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    Brain stem gliomas and current landscape. Wummer Brandon,Woodworth Delaney,Flores Catherine Journal of neuro-oncology PURPOSE:CNS malignancies are currently the most common cause of disease related deaths in children. Although brainstem gliomas are invariably fatal cancers in children, clinical studies against this disease are limited. This review is to lead to a succinct collection of knowledge of known biological mechanisms of this disease and discuss available therapeutics. METHODS:A hallmark of brainstem gliomas are mutations in the histone H3.3 with the majority of cases expressing the mutation K27M on histone 3.3. Recent studies using whole genome sequencing have revealed other mutations associated with disease. Current standard clinical practice may merely involve radiation and/or chemotherapy with little hope for long term survival. Here we discuss the potential of new therapies. CONCLUSION:Despite the lack of treatment options using frequently practiced clinical techniques, immunotherapeutic strategies have recently been developed to target brainstem gliomas. To target brainstem gliomas, investigators are evaluating the use of broad non-targeted therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Alternatively, others have begun to explore adoptive T cell strategies against these fatal malignancies. 10.1007/s11060-020-03655-w
    Immune microenvironment of gliomas. Gieryng Anna,Pszczolkowska Dominika,Walentynowicz Kacper A,Rajan Wenson D,Kaminska Bozena Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology High-grade gliomas are rapidly progressing tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) with a very poor prognosis despite extensive resection combined with radiation and/or chemotherapy. Histopathological and flow cytometry analyses of human and rodent experimental gliomas revealed heterogeneity of a tumor and its niche, composed of reactive astrocytes, endothelial cells, and numerous immune cells. Infiltrating immune cells consist of CNS resident (microglia) and peripheral macrophages, granulocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and T lymphocytes. Intratumoral density of glioma-associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) and MDSCs is the highest in malignant gliomas and inversely correlates with patient survival. Although GAMs have a few innate immune functions intact, their ability to be stimulated via TLRs, secrete cytokines, and upregulate co-stimulatory molecules is not sufficient to initiate antitumor immune responses. Moreover, tumor-reprogrammed GAMs release immunosuppressive cytokines and chemokines shaping antitumor responses. Both GAMs and MDSCs have ability to attract T regulatory lymphocytes to the tumor, but MDSCs inhibit cytotoxic responses mediated by natural killer cells, and block the activation of tumor-reactive CD4 T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8 T cells. The presence of regulatory T cells may further contribute to the lack of effective immune activation against malignant gliomas. We review the immunological aspects of glioma microenvironment, in particular composition and various roles of the immune cells infiltrating malignant human gliomas and experimental rodent gliomas. We describe tumor-derived signals and mechanisms driving myeloid cell accumulation and reprogramming. Although, understanding the complexity of cell-cell interactions in glioma microenvironment is far from being achieved, recent studies demonstrated several glioma-derived factors that trigger migration, accumulation, and reprogramming of immune cells. Identification of these factors may facilitate development of immunotherapy for gliomas as immunomodulatory and immune evasion mechanisms employed by malignant gliomas pose an appalling challenge to brain tumor immunotherapy. 10.1038/labinvest.2017.19
    Concepts for Immunotherapies in Gliomas. Platten Michael,Reardon David A Seminars in neurology Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined. While the central nervous system (CNS) is no longer regarded as an immunoprivileged sanctuary, nuances regarding immune responses in the CNS may impact on the activity of immunotherapy treatments of brain tumor patients. Furthermore, many common CNS tumors such as World Health Organization grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas utilize myriad, nonoverlapping strategies to dampen or extinguish antitumor immune responses. For these reasons, critical research efforts are focused on identifying biomarkers that predict patients with a heightened likelihood of therapeutic benefit as well as evaluating rationally designed combinatorial immunotherapy approaches with potentially complementary mechanisms of immune-activation for brain cancer patients. 10.1055/s-0037-1620274
    The possibility of cancer immune editing in gliomas. A critical review. Arrieta Víctor A,Cacho-Díaz Bernardo,Zhao Junfei,Rabadan Raul,Chen Li,Sonabend Adam M Oncoimmunology The relationship between anti-tumoral immunity and cancer progression is complex. Recently, immune editing has emerged as a model to explain the interplay between the immune system and the selection of genetic alterations in cancer. In this model, the immune system selects cancer cells that grow as these are fit to escape immune surveillance during tumor development. Gliomas and glioblastoma, the most aggressive and most common of all primary malignant brain tumors are genetically heterogeneous, are relatively less antigenic, and are less responsive to immunotherapy than other cancers. In this review, we provide an overview of the relationship between glioma´s immune suppressive features, anti-tumoral immunity and cancer genomics. In this context, we provide a critical discussion of evidence suggestive of immune editing in this disease and discuss possible alternative explanations for these findings. 10.1080/2162402X.2018.1445458
    Checkpoint inhibitors as treatment for malignant gliomas: "A long way to the top". Simonelli Matteo,Persico Pasquale,Perrino Matteo,Zucali Paolo Andrea,Navarria Pierina,Pessina Federico,Scorsetti Marta,Bello Lorenzo,Santoro Armando Cancer treatment reviews Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal malignant brain tumor in adults, with a very poor prognosis of less than two years despite surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To date, targeted agents and antiangiogenic therapy have failed to show survival benefits and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently revolutionized the landscape of cancer immunotherapy achieving regulatory approvals for a number of other 'historically' resistant cancers. These exciting successes have generated great interest in investigating if these agents could be such effective also in brain tumors field. Moreover, the traditional dogma that considers the central nervous system (CNS) as an immune-privileged site lacking the potential for immunosurveillance has been challenged as it has become clear that the CNS is immunoactive. Critical barriers to an effective antitumor immunity in brain tumor patients are still represented by the peculiar CNS immunological milieu and the numerous systemic and local immunosuppressive forces exhibited by malignant gliomas to avoid immune recognition and cellular death. This review describes the current status of checkpoint modulation as treatment for malignant gliomas. We start illustrating the compelling molecular and immunological rationale, than we show striking preclinical evidence of activity and discuss available data from prospective clinical trials. Furthermore, we explore the role of predictive biomarkers of responsiveness to checkpoint blockade in the context of gliomas, along with the development of combinatorial and potentially synergistic approaches with other established anti-cancer treatments or complementary immunotherapeutic modalities. 10.1016/j.ctrv.2018.06.016
    Immunotherapy in Gliomas. Weant Mallika P,Jesús Caroline Mejías-De,Yerram Prakirthi Seminars in oncology nursing OBJECTIVES:To describe the immunotherapy approaches currently under investigation for the treatment of gliomas. To discuss the management of immune-related adverse effects. DATA SOURCES:Published literature, clinical trials, and oncology association guidance documents. CONCLUSION:There are numerous modalities of immune treatment currently being evaluated in patients with glioma, including peptide vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, oncolytic viruses, CAR-T cells, and checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Immunotherapy utilizes new mechanisms of treatment that may lead us to the eradication of gliomas. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE:Immunotherapy is a rapidly growing field in the treatment of gliomas. Oncology nurses are often involved in the safe administration of these therapies, as well as the identification and management of immune-related toxicities. 10.1016/j.soncn.2018.10.011
    Perspectives of immunotherapy in isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant gliomas. Friedrich Mirco,Bunse Lukas,Wick Wolfgang,Platten Michael Current opinion in oncology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The present review introduces recent progress in eliciting the role of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in gliomas, especially regarding its mode of action as a modulator of antitumor immune response, and provides rationales for targeting mutant IDH in glioma immunotherapy. Both the development of small molecule inhibitors repressing the enzymatic activity of mutant IDH and novel, mechanism-led combination immunotherapies are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS:Since the discovery of highly frequent IDH mutations in low-grade gliomas and nonsolid malignancies, its tumor cell-intrinsic effects have been intensively investigated. Tumor cells expressing mutant IDH display profound alterations of redox control capacity, phospholipid profile, and ATP supply. Recent findings suggest that IDH mutations - via intricate, yet druggable pathways - cause immunological alterations, highlighting the importance of oncogenic drivers as modulators of antitumor immunity and targets for immunotherapy. SUMMARY:Mutant IDH is not only a disease-defining biomarker and oncogenic driver in glioma, but is also a neoantigen and a regulator of glioma immune evasion. Effective and specific strategies targeting the immunomodulatory properties of mutant IDH may complement current (immuno-)therapeutic strategies and approved antiglioma treatments to improve outcome. 10.1097/CCO.0000000000000478
