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    Electromagnetic pulsed thermography for natural cracks inspection. Gao Yunlai,Tian Gui Yun,Wang Ping,Wang Haitao,Gao Bin,Woo Wai Lok,Li Kongjing Scientific reports Emerging integrated sensing and monitoring of material degradation and cracks are increasingly required for characterizing the structural integrity and safety of infrastructure. However, most conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are based on single modality sensing which is not adequate to evaluate structural integrity and natural cracks. This paper proposed electromagnetic pulsed thermography for fast and comprehensive defect characterization. It hybrids multiple physical phenomena i.e. magnetic flux leakage, induced eddy current and induction heating linking to physics as well as signal processing algorithms to provide abundant information of material properties and defects. New features are proposed using 1st derivation that reflects multiphysics spatial and temporal behaviors to enhance the detection of cracks with different orientations. Promising results that robust to lift-off changes and invariant features for artificial and natural cracks detection have been demonstrated that the proposed method significantly improves defect detectability. It opens up multiphysics sensing and integrated NDE with potential impact for natural understanding and better quantitative evaluation of natural cracks including stress corrosion crack (SCC) and rolling contact fatigue (RCF). 10.1038/srep42073
    A novel high sensitivity sensor for remote field eddy current non-destructive testing based on orthogonal magnetic field. Xu Xiaojie,Liu Ming,Zhang Zhanbin,Jia Yueling Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Remote field eddy current is an effective non-destructive testing method for ferromagnetic tubular structures. In view of conventional sensors' disadvantages such as low signal-to-noise ratio and poor sensitivity to axial cracks, a novel high sensitivity sensor based on orthogonal magnetic field excitation is proposed. Firstly, through a three-dimensional finite element simulation, the remote field effect under orthogonal magnetic field excitation is determined, and an appropriate configuration which can generate an orthogonal magnetic field for a tubular structure is developed. Secondly, optimized selection of key parameters such as frequency, exciting currents and shielding modes is analyzed in detail, and different types of pick-up coils, including a new self-differential mode pick-up coil, are designed and analyzed. Lastly, the proposed sensor is verified experimentally by various types of defects manufactured on a section of a ferromagnetic tube. Experimental results show that the proposed novel sensor can largely improve the sensitivity of defect detection, especially for axial crack whose depth is less than 40% wall thickness, which are very difficult to detect and identify by conventional sensors. Another noteworthy advantage of the proposed sensor is that it has almost equal sensitivity to various types of defects, when a self-differential mode pick-up coil is adopted. 10.3390/s141224098
    Inverse problem in nondestructive testing using arrayed eddy current sensors. Zaoui Abdelhalim,Menana Hocine,Feliachi Mouloud,Berthiau Gérard Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) A fast crack profile reconstitution model in nondestructive testing is developed using an arrayed eddy current sensor. The inverse problem is based on an iterative solving of the direct problem using genetic algorithms. In the direct problem, assuming a current excitation, the incident field produced by all the coils of the arrayed sensor is obtained by the translation and superposition of the 2D axisymmetric finite element results obtained for one coil; the impedance variation of each coil, due to the crack, is obtained by the reciprocity principle involving the dyadic Green's function. For the inverse problem, the surface of the crack is subdivided into rectangular cells, and the objective function is expressed only in terms of the depth of each cell. The evaluation of the dyadic Green's function matrix is made independently of the iterative procedure, making the inversion very fast. 10.3390/s100908696
    Quantitative evaluation of electrical conductivity inside stress corrosion crack with electromagnetic NDE methods. Cai Wenlu,Jomdecha Cherdpong,Zhao Yingsong,Wang Li,Xie Shejuan,Chen Zhenmao Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences This paper presents a comparison of studies on the local distributed electrical conductivity in stress corrosion crack (SCC) from signals of eddy current testing (ECT) and direct current potential drop (DCPD) aiming to improve SCC sizing accuracy when using electromagnetic non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. Experimental setups of ECT and DCPD were established, respectively, to collect measurement signals due to artificial SCCs in a plate of austenitic stainless steel. The local conductivity in the SCC region was reconstructed from the feature parameters extracted from the measured ECT and DCPD signals through inverse analyses. The inversion strategies for ECT and DCPD, each including an efficient forward simulation and an optimization scheme, were introduced from the viewpoint of conductivity reconstruction. Inversion results obtained from the measured ECT and DCPD signals showed the consistent trend which proved the validity of the predicted electrical conductivity indirectly. It is clarified that the electrical conductivity in a SCC is relatively high at the crack tip area and may become as high as 17% of that of the base material. These results provide a good reference to enhance the sizing accuracy of SCC with an electromagnetic NDT method such as ECT by updating the conductive crack model based on the results of this work. This article is part of the theme issue 'Advanced electromagnetic non-destructive evaluation and smart monitoring'. 10.1098/rsta.2019.0589
    Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing. García-Martín Javier,Gómez-Gil Jaime,Vázquez-Sánchez Ernesto Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. 10.3390/s110302525
    Extraction Method of Crack Signal for Inspection of Complicated Steel Structures Using A Dual-Channel Magnetic Sensor. Hayashi Minoru,Saito Taisuke,Nakamura Yoshihiro,Sakai Kenji,Kiwa Toshihiko,Tanikura Izumi,Tsukada Keiji Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Conventional eddy current testing (ECT) using a pickup coil probe is widely employed for the detection of structural cracks. However, the inspection of conventional ECT for steel structures is difficult because of the magnetic noise caused by the nonuniform permeability of steel. To combat this challenge, we have developed a small magnetic sensor probe with a dual-channel tunneling magnetoresistance sensor that is capable of reducing magnetic noise. Applying this probe to a complicated component of steel structures-such as the welds joining a U-shaped rib and deck plate together-requires the reduction of signal fluctuation caused by the distance (liftoff) variations between the sensor probe and the subject. In this study, the fundamental crack signal and the liftoff signal were investigated with the dual-channel sensor. The results showed that the liftoff signals could be reduced and differentiated from the crack signals by the differential parameters of the dual-channel sensor. In addition, we proposed an extraction technique for the crack signal using the Lissajous curve of the differential parameters. The extraction technique could be applied to the inspections not only for flat plates but also for welded angles to detect cracks without the influence of the liftoff signal. 10.3390/s19133001
    A Study of the Automated Eddy Current Detection of Cracks in Steel Plates. Mohseni Ehsan,Habibzadeh Boukani Hamid,Ramos França Demartonne,Viens Martin Journal of nondestructive evaluation Applying life estimation approaches to determine in-service life of structures and plan the inspection schedules accordingly are becoming acceptable safety design procedures in aerospace. However, these design systems shall be fed with reliable parameters related to material properties, loading conditions and defect characteristics. In this context, the role of non-destructive (NDT) testing reliability is of high importance in detecting and sizing defects. Eddy current test (ECT) is an electromagnetic NDT method frequently used to inspect tiny surface fatigue cracks in sensitive industries. Owing to the new advances in robotic technologies, there is a trend to integrate the ECT into automated systems to perform NDT inspections more efficiently. In fact, ECT can be effectively automated as to increase the coverage, repeatability and scanning speed. The reliability of ECT scanning, however, should be thoroughly investigated and compared to conventional modes of applications to obtain a better understanding of the advantages and shortcomings related to this technique. In this contribution, a series of manual and automated ECT tests are carried out on a set of samples using a split-D reflection differential surface probe. The study investigates the level of noise recorded in each technique and discuss its dependency on different parameters, such as surface roughness and frequency. Afterwards, a description of the effect of crack orientation on ECT signal amplitude is provided through experimental tests and finite element simulations. Finally, the reliability of each ECT technique is investigated by means of probability of detection (POD) curves. POD parameters are then extracted and compared to examine the effect of scanning index, frequency and automation on detection reliability. 10.1007/s10921-019-0647-9
    The Improvement of Flaw Detection by the Configuration of Uniform Eddy Current Probes. Repelianto Ageng S,Kasai Naoya Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) In this review, the principles to detect flaws with uniform eddy currents were presented based on the shape and orientation of the excitation coils and detection coils of the probe. Techniques are applied to detect flaws like cracks, especially on the weld zone surface, of test pieces of non-magnetic and ferromagnetic materials, and have unique features which are immune to the effects of lift-off. In the technique of interest, almost all the probe models developed are the type with tangential rectangular excitation coils. The induction condition and the flaw signal for each probe were discussed based on the shape and orientation of the excitation coils and detection coils of the probe. Finally, the challenge of increasing sensitivity to detect flaws with a uniform eddy current was also presented. 10.3390/s19020397
