modification and their unique physicochemical properties. In this review, we focus specifically on the preparation and application of redox-sensitive nanosystems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), carbon nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanomaterials and other inorganic nanomaterials. We discuss relevant examples of redox-sensitive nanosystems in each category. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future strategies from the aspect of material design and practical application. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.03.018
    Optimization of Antibacterial Efficacy of Noble-Metal-Based Core-Shell Nanostructures and Effect of Natural Organic Matter. Cai Tingting,Fang Ge,Tian Xin,Yin Jun-Jie,Chen Chunying,Ge Cuicui ACS nano Noble-metal-based nanomaterials made of less toxic metals have been utilized as potential antibacterial agents due to their distinctive oxidase-like activity. In this study, we fabricated core-shell structured Pd@Ir bimetallic nanomaterials with an ultrathin shell. Pd@Ir nanostructures show morphology-dependent bactericidal activity, in which Pd@Ir octahedra possessing higher oxidase-like activity exert bactericidal activity stronger than that of Pd@Ir cubes. Furthermore, our results reveal that the presence of natural organic matter influences the antibacterial behaviors of nanomaterials. Upon interaction with humic acid (HA), the Pd@Ir nanostructures induce an elevated level of reactive oxygen species, resulting in significantly enhanced bactericidal activity of the nanostructures. Mechanism analysis shows that the presence of HA efficiently enhances the oxidase-like activity of nanomaterials and promotes the cellular internalization of nanomaterials. We believe that the present study will not only demonstrate an effective strategy for improving the bactericidal activity of noble-metal-based nanomaterials but also provide an understanding of the antibacterial behavior of nanomaterials in the natural environment. 10.1021/acsnano.9b04366
    Inorganic Nanomaterials for Soft Tissue Repair and Regeneration. Urie Russell,Ghosh Deepanjan,Ridha Inam,Rege Kaushal Annual review of biomedical engineering Inorganic nanomaterials have witnessed significant advances in areas of medicine including cancer therapy, imaging, and drug delivery, but their use in soft tissue repair and regeneration is in its infancy. Metallic, ceramic, and carbon allotrope nanoparticles have shown promise in facilitating tissue repair and regeneration. Inorganic nanomaterials have been employed to improve stem cell engraftment in cellular therapy, material mechanical stability in tissue repair, electrical conductivity in nerve and cardiac regeneration, adhesion strength in tissue approximation, and antibacterial capacity in wound dressings. These nanomaterials have also been used to improve or replace common surgical materials and restore functionality to damaged tissue. We provide a comprehensive overview of inorganic nanomaterials in tissue repair and regeneration, and discuss their promise and limitations for eventual translation to the clinic. 10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044457
    Integrating Carbon Nanomaterials with Metals for Bio-sensing Applications. Sainio Sami,Leppänen Elli,Mynttinen Elsi,Palomäki Tommi,Wester Niklas,Etula Jarkko,Isoaho Noora,Peltola Emilia,Koehne Jessica,Meyyappan M,Koskinen Jari,Laurila Tomi Molecular neurobiology Age structure in most developed countries is changing fast as the average lifespan is increasing significantly, calling for solutions to provide improved treatments for age-related neurological diseases and disorders. In order to address these problems, a reliable way of recording information about neurotransmitters from in vitro and in vivo applications is needed to better understand neurological diseases and disorders as well as currently used treatments. Likewise, recent developments in medicine, especially with the opioid crisis, are demanding a swift move to personalized medicine to administer patient needs rather than population-wide averages. In order to enable the so-called personalized medicine, it is necessary to be able to do measurements in vivo and in real time. These actions require sensitive and selective detection of different analytes from very demanding environments. Current state-of-the-art materials are unable to provide sensitive and selective detection of neurotransmitters as well as the required time resolution needed for drug molecules at a reasonable cost. To meet these challenges, we have utilized different metals to grow carbon nanomaterials and applied them for sensing applications showing that there are clear differences in their electrochemical properties based on the selected catalyst metal. Additionally, we have combined atomistic simulations to support optimizing materials for experiments and to gain further understanding of the atomistic level reactions between different analytes and the sensor surface. With carbon nanostructures grown from Ni and Al + Co + Fe hybrid, we can detect dopamine, ascorbic acid, and uric acid simultaneously. On the other hand, nanostructures grown from platinum provide a feasible platform for detection of HO making them suitable candidates for enzymatic biosensors for detection of glutamate, for example. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon electrodes have an ability to detect morphine, paracetamol, tramadol, and O-desmethyltramadol. With carbon nanomaterial-based sensors, it is possible to reach metal-like properties in sensing applications using only a fraction of the metal as seed for the material growth. We have also seen that by using nanodiamonds as growth catalyst for carbon nanofibers, it is not possible to detect dopamine and ascorbic acid simultaneously, although the morphology of the resulting nanofibers is similar to the ones grown using Ni. This further indicates the importance of the metal selection for specific applications. However, Ni as a continuous layer or as separate islands does not provide adequate performance. Thus, it appears that metal nanoparticles combined with fiber-like morphology are needed for optimized sensor performance for neurotransmitter detection. This opens up a new research approach of application-specific nanomaterials, where carefully selected metals are integrated with carbon nanomaterials to match the needs of the sensing application in question. 10.1007/s12035-019-01767-7
    Nanomaterials for the theranostics of obesity. Li Juanjuan,Cha Ruitao,Luo Huize,Hao Wenshuai,Zhang Yan,Jiang Xingyu Biomaterials As a chronic and lifelong disease, obesity not only significant impairs health but also dramatically shortens life span (at least 10 years). Obesity requires a life-long effort for the successful treatment because a number of abnormalities would appear in the development of obesity. Nanomaterials possess large specific surface area, strong absorptivity, and high bioavailability, especially the good targeting properties and adjustable release rate, which would benefit the diagnosis and treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Herein, we discussed the therapy and diagnosis of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases by using nanomaterials. Therapies of obesity with nanomaterials include improving intestinal health and reducing energy intake, targeting and treating functional cell abnormalities, regulating redox homeostasis, and removing free lipoprotein in blood. Diagnosis of obesity-related metabolic diseases would benefit the therapy of these diseases. The development of nanomaterials will promote the diagnosis and therapy of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119474
    Nanomaterials in Neural-Stem-Cell-Mediated Regenerative Medicine: Imaging and Treatment of Neurological Diseases. Zhang Bingbo,Yan Wei,Zhu Yanjing,Yang Weitao,Le Wenjun,Chen Bingdi,Zhu Rongrong,Cheng Liming Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Patients are increasingly being diagnosed with neuropathic diseases, but are rarely cured because of the loss of neurons in damaged tissues. This situation creates an urgent clinical need to develop alternative treatment strategies for effective repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs), highly pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and potential for multidirectional differentiation, provide a promising solution to meet this demand. However, some serious challenges remaining to be addressed are the regulation of implanted NSCs, tracking their fate, monitoring their interaction with and responsiveness to the tissue environment, and evaluating their treatment efficacy. Nanomaterials have been envisioned as innovative components to further empower the field of NSC-based regenerative medicine, because their unique physicochemical characteristics provide unparalleled solutions to the imaging and treatment of diseases. By building on the advantages of nanomaterials, tremendous efforts have been devoted to facilitate research into the clinical translation of NSC-based therapy. Here, recent work on emerging nanomaterials is highlighted and their performance in the imaging and treatment of neurological diseases is evaluated, comparing the strengths and weaknesses of various imaging modalities currently used. The underlying mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy are discussed, and future research directions are suggested. 10.1002/adma.201705694
    Nanomaterials for Nanotheranostics: Tuning Their Properties According to Disease Needs. Wong Xin Yi,Sena-Torralba Amadeo,Álvarez-Diduk Ruslan,Muthoosamy Kasturi,Merkoçi Arben ACS nano Nanotheranostics is one of the biggest scientific breakthroughs in nanomedicine. Most of the currently available diagnosis and therapies are invasive, time-consuming, and associated with severe toxic side effects. Nanotheranostics, on the other hand, has the potential to bridge this gap by harnessing the capabilities of nanotechnology and nanomaterials for combined therapeutics and diagnostics with markedly enhanced efficacy. However, nanomaterial applications in nanotheranostics are still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that each disease has a particular microenvironment with well-defined characteristics, which promotes deeper selection criteria of nanomaterials to meet the disease needs. In this review, we have outlined how nanomaterials are designed and tailored for nanotheranostics of cancer and other diseases such as neurodegenerative, autoimmune (particularly on rheumatoid arthritis), and cardiovascular diseases. The penetrability and retention of a nanomaterial in the biological system, the therapeutic strategy used, and the imaging mode selected are some of the aspects discussed for each disease. The specific properties of the nanomaterials in terms of feasibility, physicochemical challenges, progress in clinical trials, its toxicity, and their future application on translational medicine are addressed. Our review meticulously and critically examines the applications of nanotheranostics with various nanomaterials, including graphene, across several diseases, offering a broader perspective of this emerging field. 10.1021/acsnano.9b08133