    Altered cellular metabolism in gliomas - an emerging landscape of actionable co-dependency targets. Bi Junfeng,Chowdhry Sudhir,Wu Sihan,Zhang Wenjing,Masui Kenta,Mischel Paul S Nature reviews. Cancer Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of gliomas. Propelled by a set of recent technological advances, new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying glioma metabolism are rapidly emerging. In this Review, we focus on the dynamic nature of glioma metabolism and how it is shaped by the interaction between tumour genotype and brain microenvironment. Recent advances integrating metabolomics with genomics are discussed, yielding new insight into the mechanisms that drive glioma pathogenesis. Studies that shed light on interactions between the tumour microenvironment and tumour genotype are highlighted, providing important clues as to how gliomas respond to and adapt to their changing tissue and biochemical contexts. Finally, a road map for the discovery of potential new glioma drug targets is suggested, with the goal of translating these new insights about glioma metabolism into clinical benefits for patients. 10.1038/s41568-019-0226-5
    PD-1 inhibition has only limited clinical benefit in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. Kurz Sylvia C,Cabrera Lais P,Hastie David,Huang Raymond,Unadkat Prashin,Rinne Mikael,Nayak Lakshmi,Lee Eudocia Q,Reardon David A,Wen Patrick Y Neurology OBJECTIVE:To investigate the question of whether salvage therapy with the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-blocking antibodies nivolumab or pembrolizumab with or without bevacizumab offers clinical or survival benefit in patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGGs). METHODS:This was a single-institution retrospective observational study in 31 adult patients who received pembrolizumab (Keytruda) or nivolumab (Opdivo) with or without concurrent bevacizumab for recurrent high-grade glioma. RESULTS:Median progression-free survival (mPFS) from first anti-PD-1 dose was 3.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-4.2), and there was no difference in patients receiving nivolumab (mPFS 3.8 months, 95% CI 1.7-5.8) compared to patients receiving pembrolizumab (mPFS 2.3 months, 95% CI 1.7-2.8, log rank 3.1, = 0.08). There was also no difference in mPFS if patients had previously received bevacizumab (mPFS 3.2 months, 95% CI 2-4.3) or were bevacizumab naive (mPFS 3.7, 95% CI 0-7.9, log rank 1.3, = 0.3). The median survival from date of first anti-PD-1 dose was 6.6 months (95% CI 4.2-9.1). CONCLUSION:Salvage therapy with nivolumab or pembrolizumab with or without bevacizumab does not confer a survival benefit in this heavily pretreated unselected patient population. Until the results of the currently ongoing clinical trials become available, the use of PD-1-blocking antibodies should be considered in selected individuals only. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This retrospective observational study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with recurrent HGGs, salvage therapy with nivolumab or pembrolizumab does not significantly improve survival. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006283
    The clinical use of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas. Picca Alberto,Berzero Giulia,Di Stefano Anna Luisa,Sanson Marc Expert review of molecular diagnostics : Mutations in the genes isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 have been reported in a limited number of tumors. In gliomas, IDH mutations are primarily detected in WHO grade II-III tumors and represent a major biomarker with diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive implications. The recent development of IDH inhibitors and vaccines suggests that the IDH mutation is also an appealing target for therapy. : This review focuses on the role of IDH mutations in diffuse gliomas. Besides discussing their role in gliomagenesis, we will emphasize the role of IDH mutations in clinical practice as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarker, and as a potential therapeutic target. Noninvasive detection of the IDH mutation by means of liquid biopsy and MR spectroscopy will also be discussed. : While IDH mutation is a consolidated diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in clinical practice, its role in oncogenesis is far from being elucidated, and there are several pending issues. The routine use of noninvasive techniques for detection and monitoring of the IDH status remains challenging. Although the IDH mutation is a very early alteration in gliomagenesis, it may then be omitted during tumor progression. This observation has important implications when designing targeted clinical trials. 10.1080/14737159.2018.1548935
    BRAF Inhibition in -Mutant Gliomas: Results From the VE-BASKET Study. Kaley Thomas,Touat Mehdi,Subbiah Vivek,Hollebecque Antoine,Rodon Jordi,Lockhart A Craig,Keedy Vicki,Bielle Franck,Hofheinz Ralf-Dieter,Joly Florence,Blay Jean-Yves,Chau Ian,Puzanov Igor,Raje Noopur S,Wolf Jurgen,DeAngelis Lisa M,Makrutzki Martina,Riehl Todd,Pitcher Bethany,Baselga Jose,Hyman David M Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE: mutations are frequently found in several glioma subtypes, including pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and ganglioglioma and much less commonly in glioblastoma. We sought to determine the activity of vemurafenib, a selective inhibitor of , in patients with gliomas that harbor this mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The VE-BASKET study was an open-label, nonrandomized, multicohort study for -mutant nonmelanoma cancers. Patients with -mutant glioma received vemurafenib 960 mg twice per day continuously until disease progression, withdrawal, or intolerable adverse effects. Key end points included confirmed objective response rate by RECIST version 1.1, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS:Twenty-four patients (median age, 32 years; 18 female and six male patients) with glioma, including malignant diffuse glioma (n = 11; six glioblastoma and five anaplastic astrocytoma), PXA (n = 7), anaplastic ganglioglioma (n = 3), pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 2), and high-grade glioma, not otherwise specified (n = 1), were treated. Confirmed objective response rate was 25% (95% CI, 10% to 47%) and median progression-free survival was 5.5 months (95% CI, 3.7 to 9.6 months). In malignant diffuse glioma, best response included one partial response and five patients with stable disease, two of whom had disease stabilization that lasted more than 1 year. In PXA, best response included one complete response, two partial responses, and three patients with stable disease. Additional partial responses were observed in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma and anaplastic ganglioglioma (one each). The safety profile of vemurafenib was generally consistent with that of previously published studies. CONCLUSION:Vemurafenib demonstrated evidence of durable antitumor activity in some patients with -mutant gliomas, although efficacy seemed to vary qualitatively by histologic subtype. Additional study is needed to determine the optimal use of vemurafenib in patients with primary brain tumors and to identify the mechanisms driving differential responses across histologic subsets. 10.1200/JCO.2018.78.9990
    Anti-angiogenic therapy for high-grade glioma. Ameratunga Malaka,Pavlakis Nick,Wheeler Helen,Grant Robin,Simes John,Khasraw Mustafa The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in September 2014. The most common primary brain tumours in adults are gliomas. Gliomas span a spectrum from low to high grade and are graded pathologically on a scale of one to four according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. High-grade glioma (HGG) carries a poor prognosis. Grade IV glioma is known as glioblastoma and carries a median survival in treated patients of about 15 months. Glioblastomas are rich in blood vessels (i.e. highly vascular) and also rich in a protein known as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that promotes new blood vessel formation (the process of angiogenesis). Anti-angiogenic agents inhibit the process of new blood vessel formation and promote regression of existing vessels. Several anti-angiogenic agents have been investigated in clinical trials, both in newly diagnosed and recurrent HGG, showing preliminary promising results. This review was undertaken to report on the benefits and harms associated with the use of anti-angiogenic agents in the treatment of HGGs. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of anti-angiogenic therapy in people with high-grade glioma (HGG). The intervention can be used in two broad groups: at first diagnosis as part of 'adjuvant' therapy, or in the setting of recurrent disease. SEARCH METHODS:We conducted updated searches to identify published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 9), MEDLINE and Embase to October 2018. We handsearched proceedings of relevant oncology conferences up to 2018. We also searched trial registries for ongoing studies. SELECTION CRITERIA:RCTs evaluating the use of anti-angiogenic therapy to treat HGG versus the same therapy without anti-angiogenic therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Review authors screened the search results and reviewed the abstracts of potentially relevant articles before retrieving the full text of eligible articles. MAIN RESULTS:After a comprehensive literature search, we identified 11 eligible RCTs (3743 participants), of which 7 were included in the original review (2987 participants). There was significant design heterogeneity in the included studies, especially in the response assessment criteria used. All eligible studies were restricted to glioblastomas and there were no eligible studies evaluating other HGGs. Ten studies were available as fully published peer-reviewed manuscripts, and one study was available in abstract form. The overall risk of bias in included studies was low. This risk was based upon low rates of selection bias, detection bias, attrition bias and reporting bias. The 11 studies included in this review did not show an improvement in overall survival with the addition of anti-angiogenic therapy (pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 1.02; P = 0.16; 11 studies, 3743 participants; high-certainty evidence). However, pooled analysis from 10 studies (3595 participants) showed improvement in progression-free survival with the addition of anti-angiogenic therapy (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.79; P < 0.00001; high-certainty evidence).We carried out additional analyses of overall survival and progression-free survival according to treatment setting and for anti-angiogenic therapy combined with chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone. Pooled analysis of overall survival in either the adjuvant or recurrent setting did not show an improvement (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.02; P = 0.12; 8 studies, 2833 participants; high-certainty evidence and HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.16; P = 0.90; 3 studies, 910 participants; moderate-certainty evidence, respectively). Pooled analysis of overall survival for anti-angiogenic therapy combined with chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy also did not clearly show an improvement (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.00; P = 0.05; 11 studies, 3506 participants; low-certainty evidence). The progression-free survival in the subgroups all showed findings that demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival with the addition of anti-angiogenic therapy. Pooled analysis of progression-free survival in both the adjuvant and recurrent setting showed an improvement (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.82; P < 0.00001; 8 studies, 2833 participants; high-certainty evidence and HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.76; P < 0.00001; 2 studies, 762 participants; moderate-certainty evidence, respectively). Pooled analysis of progression-free survival for anti-angiogenic therapy combined with chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone showed an improvement (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.77; P < 0.00001; 10 studies, 3464 participants). Similar to trials of anti-angiogenic therapies in other solid tumours, adverse events related to this class of therapy included hypertension and proteinuria, poor wound healing, and the potential for thromboembolic events, although generally, the rate of grade 3 and 4 adverse events was low (< 14.1%) and in keeping with the literature. The impact of anti-angiogenic therapy on quality of life varied between studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:The use of anti-angiogenic therapy does not significantly improve overall survival in newly diagnosed people with glioblastoma. Thus, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of anti-angiogenic therapy for people with newly diagnosed glioblastoma at this time. Overall there is a lack of evidence of a survival advantage for anti-angiogenic therapy over chemotherapy in recurrent glioblastoma. When considering the combination anti-angiogenic therapy with chemotherapy compared with the same chemotherapy alone, there may possibly be a small improvement in overall survival. While there is strong evidence that bevacizumab (an anti-angiogenic drug) prolongs progression-free survival in newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma, the impact of this on quality of life and net clinical benefit for patients remains unclear. Not addressed here is whether subsets of people with glioblastoma may benefit from anti-angiogenic therapies, nor their utility in other HGG histologies. 10.1002/14651858.CD008218.pub4
    Efficacy and Safety of Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Recurrent Malignant Gliomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Hu Yan-Jia,Chen Da,Zhang Li-Feng,Chen Jing World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:The current treatment for patients with relapsed malignant glioma (MG) remains unsatisfactory. Use of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) for recurrent MG has shown some encouraging results and may be a viable option. METHODS:We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles that investigated the use of HFSRT for recurrent MG. Relevant studies were obtained through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Data about treatment regimens, median overall survival, and radiation necrosis (RN), as well as other major neurologic complications were extracted. We performed a descriptive analysis of the median overall survival and meta-analysis of the reported rates of RN and other major neurologic complications (MNCs). RESULTS:A total of 26 studies were included in our study, comprising 861 patients. Median overall survival ranged from 8.6 to 18 months. A total of 19 studies were included to perform a meta-analysis of the RN rate and the pooled RN rate was 5% (3%-7%). The pooled rate of other MNCs was 2% (1%-4%), calculated from 20 studies. CONCLUSIONS:The present evidence suggests that HFSRT is an efficacious and safe treatment approach to treat patients with recurrent MG. However, the retrospective and observational nature of the studies included in our systematic review and meta-analysis restricted formation of more solid conclusions. Thus, well-designed prospective controlled trials are warranted to further define the therapeutic role of HFSRT for recurrent MG. 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.297
    Emerging therapeutic potential of anti-psychotic drugs in the management of human glioma: A comprehensive review. Kamarudin Muhamad N A,Parhar Ishwar Oncotarget Despite numerous advancements in the last decade, human gliomas such as astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme have the worst prognoses among all cancers. Anti-psychotic drugs are commonly prescribed to treat mental disorders among cancer patients, and growing empirical evidence has revealed their antitumor, anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, chemo-preventive, and neo-adjuvant efficacies in various , , and clinical glioma models. Anti-psychotic drugs have drawn the attention of physicians and researchers owing to their beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of gliomas. This review highlights data on the therapeutic potential of various anti-psychotic drugs as anti-proliferative, chemopreventive, and anti-angiogenic agents in various glioma models via the modulation of upstream and downstream molecular targets involved in apoptosis, autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, and the cell cycle in and preclinical and clinical stages among glioma patients. The ability of anti-psychotic drugs to modulate various signaling pathways and multidrug resistance-conferring proteins that enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs with low side-effects exemplifies their great potential as neo-adjuvants and potential chemotherapeutics in single or multimodal treatment approach. Moreover, anti-psychotic drugs confer the ability to induce glioma into oligodendrocyte-like cells and neuronal-like phenotype cells with reversal of epigenetic alterations through inhibition of histone deacetylase further rationalize their use in glioma treatment. The improved understanding of anti-psychotic drugs as potential chemotherapeutic drugs or as neo-adjuvants will provide better information for their use globally as affordable, well-tolerated, and effective anticancer agents for human glioma. 10.18632/oncotarget.26994
    Advanced treatment in high-grade gliomas. Xiong Lai,Wang Feng,Qi Xie Xiao Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology Gliomas are tumors with high incidence and poor prognosis among primary brain tumors and they present difficulties in surgical removal, having also high recurrence rate. The efficacy of various treatments on high-grade gliomas is not satisfactory. Some studies have found that age, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and other factors, such as tumor molecular pathology, have a certain impact on the recurrence of high-grade gliomas, and a common concern in the studies of high-grade gliomas is that one single treatment often has low efficacy. However, with the development of molecular biology, there is a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of these tumors, and molecular targeted therapy has attracked impressive attention. The treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas is also more abundant , Diversity of treatment options than before. Oncolytic virus therapy, stem cell therapy, immunotherapy and electric field therapy are now available. These emerging treatments are expected to improve the prospect of treating recurrent high-grade gliomas.
