KSRP: a checkpoint for inflammatory cytokine production in astrocytes.
Li Xuelin,Lin Wei-Jye,Chen Ching-Yi,Si Ying,Zhang Xiaowen,Lu Liang,Suswam Esther,Zheng Lei,King Peter H
Chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is a central feature of many neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. As an immunologically competent cell, the astrocyte plays an important role in CNS inflammation. It is capable of expressing a number of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) that promote inflammation directly and through the recruitment of immune cells. Checkpoints are therefore in place to keep tight control over cytokine production. Adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (ARE) in the 3' untranslated region of cytokine mRNAs serve as a major checkpoint by regulating mRNA stability and translational efficiency. Here, we examined the impact of KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP), an RNA binding protein which destabilizes mRNAs via the ARE, on cytokine expression and paracrine phenotypes of primary astrocytes. We identified a network of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α and IL-1β, whose expression increased 2 to 4-fold at the RNA level in astrocytes isolated from KSRP(-/-) mice compared to littermate controls. Upon activation, KSRP(-/-) astrocytes produced TNF-α and IL-1β at levels that exceeded control cells by 15-fold or more. Conditioned media from KSRP(-/-) astrocytes induced chemotaxis and neuronal cell death in vitro. Surprisingly, we observed a prolongation of half-life in only a subset of mRNA targets and only after selective astrocyte activation. Luciferase reporter studies indicated that KSRP regulates cytokine gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Our results outline a critical role for KSRP in regulating pro-inflammatory mediators and have implications for a wide range of CNS inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
LncRNA HOTTIP facilitates cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in osteosarcoma by interaction with PTBP1 to promote KHSRP level.
Yao Xin-Yu,Liu Jian-Fan,Luo Yi,Xu Xue-Zheng,Bu Jie
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
This study designs to investigate the role and potential mechanism of lncNRA HOTTIP in OS progression and . HOTTIP, PTBP1, and KHSRP expression levels were tested through qRT-PCR and western blot in OS tissues or cell lines. Cell proliferation was examined via CCK-8 and colony formation. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed via flow cytometry analysis. The invasive and migratory abilities of OS cells were evaluated by transwell and wound-healing assays. The localization of HOTTIP in OS cells was determined by subcellular fractionation assay. RNA pull down and RNA immunoprecipitation were allowed to assess the interaction between HOTTIP and PTBP1. Xenograft tumor growth assay was employed to test the role of HOTTIP and KHSRP in OS progression. Our data demonstrated HOTTIP was upregulated in OS tissues. HOTTIP knockdown resulted in a suppression of OS cell proliferation, invasion and migration, as well as a promotion of OS cell apoptosis, while HOTTIP overexpression exhibited opposite effects. In mechanism, PTBP1 and KHSRP highly expressed in OS and HOTTIP was identified to interact with PTBP1 to promote KHSRP expression. Meanwhile, we found that overexpression of KHSRP or PTBP1, individually, can partially remove the repression of HOTTIP suppression for OS cell progression. Moreover, xenograft tumor growth assay revealed that HOTTIP knockdown significantly inhibited tumor growth, and this inhibitory effect was abolished by KHSRP overexpression. Collectively, these findings confirmed that HOTTIP facilitates OS cell proliferation, invasion and migration by binding to PTBP1 to promote KHSRP level. LncRNA: long noncoding RNA; HOTTIP: HOXA distal transcript antisense RNA; KHSRP: KH-Type Splicing Regulatory Protein; qRT-PCR: quantitative real-time PCR; OS: osteosarcoma; OST: osteosarcoma tissues; ANT: adjacent normal tissue.
Long Noncoding RNA AB074169 Inhibits Cell Proliferation via Modulation of KHSRP-Mediated CDKN1a Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Gou Qiheng,Gao Linbo,Nie Xinwen,Pu Wenchen,Zhu Jingqiang,Wang Yichao,Liu Xuesha,Tan Shuangyan,Zhou Jian-Kang,Gong Yanqiu,He Juan,Wu Ke,Xie Yuxin,Zhao Wanjun,Dai Lunzhi,Liu Lunxu,Xiang Rong,Wei Yu-Quan,Zhang Lin,Peng Yong
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are emerging as a novel class of regulators in gene expression associated with tumorigenesis. However, the role of lncRNAs in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is poorly understood. Here, we conducted global lncRNA profiling and identified lncRNA AB074169 (lncAB) as significantly downregulated in PTC. Decreased expression of lncAB in PTC was caused by CpG hypermethylation within its gene promoter. Functional studies showed that lncAB overexpression led to cell-cycle arrest and tumor growth inhibition and , whereas lncAB knockdown promoted cell proliferation. Mechanistic analyses revealed that lncAB bound KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KHSRP) and also decreased expression of KHSRP, thus increasing CDKN1a (p21) expression and decreasing CDK2 expression to repress cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that lncAB functions as a tumor suppressor during PTC tumorigenesis. These findings identify a tumor-suppressive long noncoding RNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/78/15/4163/F1.large.jpg .