Cell-ECM Interactions in Tumor Invasion.
He Xiuxiu,Lee Byoungkoo,Jiang Yi
Advances in experimental medicine and biology
The cancer cells obtain their invasion potential not only by genetic mutations, but also by changing their cellular biophysical and biomechanical features and adapting to the surrounding microenvironments. The extracellular matrix, as a crucial component of the tumor microenvironment, provides the mechanical support for the tissue, mediates the cell-microenvironment interactions, and plays a key role in cancer cell invasion. The biomechanics of the extracellular matrix, particularly collagen, have been extensively studied in the biomechanics community. Cell migration has also enjoyed much attention from both the experimental and modeling efforts. However, the detailed mechanistic understanding of tumor cell-ECM interactions, especially during cancer invasion, has been unclear. This chapter reviews the recent advances in the studies of ECM biomechanics, cell migration, and cell-ECM interactions in the context of cancer invasion.
A Complex and Evolutive Character: Two Face Aspects of ECM in Tumor Progression.
Sala Margaux,Ros Manon,Saltel Frédéric
Frontiers in oncology
Tumor microenvironment, including extracellular matrix (ECM) and stromal cells, is a key player during tumor development, from initiation, growth and progression to metastasis. During all of these steps, remodeling of matrix components occurs, changing its biochemical and physical properties. The global and basic cancer ECM model is that tumors are surrounded by activated stromal cells, that remodel physiological ECM to evolve into a stiffer and more crosslinked ECM than in normal conditions, thereby increasing invasive capacities of cancer cells. In this review, we show that this too simple model does not consider the complexity, specificity and heterogeneity of each organ and tumor. First, we describe the general ECM in context of cancer. Then, we go through five invasive and most frequent cancers from different origins (breast, liver, pancreas, colon, and skin), and show that each cancer has its own specific matrix, with different stromal cells, ECM components, biochemical properties and activated signaling pathways. Furthermore, in these five cancers, we describe the dual role of tumor ECM: as a protective barrier against tumor cell proliferation and invasion, and as a major player in tumor progression. Indeed, crosstalk between tumor and stromal cells induce changes in matrix organization by remodeling ECM through invadosome formation in order to degrade it, promoting tumor progression and cell invasion. To sum up, in this review, we highlight the specificities of matrix composition in five cancers and the necessity not to consider the ECM as one general and simple entity, but one complex, dynamic and specific entity for each cancer type and subtype.
In vitro cancer cell-ECM interactions inform in vivo cancer treatment.
Holle Andrew W,Young Jennifer L,Spatz Joachim P
Advanced drug delivery reviews
The general progression of cancer drug development involves in vitro testing followed by safety and efficacy evaluation in clinical trials. Due to the expense of bringing candidate drugs to trials, in vitro models of cancer cells and tumor biology are required to screen drugs. There are many examples of drugs exhibiting cytotoxic behavior in cancer cells in vitro but losing efficacy in vivo, and in many cases, this is the result of poorly understood chemoresistant effects conferred by the cancer microenvironment. To address this, improved methods for culturing cancer cells in biomimetic scaffolds have been developed; along the way, a great deal about the nature of cancer cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions has been discovered. These discoveries will continue to be leveraged both in the development of novel drugs targeting these interactions and in the fabrication of biomimetic substrates for efficient cancer drug screening in vitro.
Therapy Resistance, Cancer Stem Cells and ECM in Cancer: The Matrix Reloaded.
Kesh Kousik,Gupta Vineet K,Durden Brittany,Garrido Vanessa,Mateo-Victoriano Beatriz,Lavania Shweta P,Banerjee Sulagna
The extracellular matrix (ECM) has remained an enigmatic component of the tumor microenvironment. It drives metastasis via its interaction with the integrin signaling pathway, contributes to tumor progression and confers therapy resistance by providing a physical barrier around the tumor. The complexity of the ECM lies in its heterogeneous composition and complex glycosylation that can provide a support matrix as well as trigger oncogenic signaling pathways by interacting with the tumor cells. In this review, we attempt to dissect the role of the ECM in enriching for the treatment refractory cancer stem cell population and how it may be involved in regulating their metabolic needs. Additionally, we discuss how the ECM is instrumental in remodeling the tumor immune microenvironment and the potential ways to target this component in order to develop a viable therapy.
Metabolism during ECM Detachment: Achilles Heel of Cancer Cells?
Mason Joshua A,Hagel Kimberly R,Hawk Mark A,Schafer Zachary T
Trends in cancer
Integrin-mediated attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is required to combat the induction of programmed cell death in a variety of distinct cell types. If cells fail to maintain proper ECM attachment, they become subject to elimination via an apoptotic cell death program known as anoikis. However, anoikis inhibition is not sufficient to promote the long-term survival of ECM-detached cells. Several recent studies have unveiled the profound (anoikis-independent) impact of cell metabolism on the viability of ECM-detached cells. Thus, we posit that, during metastatic dissemination (when cancer cells are exposed to periods of ECM detachment), cancer cells must alter their metabolism in a fashion that promotes survival and ultimately contributes to metastatic outgrowth.
Non-collagenous ECM proteins in blood vessel morphogenesis and cancer.
Kostourou Vassiliki,Papalazarou Vassilis
Biochimica et biophysica acta
BACKGROUND:The extracellular matrix (ECM) is constituted by diverse composite structures, which determine the specific to each organ, histological architecture and provides cells with biological information, mechanical support and a scaffold for adhesion and migration. The pleiotropic effects of the ECM stem from the dynamic changes in its molecular composition and the ability to remodel in order to effectively regulate biological outcomes. Besides collagens, fibronectin and laminin are two major fiber-forming constituents of various ECM structures. SCOPE OF REVIEW:This review will focus on the properties and the biological functions of non-collagenous extracellular matrix especially on laminin and fibronectin that are currently emerging as important regulators of blood vessel formation and function in health and disease. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS:The ECM is a fundamental component of the microenvironment of blood vessels, with activities extending beyond providing a vascular scaffold; extremely versatile it directly or indirectly modulates all essential cellular functions crucial for angiogenesis, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation and lumen formation. Specifically, fibronectin and laminins play decisive roles in blood vessel morphogenesis both during embryonic development and in pathological conditions, such as cancer. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:Emerging evidence demonstrates the importance of ECM function during embryonic development, organ formation and tissue homeostasis. A wealth of data also illustrates the crucial role of the ECM in several human pathophysiological processes, including fibrosis, skeletal diseases, vascular pathologies and cancer. Notably, several ECM components have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for various diseases, including cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.