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    G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor activation upregulates interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in the hippocampus after global cerebral ischemia: implications for neuronal self-defense. Bai Ning,Zhang Quanguang,Zhang Wenli,Liu Bin,Yang Fang,Brann Darrell,Wang Ruimin Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) is a novel membrane-associated estrogen receptor that can induce rapid kinase signaling in various cells. Activation of GPER can prevent hippocampal neuronal cell death following transient global cerebral ischemia (GCI), although the mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we sought to address whether GPER activation exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in the rat hippocampus after GCI as a potential mechanism to limit neuronal cell death. METHODS:GCI was induced by four-vessel occlusion in ovariectomized female SD rats. Specific agonist G1 or antagonist G36 of GPER was administrated using minipump, and antisense oligonucleotide (AS) of interleukin-1β receptor antagonist (IL1RA) was administrated using brain infusion kit. Protein expression of IL1RA, NF-κB-P65, phosphorylation of CREB (p-CREB), Bcl2, cleaved caspase 3, and microglial markers Iba1, CD11b, as well as inflammasome components NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase 1, and Cle-IL1β in the hippocampal CA1 region were investigated by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot analysis. The Duolink II in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) was performed to detect the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC. Immunofluorescent staining for NeuN and TUNEL analysis were used to analyze neuronal survival and apoptosis, respectively. We performed Barnes maze and Novel object tests to compare the cognitive function of the rats. RESULTS:The results showed that G1 attenuated GCI-induced elevation of Iba1 and CD11b in the hippocampal CA1 region at 14 days of reperfusion, and this effect was blocked by G36. G1 treatment also markedly decreased expression of the NLRP3-ASC-caspase 1 inflammasome and IL1β activation, as well as downstream NF-κB signaling, the effects reversed by G36 administration. Intriguingly, G1 caused a robust elevation in neurons of a well-known endogenous anti-inflammatory factor IL1RA, which was reversed by G36 treatment. G1 also enhanced p-CREB level in the hippocampus, a transcription factor known to enhance expression of IL1RA. Finally, in vivo IL1RA-AS abolished the anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-apoptotic effects of G1 after GCI and reversed the cognitive-enhancing effects of G1 at 14 days after GCI. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, the current results suggest that GPER preserves cognitive function following GCI in part by exerting anti-inflammatory effects and enhancing the defense mechanism of neurons by upregulating IL1RA. 10.1186/s12974-020-1715-x
    G protein-coupled estrogen receptor is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of genistein in microglia. Du Zhong-Rui,Feng Xiao-Qing,Li Na,Qu Jiang-Xue,Feng Lu,Chen Lei,Chen Wen-Fang Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen that is extracted from leguminous plants, can bind to estrogen receptor and exert biological effects. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a novel membrane estrogen receptor, has been reported to be involved in the anti-inflammatory process. In the present study, using BV2 microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we evaluated the involvement of GPER in the anti-inflammatory effects of genistein against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia activation. METHODS:The anti-inflammatory effects of genistein were investigated in LPS-induced microglial activation in murine BV2 microglial cell line and primary microglial culture. Anti-inflammatory properties of genistein were determined by MTT, real time PCR, ELISA and western blot analysis. The pharmacological blockade and lentivirus-mediated siRNA knockdown of GPER were used to study the underlying mechanism. RESULTS:The results showed that genistein exerted inhibitory effects on LPS-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Pre-treatment with GPER antagonist G15 could significantly block the anti-inflammatory effects of genistein. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of genistein on LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways could also be blocked by G15. Lentivirus-mediated siRNA knockdown of GPER significantly inhibited the anti-inflammatory effects of genistein in BV2 cells. Further study revealed that genistein treatment could increase the gene and protein expressions of GPER in BV2 cells. CONCLUSION:Taken together, these data provide the first evidence that genistein exerts anti-inflammatory effects in microglial cells via GPER activation. These beneficial effects of genistein may represent a new strategy for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.03.039