    Two-dimensional cancer theranostic nanomaterials: Synthesis, surface functionalization and applications in photothermal therapy. Murugan Chandran,Sharma Varsha,Murugan Rajesh Kumar,Malaimegu Gnanasekar,Sundaramurthy Anandhakumar Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society In recent years, novel two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are of great interest for diverse potential applications such as device fabrication, energy storage, sensing and theranostics because of their superlative physical features namely, large surface area, minimal thickness, tunable composition and easier surface modification methods. Rapid exploration in design and fabrication of 2D nano-structures have opened new avenue for cancer theranostics as it can encapsulate group of cancer cells and inflict major damage with great specificity in a non-invasive manner. Among the reported 2D materials such as graphene and its derivatives, metallic compounds, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), black phosphorous and MXenes (e.g., carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides), 2D nanomaterials based on graphene and TMDCs have gathered most of the limelight in this field due to their easily tunable properties. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the design of 2D theranostic nanomaterials, functionalization methods and their applications in photothermal therapy (PTT) as well as synergistic cancer therapy. We have also addressed the different modes of cellular entry of 2D nanomaterials into tumor cells based on their unique structural properties and investigated different methodologies to enhance PTT effect by optimizing the physico-chemical properties of the 2D sheets. Recent progress on in vitro and in vivo short and long term biocompatibility, immunotoxicity and excretion of the decorated structure is also highlighted. Investigation of the interaction of 2D nanomaterial with hematological factors such as RBC and WBC is of paramount importance as they are key indicators in in vivo responses, and this investigation will give a better solution for overcoming direct inflammation and infection related issues of the animal system. Besides, investigations on addressing the ways to incorporate polymer linkers and drug conjugates on to the surface of 2D materials, multiplexing capability, and the influence of surface functionalization on PTT effect is vital for future developments in clinical level diagnosis and cancer therapy. Finally, we conclude our opinion on current challenges and future prospective on meeting the various demands of advanced cancer imaging and therapies. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.02.015
    Copper Oxide Nanomaterials Derived from Zanthoxylum armatum DC. and Berberis lycium Royle Plant Species: Characterization, Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging and Antibacterial Activity. Mirza Azar Ullah,Khan Mohd Shoeb,Nami Shahab A A,Kareem Abdul,Rehman Sumbul,Bhat Shahnawaz Ahmad,Nishat Nahid Chemistry & biodiversity Copper oxide nanomaterials were synthesized by a facile sustainable biological method using two plant species (Zanthoxylum armatum DC. and Berberis lycium Royle). The formation of materials was confirmed by FT-IR, ATR, UV-visible, XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, TGA and PL. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion method to ascertain the efficacy of plant species extract and extract derived copper oxide nanomaterials against six Gram-positive bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus cereus and four Gram-negative bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris against the standard drug, Ciprofloxacin for Gram-positive and Gentamicin for Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. In both cases, copper oxide nanomaterials were found to be sensitive in all the bacterial species. Sensitivity of copper oxide nanomaterials shows an be higher as compared to plant species extract against different bacteria. Scavenging activity of plant extracts along with nanomaterials have been accessed using previously reported protocols employing ascorbic acid as standard. Scavenging activity of copper oxide nanomaterials shows an increase with increase in concentration. The biological activity (bactericidal and scavenging efficiency) of plant derived copper oxide nanomaterials revealed that these materials can be used as potent antimicrobial agent and DPPH scavengers in industrial as well as pharmacological fields. 10.1002/cbdv.201900145