    Diffuse Low-Grade Glioma - Changing Concepts in Diagnosis and Management: A Review. Jooma Rashid,Waqas Muhammad,Khan Inamullah Asian journal of neurosurgery Though diffuse low-grade gliomas (dLGGs) represent only 15% of gliomas, they have been receiving increasing attention in the past decade. Significant advances in knowledge of the natural history and clinical diversity have been documented, and an improved pathological classification of gliomas that integrates histological features with molecular markers has been issued by the WHO. Advances in the radiological assessment of dLGG, particularly new magnetic resonance imaging scanning sequences, allow improved diagnostic and prognostic information. The management paradigms are evolving from "wait and watch" of the past to more active interventional therapy to obviate the risk of malignant transformation. New surgical technologies allow more aggressive surgical resections with a reduction of morbidity. Many reports suggest the association of gross total resection with longer overall survival and progression-free survival in addition to better seizure control. The literature also shows the use of chemotherapeutics and radiation therapy as important adjuncts to surgery. The goals of management have has been increasing survival with increasing stress on quality of life. Our review highlights the recent advances in the molecular diagnosis and management of dLGG with trends toward multidisciplinary and multimodality management of dLGG with an aim to surgically resect the primary disease, followed by chemoradiation in cases of progressive or recurrent disease. 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_24_18
    The current state of immunotherapy for gliomas: an eye toward the future. Fecci Peter E,Sampson John H Journal of neurosurgery The last decade has seen a crescendo of FDA approvals for immunotherapies against solid tumors, yet glioblastoma remains a prominent holdout. Despite more than 4 decades of work with a wide range of immunotherapeutic modalities targeting glioblastoma, efficacy has been challenging to obtain. Earlier forms of immune-based platforms have now given way to more current approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor T-cells, personalized neoantigen vaccines, oncolytic viruses, and checkpoint blockade. The recent experiences with each, as well as the latest developments and anticipated challenges, are reviewed. 10.3171/2019.5.JNS181762
    [Difficulties and prospects in the immunotherapy of gliomas]. Mangel László,Najbauer József,Kajtár Béla,Pongrácz Erzsébet Judit Magyar onkologia Despite the spectacular development of clinical immunotherapy (IT) in the last decade, the regular treatment approaches for the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumors, the malignant gliomas (MGs) has not changed yet. The most important pitfalls of the routine application of immunotherapy can be imputed to the special and originally immunosuppressed microenvironment and the extreme heterogeneity of MGs, however the defensive role of the blood-brain barrier, the general usage of steroids and the difficulties in the evaluation of brain images can also play a role in these types of difficulties. Additionally, in the case of MGs, well-accepted IT biomarker assays (PDL1 positivity, mismatch repair deficiencies, tumor mutation burden, etc.) generally reveal only minimal levels of immunogen activities. Nevertheless, there are some promising results with the utilization of checkpoint inhibitors and other IT modalities (such as virus-based therapies, tumor vaccines, adoptive T cell therapies) and with the combination of conventional oncotherapy methods in case of CNS malignancies, as well. In conclusion, although the CNS is not any more considered as an "immunological sanctuary" and despite some encouraging experimental and clinical results in CNS oncotherapy, the routine application of IT in case of MGs is still awaited.
