Endothelial and cancer cells interact with mesenchymal stem cells via both microparticles and secreted factors.
Lozito Thomas P,Tuan Rocky S
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
Tightly associated with blood vessels in their perivascular niche, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) closely interact with endothelial cells (ECs). MSCs also home to tumours and interact with cancer cells (CCs). Microparticles (MPs) are cell-derived vesicles released into the extracellular environment along with secreted factors. MPs are capable of intercellular signalling and, as biomolecular shuttles, transfer proteins and RNA from one cell to another. Here, we characterize interactions among ECs, CCs and MSCs via MPs and secreted factors in vitro. MPs and non-MP secreted factors (Sup) were isolated from serum-free medium conditioned by human microvascular ECs (HMEC-1) or by the CC line HT1080. Fluorescently labelled MPs were prepared from cells treated with membrane dyes, and cytosolic GFP-containing MPs were isolated from cells transduced with CMV-GFP lentivirus. MSCs were treated with MPs, Sup, or vehicle controls, and analysed for MP uptake, proliferation, migration, activation of intracellular signalling pathways and cytokine release. Fluorescently labelled MPs fused with MSCs, transferring the fluorescent dyes to the MSC surface. GFP was transferred to and retained in MSCs incubated with GFP-MPs, but not free GFP. Thus, only MP-associated cellular proteins were taken up and retained by MSCs, suggesting that MP biomolecules, but not secreted factors, are shuttled to MSCs. MP and Sup treatment significantly increased MSC proliferation, migration, and MMP-1, MMP-3, CCL-2/MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion compared with vehicle controls. MSCs treated with Sup and MPs also exhibited activated NF-κB signalling. Taken together, these results suggest that MPs act to regulate MSC functions through several mechanisms.
OCT4 expression mediates partial cardiomyocyte reprogramming of mesenchymal stromal cells.
Yannarelli Gustavo,Pacienza Natalia,Montanari Sonia,Santa-Cruz Diego,Viswanathan Sowmya,Keating Armand
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are in numerous cell therapy clinical trials, including for injured myocardium. Acquisition of cardiomyocyte characteristics by MSCs may improve cardiac regeneration but the mechanisms regulating this process are unclear. Here, we investigated whether the pluripotency transcription factor OCT4 is involved in the activation of cardiac lineage genetic programs in MSCs. We employed our established co-culture model of MSCs with rat embryonic cardiomyocytes showing co-expression of cardiac markers on MSCs independent of cell fusion. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated from transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of the cardiac-specific α-myosin heavy chain promoter. After 5 days of co-culture, MSCs expressed cardiac specific genes, including Nkx2.5, atrial natriuretic factor and α-cardiac actin. The frequency of GFP+ cells was 7.6±1.9%, however, these cells retained the stromal cell phenotype, indicating, as expected, only partial differentiation. Global OCT4 expression increased 2.6±0.7-fold in co-cultured MSCs and of interest, 87±5% vs 79±4% of MSCs expressed OCT4 by flow cytometry in controls and after co-culture, respectively. Consistent with the latter observation, the GFP+ cells did not express nuclear OCT4 and showed a significant increase in OCT4 promoter methylation compared with undifferentiated MSCs (92% vs 45%), inferring that OCT4 is regulated by an epigenetic mechanism. We further showed that siRNA silencing of OCT4 in MSCs resulted in a reduced frequency of GFP+ cells in co-culture to less than 1%. Our data infer that OCT4 expression may have a direct effect on partial cardiomyocyte reprogramming of MSCs and suggest a new mechanism(s) associated with MSC multipotency and a requirement for crosstalk with the cardiac microenvironment.
Upregulation of miR-210 promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts.
Asgharzadeh Ali,Alizadeh Shaban,Keramati Mohammad Reza,Soleimani Masoud,Atashi Amir,Edalati Mahdi,Kashani Khatib Zahra,Rafiee Mohammad,Barzegar Mohyedin,Razavi Hengamehsadat
Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
Numerous studies indicated that microRNAs are critical in the regulation of cellular differentiation, by controlling the expression of underlying genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-210 upregulation on differentiation of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts. MSCs were isolated from HUCB and confirmed by their adipogenic/osteogenic differentiation and flow cytometric analysis of surface markers. Pre-miR-210 was amplified from human DNA, digested and ligated with plenti-III-mir-green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector, and cloned in STBL4 bacteria. After confirmation with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), the plenti-III-GFP segment bearing pre-miR-210 was transfected into MSCs by electroporation. Two control vectors, pmaxGFP and Scramble, were transfected separately into MSCs. The expression of miR-210 and genes related to osteoblast differentiation, i.e., runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin gene, in the three groups of transfected MSCs was analyzed 0, 7, 14, and 21 days of transfection by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Overexpression of miR-210 was observed in MSCs transfected with miR-210-bearing plasmid, and this was significantly different compared to Scramble group (p < 0.05). Significantly increased expression of Runx2 (at day 7 and 14), ALP and osteocalcin genes (at all time points for both genes) was observed in MSCs with miR-210-bearing plasmid compared to controls. Overall, the overexpression of miR-210 in MSCs led to MSC differentiation into osteoblasts, most probably by upregulating the Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin genes at different stages of cell differentiation. Our study confirms the potential of miRNAs in developing novel therapeutic strategies that could target regulatory mechanisms of cellular differentiation in various disease states.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells improve bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis by inhibiting osteoclasia-related factors and differentiating into chondrocytes.
Gao Jinfang,Zhang Gailian,Xu Ke,Ma Dan,Ren Limin,Fan Jingjing,Hou Jianwen,Han Jian,Zhang Liyun
Stem cell research & therapy
BACKGROUND:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by joint inflammation and damage to the cartilage and bone in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can improve articular symptoms and reduce bone erosion in CIA rats; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying MSC-induced improvement of bone destruction in CIA. METHODS:Wistar rats were divided into a normal group, CIA control group, MTX intervention group, and BMSC intervention group, each comprising 8 rats. Serum RANKL, OPG, and CXCL10 levels of all groups were determined via flow cytometry after 42 days of interventions. RANKL, OPG, TRAF6, CXCL10, and CXCR3 were detected on the synovial membrane via immunohistochemistry, and their relative mRNA levels were determined via RT-PCR analysis. BMSCs were labeled with GFP and administered to CIA rats via the tail vein. At different time points, the distribution of implanted GFP-MSCs in synovial tissues was observed using a fluorescence microscope, and the potential of GFP-MSCs to differentiate into chondrocytes was assessed via immunofluorescence analysis. RESULTS:BMSC transplantation improved joint inflammation and inhibited bone destruction in CIA rats. BMSCs inhibited the expression of serum CXCL10 and CXCL10 and CXCR3 expression at the synovial membrane. Moreover, protein and mRNA expression analyses revealed that BMSCs potentially regulated RANKL/OPG expression levels in the serum and synovial tissue. Upon implantation into CIA rats, GFP-MSCs were traced in the joints. GFP-positive cells were observed in the cartilage tissue from day 11 and until 42 days after transplantation. Anti-type II collagen/GFP double-positive cells were observed in the articular cartilage (especially damaged cartilage) upon immunofluorescence staining of anti-type II collagen. CONCLUSIONS:BMSCs improve bone destruction in CIA by inhibiting the CXCL10/CXCR3 chemotactic axis, regulating the RANKL/OPG ratio, and directly differentiating into chondrocytes.