    Quantitative Detection of Cracks in Steel Using Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography. Shi Zhanqun,Xu Xiaoyu,Ma Jiaojiao,Zhen Dong,Zhang Hao Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Small cracks are common defects in steel and often lead to catastrophic accidents in industrial applications. Various nondestructive testing methods have been investigated for crack detection; however, most current methods focus on qualitative crack identification and image processing. In this study, eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) was applied for quantitative crack detection based on derivative analysis of temperature variation. The effects of the incentive parameters on the temperature variation were analyzed in the simulation study. The crack profile and position are identified in the thermal image based on the Canny edge detection algorithm. Then, one or more trajectories are determined through the crack profile in order to determine the crack boundary through its temperature distribution. The slope curve along the trajectory is obtained. Finally, quantitative analysis of the crack sizes was performed by analyzing the features of the slope curves. The experimental verification showed that the crack sizes could be quantitatively detected with errors of less than 1%. Therefore, the proposed ECPT method was demonstrated to be a feasible and effective nondestructive approach for quantitative crack detection. 10.3390/s18041070
    Fatigue Crack Length Sizing Using a Novel Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array. Xie Ruifang,Chen Dixiang,Pan Mengchun,Tian Wugang,Wu Xuezhong,Zhou Weihong,Tang Ying Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) The eddy current probe, which is flexible, array typed, highly sensitive and capable of quantitative inspection is one practical requirement in nondestructive testing and also a research hotspot. A novel flexible planar eddy current sensor array for the inspection of microcrack presentation in critical parts of airplanes is developed in this paper. Both exciting and sensing coils are etched on polyimide films using a flexible printed circuit board technique, thus conforming the sensor to complex geometric structures. In order to serve the needs of condition-based maintenance (CBM), the proposed sensor array is comprised of 64 elements. Its spatial resolution is only 0.8 mm, and it is not only sensitive to shallow microcracks, but also capable of sizing the length of fatigue cracks. The details and advantages of our sensor design are introduced. The working principal and the crack responses are analyzed by finite element simulation, with which a crack length sizing algorithm is proposed. Experiments based on standard specimens are implemented to verify the validity of our simulation and the efficiency of the crack length sizing algorithm. Experimental results show that the sensor array is sensitive to microcracks, and is capable of crack length sizing with an accuracy within ±0.2 mm. 10.3390/s151229911
    In-Line Inspection Tool with Eddy Current Instrumentation for Fatigue Crack Detection. Camerini Cesar,Rebello João Marcos Alcoforado,Braga Lucas,Santos Rafael,Chady Tomasz,Psuj Grzegorz,Pereira Gabriela Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Eddy current transducer with sensing coils placed orthogonally and connected in differential mode was introduced to evaluate fatigue cracks in clad pipeline circumferential welds. A dedicated embedded electronic hardware was developed to drive the transducer and measure the electrical complex impedance of the coils, and was specifically designed for operation under autonomous in-line inspection tool. In the laboratory experiments, an automated inspection was performed with the goal to evaluate transducer’s detectability, and different scanning speed was tested to reproduce in service situation. The results have confirmed that the introduced eddy current transducer is a potential solution for fatigue crack detection in clad circumferential weld root, while the hardware developed presented a reasonable SNR reaching the data rate required to be incorporated in an autonomous in-line inspection tool. 10.3390/s18072161
    A High-Sensitivity Flexible Eddy Current Array Sensor for Crack Monitoring of Welded Structures under Varying Environment. Chen Tao,He Yuting,Du Jinqiang Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) This paper develops a high-sensitivity flexible eddy current array (HS-FECA) sensor for crack monitoring of welded structures under varying environment. Firstly, effects of stress, temperature and crack on output signals of the traditional flexible eddy current array (FECA) sensor were investigated by experiments that show both stress and temperature have great influences on the crack monitoring performance of the sensor. A 3-D finite element model was established using Comsol AC/DC module to analyze the perturbation effects of crack on eddy currents and output signals of the sensor, which showed perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents is reduced by the current loop when crack propagates. Then, the HS-FECA sensor was proposed to boost the sensitivity to cracks. Simulation results show that perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents excited by the HS-FECA sensor gradually grows stronger when the crack propagates, resulting in much higher sensitivity to cracks. Experimental result further shows that the sensitivity of the new sensor is at least 19 times that of the original one. In addition, both stress and temperature variations have little effect on signals of the new sensor. 10.3390/s18061780