    Immunotherapy Against Gliomas: is the Breakthrough Near? Lukas Rimas V,Wainwright Derek A,Horbinski Craig M,Iwamoto Fabio M,Sonabend Adam M Drugs Immunotherapeutic approaches have been, and continue to be, aggressively investigated in the treatment of infiltrating gliomas. While the results of late-phase clinical studies have been disappointing in this disease space thus far, the success of immunotherapies in other malignancies as well as the incremental gains in our understanding of immune-tumour interactions in gliomas has fuelled a strong continued interest of their evaluation in these tumours. We discuss a range of immunotherapeutic approaches including, but not limited to, vaccines, checkpoint inhibitors, oncolytic viruses, and gene therapies. Potential biomarkers under investigation to help elucidate which patients may respond or not respond to immunotherapeutic regimens are reviewed. Directions for future investigations are also noted. 10.1007/s40265-019-01203-z
    The influence of patient sex on clinical approaches to malignant glioma. Matteoni Silvia,Abbruzzese Claudia,Villani Veronica,Malorni Walter,Pace Andrea,Matarrese Paola,Paggi Marco G Cancer letters Gliomas are tumors that originate from the glial tissue, thus involving the central nervous system with varying degrees of malignancy. The most aggressive and frequent form is glioblastoma multiforme, a disease characterized by resistance to therapies, frequent recurrences, and extremely poor median survival time. Data on overall glioma case studies demonstrate clear sex disparities regarding incidence, prognosis, drug toxicity, clinical outcome, and, recently, prediction of therapeutic response. In this study, we analyze data in the literature regarding malignant glioma, mainly glioblastoma multiforme, focusing on epidemiological and clinical evaluations. Less discussed issues, such as the role of viral infections, energy metabolism, and predictive aspects concerning the possible use of dedicated therapeutic approaches for male or female patients, will be reported together with different estimated pathogenetic mechanisms underlying astrocyte transformation and glioma chemosensitivity. In this era, where personalized/precision medicine is the most important driver for targeted cancer therapies, the lines of evidence discussed herein strongly suggest that clinical approaches to malignant glioma should consider the patient's sex. Furthermore, retrospectively revising previous clinical studies considering patient sex as a crucial variable is recommended. 10.1016/j.canlet.2019.10.012
    How We Treat Recurrent Glioblastoma Today and Current Evidence. Chaul-Barbosa Caroline,Marques Daniel Fernandes Current oncology reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) has no standard treatment. Despite a better molecular knowledge, few therapies have brought changes in clinical practice so far. Here we will review the current data evaluating the re-radiation, re-resection, bevacizumab, and cytotoxic chemotherapy agents in this setting. We will also discuss the advances of immunotherapy and the possible benefit of this treatment for patients with rGBM. RECENT FINDINGS:Next-generation sequencing is increasingly utilized in the clinical practice of neuro-oncologists, bringing gene mutations as targets for therapies. As in other solid tumors, immunotherapy has been also extensively studied in rGBM, with interesting results in phase I and II trials. The most promising therapies in the horizon are combinations including immune checkpoint inhibitors, virotherapy, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies. Although re-radiation, re-resection, bevacizumab, and chemotherapy are still the most widely used therapies for treating rGBM, the clinical benefit from these treatments is still not well established. Preliminary results of studies with immune checkpoint inhibitors were disappointing, but virotherapy emerges as more promising immunotherapy in rGBM, especially in combination with other strategies. In addition to the gain in overall survival, the improvement in the quality of life of these patients is also expected. 10.1007/s11912-019-0834-y
    Epigenetic Reprogramming for Targeting -Mutant Malignant Gliomas. Park Jong-Whi,Turcan Şevin Cancers Targeting the epigenome has been considered a compelling treatment modality for several cancers, including gliomas. Nearly 80% of the lower-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas harbor recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (). Mutant IDH generates high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) that inhibit various components of the epigenetic machinery, including histone and DNA demethylases. The encouraging results from current epigenetic therapies in hematological malignancies have reinvigorated the interest in solid tumors and gliomas, both preclinically and clinically. Here, we summarize the recent advancements in epigenetic therapy for lower-grade gliomas and discuss the challenges associated with current treatment options. A particular focus is placed on therapeutic mechanisms underlying favorable outcome with epigenetic-based drugs in basic and translational research of gliomas. This review also highlights emerging bridges to combination treatment with respect to epigenetic drugs. Given that epigenetic therapies, particularly DNA methylation inhibitors, increase tumor immunogenicity and antitumor immune responses, appropriate drug combinations with immune checkpoint inhibitors may lead to improvement of treatment effectiveness of immunotherapy, ultimately leading to tumor cell eradication. 10.3390/cancers11101616
    Concurrent and Adjuvant Temozolomide for Newly Diagnosed Grade III Gliomas without 1p/19q Co-deletion: A Randomized, Open-Label, Phase 2 Study (KNOG-1101 Study). Hwang Kihwan,Kim Tae Min,Park Chul-Kee,Chang Jong Hee,Jung Tae-Young,Kim Jin Hee,Nam Do-Hyun,Kim Se-Hyuk,Yoo Heon,Hong Yong-Kil,Kim Eun-Young,Lee Dong-Eun,Joo Jungnam,Kim Yu Jung,Choe Gheeyoung,Choi Byung Se,Kang Seok-Gu,Kim Jeong Hoon,Kim Chae-Yong Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association PURPOSE:We investigated the efficacy of temozolomide during and after radiotherapy in Korean adults with anaplastic gliomas without 1p/19q co-deletion. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This was a randomized, open-label, phase 2 study and notably the first multicenter trial for Korean grade III glioma patients. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had newly diagnosed non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive radiotherapy alone (60 Gy in 30 fractions of 2 Gy) (control group, n=44) or to receive radiotherapy with concurrent temozolomide (75 mg/m2/day) followed by adjuvant temozolomide (150-200 mg/m2/day for 5 days during six 28-day cycles) (treatment group, n=40). The primary end-point was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Seventy patients (83.3%) were available for the analysis of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) mutation status. RESULTS:The two-year PFS was 42.2% in the treatment group and 37.2% in the control group. Overall survival (OS) did not reach to significant difference between the groups. In multivariable analysis, age was a significant risk factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 4.16). The IDH1 mutation was the only significant prognostic factor for PFS (HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.59) and OS (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.50). Adverse events over grade 3 were seen in 16 patients (40.0%) in the treatment group and were reversible. CONCLUSION:Concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide in Korean adults with newly diagnosed non-co- deleted anaplastic gliomas showed improved 2-year PFS. The survival benefit of this regimen needs further analysis with long-term follow-up at least more than 10 years. 10.4143/crt.2019.421
    A review of recently described genetic alterations in central nervous system tumors. Lucas Calixto-Hope G,Solomon David A,Perry Arie Human pathology Advances in molecular profiling of central nervous system tumors have enabled the development of classification schemes with improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. As such, the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (WHO 2016) introduced a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of brain tumors. For instance, integrated assessment incorporating both histologic features and genetic alterations was introduced into the diagnostic framework of gliomas. IDH1/2 mutation status now represents the most important initial stratifier of diffuse gliomas in adults, although rarer subtypes within the IDH-wildtype category continue to be elucidated. Medulloblastomas and other embryonal neoplasms were also genetically defined and segregated based on molecular subtypes, and 1 molecular subtype of ependymoma was added. In this review, we summarize the rapidly evolving spectrum of recurrent genetic alterations described in central nervous system tumor entities since the publication of the WHO 2016. 10.1016/j.humpath.2019.10.009