    Perspectives and advancements in the design of nanomaterials for targeted cancer theranostics. Tan Yoke Ying,Yap Pui Khee,Xin Lim Griselda Loo,Mehta Meenu,Chan Yinghan,Ng Sin Wi,Kapoor Deepak N,Negi Poonam,Anand Krishnan,Singh Sachin Kumar,Jha Niraj Kumar,Lim Lay Cheng,Madheswaran Thiagarajan,Satija Saurabh,Gupta Gaurav,Dua Kamal,Chellappan Dinesh Kumar Chemico-biological interactions Cancer continues to be one of the most challenging diseases to be treated and is one of the leading causes of deaths around the globe. Cancers account for 13% of all deaths each year, with cancer-related mortality expected to rise to 13.1 million by the year 2030. Although, we now have a large library of chemotherapeutic agents, the problem of non-selectivity remains the biggest drawback, as these substances are toxic not only to cancerous cells, but also to other healthy cells in the body. The limitations with chemotherapy and radiation have led to the discovery and development of novel strategies for safe and effective treatment strategies to manage the menace of cancer. Researchers have long justified and have shed light on the emergence of nanotechnology as a potential area for cancer therapy and diagnostics, whereby, nanomaterials are used primarily as nanocarriers or as delivery agents for anticancer drugs due to their tumor targeting properties. Furthermore, nanocarriers loaded with chemotherapeutic agents also overcome biological barriers such as renal and hepatic clearances, thus improving therapeutic efficacy with lowered morbidity. Theranostics, which is the combination of rationally designed nanomaterials with cancer-targeting moieties, along with protective polymers and imaging agents has become one of the core keywords in cancer research. In this review, we have highlighted the potential of various nanomaterials for their application in cancer therapy and imaging, including their current state and clinical prospects. Theranostics has successfully paved a path to a new era of drug design and development, in which nanomaterials and imaging contribute to a large variety of cancer therapies and provide a promising future in the effective management of various cancers. However, in order to meet the therapeutic needs, theranostic nanomaterials must be designed in such a way, that take into account the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of the drug for the development of effective carcinogenic therapy. 10.1016/j.cbi.2020.109221
    Recent advancements in two-dimensional nanomaterials for drug delivery. Mei Xuan,Hu Tingting,Wang Yingjie,Weng Xisheng,Liang Ruizheng,Wei Min Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology Different from conventional zero-dimensional (0D) and one-dimensional (1D) counterparts, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials show unique properties resulting from their specific structure and morphology. In recent years, broad interest has been focused on the exploration of 2D nanomaterials for drug delivery, which benefits greatly to various disease treatments due to the superior properties of 2D nanomaterials. The fast development of 2D-based drug delivery systems provides great potential for biomedical studies. In this review, a case-by-case analysis was carried out on the state-of-the-art 2D nanomaterials-based drug delivery systems, which possesses great significance to the further biomedical development of 2D nanomaterials. For the purpose of discussing the special advantages of these novel drug delivery systems, this review is organized according to the different types of the latest 2D nanomaterials and their loading capacity towards various cargos. Special emphasis will be located on the application of these 2D nanomaterials-based drug delivery systems in chemotherapy, gene therapy, and immunotherapy. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies. 10.1002/wnan.1596
    2D Nanomaterials for Cancer Theranostic Applications. Cheng Liang,Wang Xianwen,Gong Fei,Liu Teng,Liu Zhuang Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 2D nanomaterials with unique nanosheet structures, large surface areas, and extraordinary physicochemical properties have attracted tremendous interest. In the area of nanomedicine, research on graphene and its derivatives for diverse biomedical applications began as early as 2008. Since then, many other types of 2D nanomaterials, including transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides, black phosphorus nanosheets, layered double hydroxides, and metal-organic framework nanosheets, have been explored in the area of nanomedicine over the past decade. In particular, a large surface area makes 2D nanomaterials highly efficient drug delivery nanoplatforms. The unique optical and/or X-ray attenuation properties of 2D nanomaterials can be harnessed for phototherapy or radiotherapy of cancer. Furthermore, by integrating 2D nanomaterials with other functional nanoparticles or utilizing their inherent physical properties, 2D nanomaterials may also be engineered as nanoprobes for multimodal imaging of tumors. 2D nanomaterials have shown substantial potential for cancer theranostics. Herein, the latest progress in the development of 2D nanomaterials for cancer theranostic applications is summarized. Current challenges and future perspectives of 2D nanomaterials applied in nanomedicine are also discussed. 10.1002/adma.201902333