    Healing of Fatigue Crack in 1045 Steel by Using Eddy Current Treatment. Yang Chuan,Xu Wenchen,Guo Bin,Shan Debin,Zhang Jian Materials (Basel, Switzerland) In order to investigate the methods to heal fatigue cracks in metals, tubular specimens of 1045 steel with axial and radial fatigue cracks were treated under the eddy current. The optical microscope was employed to examine the change of fatigue cracks of specimens before and after the eddy current treatment. The results show that the fatigue cracks along the axial direction of the specimen could be healed effectively in the fatigue crack initiation zone and the crack tip zone under the eddy current treatment, and the healing could occur within a very short time. The voltage breakdown and the transient thermal compressive stress caused by the detouring of eddy current around the fatigue crack were the main factors contributing to the healing in the fatigue crack initiation zone and the crack tip zone, respectively. Eddy current treatment may be a novel and effective method for crack healing. 10.3390/ma9080641
    New Proposal for Inverse Algorithm Enhancing Noise Robust Eddy-Current Non-Destructive Evaluation. Smetana Milan,Behun Lukas,Gombarska Daniela,Janousek Ladislav Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Solution of inverse problem in eddy-current non-destructive evaluation of material defects is concerned in this study. A new inverse algorithm incorporating three methods is proposed. The wavelet transform of sensed eddy-current responses complemented by the principal component analysis and followed by the neural network classification are employed for this purpose. The goal is to increase the noise robustness of the evaluation. The proposed inverse algorithm is tested using real eddy-current response data gained from artificial electro-discharge machined notches made in austenitic stainless-steel biomaterial. Eddy-current responses due to the material defects are acquired using a newly developed eddy-current probe that senses separately three spatial components of the perturbed electromagnetic field. The presented results clearly show that the error in evaluation of material defect depth using the proposed algorithm is less than 10% even when the signal-to-noise ratio is as high as 10 dB. 10.3390/s20195548
    Two Novel Information Entropy Indices for Analysis of the Eddy Current Distribution. Chen Guolong Entropy (Basel, Switzerland) The Koch curve exciting coil eddy current sensor is a kind of novel flexible planar eddy current probe. In this study, an intersection angle spectrum entropy index and a radial direction energy spectrum entropy were proposed to evaluate the eddy current distribution. Eddy current distributions induced by one turn of a circular coil and one turn of a second order Koch curve coil feed with different exciting frequency alternative currents and at different lift-off distances, were simulated and the eddy current distributions varying with lift-off distance in different exciting frequencies were compared by the two proposed indices. With the increase of the lift-off distance or the decrease of exciting frequency, the similarity between the shape of the Koch curve and the eddy current distribution became weakened and the degree of the concentration of the eddy current distribution in the specimen under the exciting coil was loosened. 10.3390/e20090699
    Investigation of the eddy current effect on the high frequency response of the Mirnov probe on J-TEXT. Shen Chengshuo,Cai Zhenming,Ren Tian,Zhang Xitong,Hu Qiming,Wang Nengchao,Huang Zhuo,Zhou Song,Li Jianchao,Li Mao,Li Da,Han Dongliang,Ding Yonghua The Review of scientific instruments This paper investigates the high frequency response of the Mirnov probe based on a test platform, which is capable of generating a uniform AC magnetic field within the frequency range of 1-300 kHz. The eddy current effect is quantitatively reflected by the phase shift ϕ and normalized amplitude δ of the measured magnetic field between cases with and without a conducting plate located near the Mirnov probe. This method compensates the resonant effect in the Mirnov probe circuit and hence reflects purely the eddy current effect. The eddy current effect increases with the decrease in the distance between the probe and the conducting plate. With the increase in frequency, the magnitude of δ decreases to a saturated value at 10 kHz but increases significantly above 100 kHz for 304-stainless steel, while the eddy current effect with graphite appears at around 10 kHz and the magnitude of δ decreases to the minimum at 125 kHz, followed by a significant increase above 125 kHz. With the increase in f, the magnitude of ϕ increased until 2.5 kHz and 40 kHz for steel and graphite, respectively, then decreased with a further increase in f. The phasor expression is introduced to describe the AC magnetic field and allows an easy expression of the eddy current field. The phase of the eddy current field decreases toward -180° with f. The amplitude of the eddy current field increases with f and reaches its maximum when the skin depth reduces to a critical value. The eddy current field decreases with a further increase in the frequency. 10.1063/1.5093486