    Radiation and chemotherapy for high-risk lower grade gliomas: Choosing between temozolomide and PCV. McDuff Susan G R,Dietrich Jorg,Atkins Katelyn M,Oh Kevin S,Loeffler Jay S,Shih Helen A Cancer medicine PURPOSE:The majority of patients with high-risk lower grade gliomas (LGG) are treated with single-agent temozolomide (TMZ) and radiotherapy despite three randomized trials showing a striking overall survival benefit with adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This article aims to evaluate the evidence and rationale for the widespread use of TMZ instead of PCV for high-risk LGG. METHODS AND MATERIALS:We conducted a literature search utilizing PubMed for articles investigating the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-risk LGG and analyzed the results of these studies. RESULTS:For patients with IDH mutant 1p/19q codeleted LGG tumors, there is limited evidence to support the use of TMZ. In medically fit patients with codeleted disease, existing data demonstrate a large survival benefit for PCV as compared to adjuvant radiation therapy alone. For patients with non-1p/19q codeleted LGG, early data from the CATNON study supports inclusion of adjuvant TMZ for 12 months. Subset analyses of the RTOG 9402 and EORTC 26951 do not demonstrate a survival benefit for adjuvant PCV for non-1p/19q codeleted gliomas, however secondary analyses of RTOG 9802 and RTOG 9402 demonstrated survival benefit in any IDH mutant lower grade gliomas, regardless of 1p/19q codeletion status. CONCLUSIONS:At present, we conclude that current evidence does not support the widespread use of TMZ over PCV for all patients with high-risk LGG, and we instead recommend tailoring chemotherapy recommendation based on IDH status, favoring adjuvant PCV for patients with any IDH mutant tumors, both those that harbor 1p/19q codeletion and those non-1p/19q codeleted. Given the critical role radiation plays in the treatment of LGG, radiation oncologists should be actively involved in discussions regarding chemotherapy choice in order to optimize treatment for their patients. 10.1002/cam4.2686
    Current state and future perspective of drug repurposing in malignant glioma. Siegelin Markus David,Schneider Elisabeth,Westhoff Mike-Andrew,Wirtz Christian Rainer,Karpel-Massler Georg Seminars in cancer biology Malignant gliomas are still extremely difficult to treat because complete surgical resection is biologically not feasible due to the invasive nature of these diseases and the proximity of tumors to functionally sensitive areas. Moreover, adjuvant therapies are facing a strong therapeutic resistance since the central nervous system is a highly protected environment and the tumor cells display a vast intra-tumoral genetic and epigenetic variation. As a consequence, new therapeutics are urgently needed but the process of developing novel compounds that finally reach clinical application is highly time-consuming and expensive. Drug repurposing is an approach to facilitate and accelerate the discovery of new cancer treatments. In malignant glioma, like in other cancers, pre-existing physiological pathways that regulate cell growth, cell death or cell migration are dysregulated causing malignant transformation. A wide variety of drugs are clinically used to treat non-cancerous diseases interfering with these malignancy-associated pathways. Repurposed drugs have key advantages: They already have approval for clinical use by national regulatory authorities. Moreover, they are for the most part inexpensive and their side effect and safety profiles are well characterized. In this work, we provide an overview on current repurposing strategies for the treatment of malignant glioma. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2019.10.018
    Current Role of Radiation Therapy in the Management of Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors. Farooqi Ahsan,Li Jing,de Groot John,Yeboa Debra Nana Hematology/oncology clinics of North America The 2016 World Health Organization classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors underwent significant restructuring and for the first time gliomas are classified according to both molecular and histologic parameters which guides glioma management. Radiation for intermediate-risk meningiomas improves the progression-free survival from historical controls, and studies are ongoing for atypical meningiomas. For brain metastases, use of stereotactic radiosurgery for a higher number of lesions has become clinical practice. Additionally, hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiation shows promise in preserving neuro-cognitive function. This article summarizes the evolving role of radiation therapy in the management of malignant CNS neoplasms. 10.1016/j.hoc.2019.08.015
    Radiotherapy versus radiotherapy combined with temozolomide in high-risk low-grade gliomas after surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial. Wang Jingjing,Wang Ying,He Yan,Guan Hui,He Ling,Mu Xiaoli,Peng Xingchen Trials BACKGROUND:It has been reported that radiation therapy (RT) followed by procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy could improve progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with high-risk World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2 gliomas after surgery. However, procarbazine is not available in China. In clinical practice, Chinese doctors often use radiotherapy combined with temozolomide (TMZ) to treat these patients, although large-scale prospective studies are lacking. This trial aims to confirm whether RT combined with temozolomide can improve PFS and OS in high-risk patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs). METHODS/DESIGN:This is a two-group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) enrolling patients who have LGGs (WHO grade 2) and are aged 40 years or older without regard to the extent of resection or are aged younger than 40 years old with subtotal resection or biopsy. An estimated 250 patients will be enrolled. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned to receive RT alone or RT plus TMZ chemotherapy in a 1:1 ratio. The same RT will be given to all eligible participants regardless of whether they are randomly assigned to the RT group or the chemoradiotherapy (CRT) group. While in the CRT group, patients will receive adjuvant TMZ with or without concurrent radiochemotherapy. The primary outcome of this trial is PFS, and it will be analyzed by the intention-to-treat approach. Secondary outcomes include OS, adverse events, and cognitive function. DISCUSSION:The objective of our research is to assess the effect of radiotherapy coupled with TMZ in high-risk patients with LGGs after surgery, compared with RT alone. Different histological types and molecular subtypes will be examined, and a corresponding subgroup analysis will be conducted. Our data can provide evidence for postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with high-risk LGGs in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800015199. Registered on 13 March 2018. 10.1186/s13063-019-3741-5
    Recent progress in the research of suicide gene therapy for malignant glioma. Tamura Ryota,Miyoshi Hiroyuki,Yoshida Kazunari,Okano Hideyuki,Toda Masahiro Neurosurgical review Malignant glioma, which is characterized by diffuse infiltration into the normal brain parenchyma, is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with dismal prognosis. Over the past 40 years, the median survival has only slightly improved. Therefore, new therapeutic modalities must be developed. In the 1990s, suicide gene therapy began attracting attention for the treatment of malignant glioma. Some clinical trials used a viral vector for suicide gene transduction; however, it was found that viral vectors cannot cover the large invaded area of glioma cells. Interest in this therapy was recently revived because some types of stem cells possess a tumor-tropic migratory capacity, which can be used as cellular delivery vehicles. Immortalized, clonal neural stem cell (NSC) line has been used for patients with recurrent high-grade glioma, which showed safety and efficacy. Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells may be considered as sources of NSC because NSC is difficult to harvest, and ethical issues have been raised. Mesenchymal stem cells are alternative candidates for cellular vehicle and are easily harvested from the bone marrow. In addition, a new type of nonlytic, amphotropic retroviral replicating vector encoding suicide gene has shown efficacy in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma in a clinical trial. This replicating viral capacity is another possible candidate as delivery vehicle to tackle gliomas. Herein, we review the concept of suicide gene therapy, as well as recent progress in preclinical and clinical studies in this field. 10.1007/s10143-019-01203-3
    Brain immunology and immunotherapy in brain tumours. Sampson John H,Gunn Michael D,Fecci Peter E,Ashley David M Nature reviews. Cancer Gliomas, the most common malignant primary brain tumours, remain universally lethal. Yet, seminal discoveries in the past 5 years have clarified the anatomy, genetics and function of the immune system within the central nervous system (CNS) and altered the paradigm for successful immunotherapy. The impact of standard therapies on the response to immunotherapy is now better understood, as well. This new knowledge has implications for a broad range of tumours that develop within the CNS. Nevertheless, the requirements for successful therapy remain effective delivery and target specificity, while the dramatic heterogeneity of malignant gliomas at the genetic and immunological levels remains a profound challenge. 10.1038/s41568-019-0224-7
    O-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT): Challenges and New Opportunities in Glioma Chemotherapy. Yu Wei,Zhang Lili,Wei Qichun,Shao Anwen Frontiers in oncology Chemoresistance has been a significant problem affecting the efficacy of drugs targeting tumors for decades. MGMT, known as O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, is a DNA repair enzyme that plays an important role in chemoresistance to alkylating agents. Hence, MGMT is considered a promising target for tumor treatment. Several methods are employed to detect MGMT, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of the detection methods are; immunohistochemistry, methylation-specific PCR (MSP), pyrophosphate sequencing, MGMT activity test, and real-time quantitative PCR. Methylation of MGMT promoter is a key predictor of whether alkylating agents can effectively control glioma cells. The prognostic value of MGMT in glioma is currently being explored. The expression of MGMT gene mainly depends on epigenetic modification-methylation of CpG island of MGMT promoter. CpG island covers a length of 762 bp, with 98 CpG sites located at the 5' end of the gene, ranging from 480 to 1,480 nucleotides. The methylation sites and frequencies of CpG islands vary in MGMT-deficient tumor cell lines, xenografts of glioblastoma and glioblastoma. Methylation in some regions of promoter CpG islands is particularly associated with gene expression. The change in the methylation status of the MGMT promoter after chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both is not completely understood, and results from previous studies have been controversial. Several studies have revealed that chemotherapy may enhance MGMT expression in gliomas. This could be through gene induction or selection of high MGMT-expressing cells during chemotherapy. Selective survival of glioma cells with high MGMT expression during alkylating agent therapy may change MGMT status in case of recurrence. Several strategies have been pursued to improve the anti-tumor effects of temozolomide. These include the synthesis of analogs of O-meG such as O-benzylguanine (O-BG) and O-(4-bromothenyl) guanine (O-BTG), RNAi, and viral proteins. This review describes the regulation of MGMT expression and its role in chemotherapy, especially in glioma. Targeting MGMT seems to be a promising approach to overcome chemoresistance. Further studies exploring new agents targeting MGMT with better curative effect and less toxicity are advocated. We anticipate that these developments will improve the current poor prognosis of glioma patients. 10.3389/fonc.2019.01547
    Interrelationships between molecular subtype, anatomical location, and extent of resection in diffuse glioma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. De Leeuw Beverly I,Van Baarsen Kirsten M,Snijders Tom J,Robe Pierre A J T Neuro-oncology advances Background:The introduction of the 2016 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System has resulted in tumor groupings with improved prognostic value for diffuse glioma patients. Molecular subtype, primarily based on IDH-mutational status and 1p/19q-status, is a strong predictor of survival. It is unclear to what extent this finding may be mediated by differences in anatomical location and surgical resectability among molecular subgroups. Our aim was to elucidate possible correlations between (1) molecular subtype and anatomical location and (2) molecular subtype and extent of resection. Methods:We performed a systematic review of literature searching for studies on molecular subtype in relation to anatomical location and extent of resection. Only original data concerning adult participants suffering from cerebral diffuse glioma were included. Studies adopting similar outcomes measures were included in our meta-analysis. Results:In the systematic analysis for research questions 1 and 2, totals of 20 and 9 studies were included, respectively. Study findings demonstrated that IDH-mutant tumors were significantly more frequently located in the frontal lobe and less often in the temporal lobe compared with IDH-wildtype gliomas. Within the IDH-mutant group, 1p/19q-codeleted tumors were associated with more frequent frontal and less frequent temporal localization compared with 1p/19q-intact tumors. In IDH-mutant gliomas, greater extent of resection was achieved than in IDH-wildtype tumors. Conclusions:Genetic profile of diffuse cerebral glioma influences their anatomical location and seems to affect tumor resectability. 10.1093/noajnl/vdz032
    Therapeutic Anticoagulation in Patients with Primary Brain Tumors or Secondary Brain Metastasis. Lin Richard J,Green David L,Shah Gunjan L The oncologist Patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors are at increased risk of developing venous thromboses. However, the potential benefit of therapeutic anticoagulation in these patients must be weighed against the deadly complication of intracranial hemorrhage. In this review, we summarize available evidence and recent studies of intracranial bleeding risks in primary and metastatic tumors and the impact of therapeutic anticoagulation. We find that for the majority of primary and treated metastatic brain tumors, the risk of spontaneous bleeding is acceptable and not further increased by careful therapeutic anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin or direct oral anticoagulants, although thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 50,000/μL) and other coagulopathies are relative contraindications. Patients with brain metastasis from melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma have a higher tendency to bleed spontaneously than noted in patients with other malignancies, and thus warrant routine brain imaging and alternative strategies such as inferior vena cava filter placement in the acute setting of venous thromboembolism before consideration of therapeutic anticoagulation. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Malignant gliomas are associated with increased risks of both venous thromboses and intracranial hemorrhage, but the additional bleeding risk associated with therapeutic anticoagulation appears acceptable, especially after treatment of primary tumors. Most patients with treated brain metastasis have a low risk of intracranial hemorrhage associated with therapeutic anticoagulation, and low molecular weight heparin is currently the preferred agent of choice. Patients with untreated brain metastasis from melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, thyroid cancer, choriocarcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma have a higher propensity for spontaneous intracranial bleeding, and systemic anticoagulation may be contraindicated in the acute setting of venous thromboembolism. 10.1634/theoncologist.2017-0274
    Advances in immunotherapeutic research for glioma therapy. Miyauchi Jeremy Tetsuo,Tsirka Stella E Journal of neurology Gliomas are primary malignancies of the brain. Tumors are staged based on malignancy, nuclear atypia, and infiltration of the surrounding brain parenchyma. Tumors are often diagnosed once patients become symptomatic, at which time the lesion is sizable. Glioblastoma (grade IV glioma) is highly aggressive and difficult to treat. Most tumors are diagnosed de novo. The gold standard of therapy, implemented over a decade ago, consists of fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide, but unfortunately, chemotherapeutic resistance arises. Recurrence is common after initial therapy. The tumor microenvironment plays a large role in cancer progression and its manipulation can repress progression. The advent and implementation of immunotherapy, via manipulation and activation of cytotoxic T cells, have had an outstanding impact on reducing morbidity and mortality associated with peripheral cancers under certain clinical circumstances. An arsenal of immunotherapeutics is currently under clinical investigation for safety and efficacy in the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent high grade gliomas. These immunotherapeutics encompass antibody-drug conjugates, autologous infusions of modified chimeric antigen receptor expressing T cells, peptide vaccines, autologous dendritic cell vaccines, immunostimulatory viruses, oncolytic viruses, checkpoint blockade inhibitors, and drugs which alter the behavior of innate immune cells. Effort is focusing on determining which patient populations will benefit the most from these treatments and why. Research addressing synergism between treatment options is gaining attention. While advances in the treatment of glioma stagnated in the past, we may see a considerable evolution in the management of the disease in the upcoming years. 10.1007/s00415-017-8695-5
    Prognostic Value of Tumor Volume in Glioblastoma Patients: Size Also Matters for Patients with Incomplete Resection. Bette Stefanie,Barz Melanie,Wiestler Benedikt,Huber Thomas,Gerhardt Julia,Buchmann Niels,Combs Stephanie E,Schmidt-Graf Friederike,Delbridge Claire,Zimmer Claus,Kirschke Jan S,Meyer Bernhard,Ryang Yu-Mi,Ringel Florian,Gempt Jens Annals of surgical oncology BACKGROUND:Incomplete resection of glioblastoma is discussed controversially in the era of combined radiochemotherapy. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to analyze the benefit of subtotal tumor resection for glioblastoma patients as this was recently questioned in the era of radiochemotherapy. METHODS:Overall, 209 patients undergoing surgery for newly diagnosed WHO grade IV gliomas were retrospectively analyzed, and pre- and postoperative tumor volumes were manually segmented (cm). Survival analyses were performed, including prognostic factors such as age, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), O-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, and adjuvant treatment regimen. RESULTS:Pre- and postoperative tumor volume is significantly associated with pre- and postoperative KPS, as well as age (p < 0.001). Postoperative tumor volume remained a significant prognostic factor in a multivariate analysis, independent of other prognostic factors (hazard ratio 1.0365, 95% confidence interval 1.0235-1.0497, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In the era of molecularly-driven radiochemotherapy, glioblastoma surgery remains a major prognostic factor. Even in situations in which a gross total resection cannot be achieved, maximum safe reduction of tumor burden should be attempted. 10.1245/s10434-017-6253-0
    Phase I/II trial of vorinostat, bevacizumab, and daily temozolomide for recurrent malignant gliomas. Peters Katherine B,Lipp Eric S,Miller Elizabeth,Herndon James E,McSherry Frances,Desjardins Annick,Reardon David A,Friedman Henry S Journal of neuro-oncology Prognosis of recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is poor with 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) ranging from 9 to 48% depending on the treatment regimen and use of anti-angiogenic therapies. We sought to study vorinostat (VOR), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with bevacizumab (BEV) and daily metronomic temozolomide (TMZ) in a Phase I/II trial in recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGGs). This was a Phase I/II open-label, single-arm study in recurrent HGG patients. Phase I primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of VOR with BEV and daily TMZ. Phase II primary endpoint was PFS6. Regimen was BEV 10 mg/kg iv every 2 weeks, TMZ 50 mg/m po daily, and VOR 200 or 400 mg po alternating 7 days on then 7 days off throughout a 28-day cycle. Phase I portion enrolled nine subjects with three receiving VOR 200 mg and 6 receiving VOR 400 mg. With no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at 200 mg and one DLT (thrombocytopenia, Grade 3) at 400 mg, the MTD was 400 mg. Phase II portion enrolled 39 GBM subjects, and PFS6 was 53.8% (95% CI 37.2-67.9%). Of note, 14 subjects had received prior BEV and all had received prior 5-day TMZ. Combination therapy with VOR, BEV, and daily TMZ was well tolerated and safe. While PFS6 was not statistically improved beyond historical controls, it is important to note that this was a heavily pretreated GBM population and further consideration is warranted in a less pretreated group. 10.1007/s11060-017-2724-1
    BRAF Mutation is Associated with an Improved Survival in Glioma-a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Vuong Huy Gia,Altibi Ahmed M A,Duong Uyen N P,Ngo Hanh T T,Pham Thong Quang,Fung Kar-Ming,Hassell Lewis Molecular neurobiology Newly emerged molecular markers in gliomas provide prognostic values beyond the capabilities of histologic classification. BRAF mutation, especially BRAF V600E, is common in a subset of gliomas and may represent a potential prognostic marker. The aim of our study is to investigate the potential use of BRAF mutations on prognosis of glioma patients. Four electronic databases were searched for potential articles, including PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Virtual Health Library (VHL). Data of hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were directly obtained from original papers or indirectly estimated from Kaplan Meier curve (KMC). A random effect model weighted by inverse variance method was used to calculate the pooled HR. From 705 articles, we finally included 11 articles with 1308 glioma patients for the final analysis. The overall estimates showed that BRAF V600E was associated with an improved overall survival (OS) in glioma patients (HR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.44-0.80). Results for progression-free survival (PFS), however, were not statistically significant (HR = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.82-2.34). In subgroup analyses, BRAF V600E showed its effect in improving survival in pediatric and young adult gliomas (under 35 years) but did not have prognostic value in old adult. Additionally, BRAF V600E was only associated with a favorable prognosis in lower grade glioma. Our meta-analysis provides evidence that BRAF mutation has a favorable prognostic impact in gliomas and its prognostic value might be dependent on patient age and tumor grade. This mutation can be used as a prognostic factor in glioma but additional studies are required to clarify its prognostic value taking into account other confounding factors. 10.1007/s12035-017-0599-y
    Incidence of Tumour Progression and Pseudoprogression in High-Grade Gliomas: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Abbasi Abdul W,Westerlaan Henriette E,Holtman Gea A,Aden Kamal M,van Laar Peter Jan,van der Hoorn Anouk Clinical neuroradiology BACKGROUND:High-grade gliomas are the most common primary brain tumours. Pseudoprogression describes the false appearance of radiation-induced progression on MRI. A distinction should be made from true tumour progression to correctly plan treatment. However, there is wide variation of reported pseudoprogression. We thus aimed to establish the incidence of pseudoprogression and tumour progression in high-grade glioma patients with a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS:We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science on the incidence of pseudoprogression and tumour progression in adult high-grade glioma patients from 2005, the latest on 8 October 2014. Histology or imaging follow-up was used as reference standard. Extracted data included number of patients with worsening of imaging findings on T1 postcontrast or T2/FLAIR, pseudoprogression and tumour progression. Study quality was assessed. Heterogeneity was tested with I . Pooling of the results was done with random models using Metaprop in STATA (StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP). RESULTS:We identified 73 studies. MRI progression occurred in 2603 patients. Of these, 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33-40%) demonstrated pseudoprogression, 60% (95%CI 56-64%) tumour progression and unknown outcome was present in the remaining 4% of the patients (range 1-37%). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis demonstrated for the first time a notably high pooled incidence of pseudoprogression in patients with a form of progression across the available literature. This highlighted the full extent of the problem of the currently conventional MRI-based Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria for treatment evaluation in high-grade gliomas. This underscores the need for more accurate treatment evaluation using advanced imaging to improve diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic approach. 10.1007/s00062-017-0584-x
    Association Between IDH1 and IDH2 Mutations and Preoperative Seizures in Patients with Low-Grade Versus High-Grade Glioma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Phan Kevin,Ng Wyatt,Lu Victor M,McDonald Kerrie L,Fairhall Jacob,Reddy Rajesh,Wilson Peter World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Patients with brain tumors, particularly gliomas, commonly present with seizures. Higher incidence of seizure has been reported in low-grade gliomas and tumors located within the temporal and insular area. The association between IDH1 and IDH2 mutations with preoperative seizures in glioma and the magnitude of this association in low-grade versus high-grade gliomas are unclear. To clarify this relationship, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. METHODS:Following accepted guidelines and systematic review recommendations, electronic searches were performed in journal databases up to May 2017. Data were extracted and pooled via meta-analysis. RESULTS:We compared 782 patients with IDH1 and IDH2 mutations with 803 patients with wild-type IDH1 and IDH2 before surgery. There was a significant difference in seizure incidence between the IDH1 mutation group (61.6%) and wild-type IDH1 group (32.1%) (odds ratio 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-6.02; I = 73%; P = 0.01). Similar findings were observed in analysis of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations (odds ratio 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.74-4.33; I = 58%; P < 0.0001). The difference remained in both mutation groups (IDH1, IDH1 and IDH2) with grade II gliomas but not with grade III and IV gliomas. Patients with grade II gliomas showed a higher rate of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations and seizures than patients with grade III and IV gliomas. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated a significant association of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations with incidence of preoperative seizures. This association was significant only in patients with low-grade glioma (grade II) and not in patients with higher grade gliomas (grade III and IV). 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.12.112