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    Insomnia is associated with increased mortality in patients with first-ever stroke: a 6-year follow-up in a Chinese cohort study. Li Li-Jun,Yang Yang,Guan Bo-Yuan,Chen Qi,Wang An-Xin,Wang Yong-Jun,Zhang Ning,Wang Chun-Xue Stroke and vascular neurology Objective:Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder among patients suffering from stroke. The association between insomnia and stroke mortality is less studied, particularly using the latest diagnostic criteria. The current study examined the relationship between insomnia and mortality among patients with first-evonal hazard models were used to calculate HRs for stroke er stroke in China. Methods:Patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases (stroke) were recruited from 56 hospitals in mainland China. Insomnia was defined as difficulty falling asleep, or difficulty staying asleep or waking up early, for at least two consecutive visits. Demographic data, medical history and clinical data were collected. Four follow-up visits occurred within the first year after stroke, and the last follow-up call was conducted 6 years later. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate HRs for stroke mortality. Results:Insomnia was reported by 38.4% (489/1273) of patients at baseline. During the 6 years of follow-up, after adjusting for all confounders, insomnia was found to be associated with increased mortality (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.48). Old age (HR=1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.10), stroke recurrence in the first year of follow-up (HR=2.53, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.31) and stroke survivors with hypertension (HR=1.62, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.53) had substantially higher risk of mortality. Conclusions:Besides old age, stroke recurrence in the first year of follow-up and hypertension, insomnia is associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with first-ever stroke in China. More studies about prompt and efficient interventions for insomnia are expected in the future. Trial registration number:rctn62169508. 10.1136/svn-2017-000136
    The role of sleep in recovery following ischemic stroke: A review of human and animal data. Duss Simone B,Seiler Andrea,Schmidt Markus H,Pace Marta,Adamantidis Antoine,Müri René M,Bassetti Claudio L Neurobiology of sleep and circadian rhythms Despite advancements in understanding the pathophysiology of stroke and the state of the art in acute management of afflicted patients as well as in subsequent neurorehabilitation training, stroke remains the most common neurological cause of long-term disability in adulthood. To enhance stroke patients' independence and well-being it is necessary, therefore, to consider and develop new therapeutic strategies and approaches. We postulate that sleep might play a pivotal role in neurorehabilitation following stroke. Over the last two decades compelling evidence for a major function of sleep in neuroplasticity and neural network reorganization underlying learning and memory has evolved. Training and learning of new motor skills and knowledge can modulate the characteristics of subsequent sleep, which additionally can improve memory performance. While healthy sleep appears to support neuroplasticity resulting in improved learning and memory, disturbed sleep following stroke in animals and humans can impair stroke outcome. In addition, sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome are frequent in stroke patients and associated with worse recovery outcomes. Studies investigating the evolution of post-stroke sleep changes suggest that these changes might also reflect neural network reorganization underlying functional recovery. Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence that pharmacological sleep promotion in rodents and treatment of sleep disorders in humans improves functional outcome following stroke. Taken together, there is accumulating evidence that sleep represents a "plasticity state" in the process of recovery following ischemic stroke. However, to test the key role of sleep and sleep disorders for stroke recovery and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, experimental research and large-scale prospective studies in humans are necessary. The effects of hospital conditions, such as adjusting light conditions according to the patients' sleep-wake rhythms, or sleep promoting drugs and non-invasive brain stimulation to promote neuronal plasticity and recovery following stroke requires further investigation. 10.1016/j.nbscr.2016.11.003
    Correlation analysis of sleep quality and youth ischemic stroke. Zhang Shunqing,Chang Cheng,Zhang Juan,Song Bo,Fang Hui,Xu YuMing Behavioural neurology OBJECTIVE:To study risk factors related to ischemic stroke (IS) in youth and the influence of sleep quality on youth ischemic stroke incidence. METHODS:223 patients aged 18 to 45 years who were admitted to Puyang People's Hospital from June 2011 to February 2013 with a first-ever ischemic stroke were selected as the research cases. 158 young people with a normal physical examination were selected as the control group. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was used to analyse the correlation between sleep quality and youth IS incidence. The U.S. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (MRS) scores were used to assess cases' state of illness and prognosis three months after IS. RESULTS:Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the association of these risk factors with youth IS incidence, from highest to lowest, was hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, smoking history, high homocysteine, the quality of sleep, family history of stroke, and alcoholism. Poor sleep quality ranked fifth among all risk factors and was positively correlated with poor prognosis for youth IS patients. CONCLUSION:The results of this study showed that sleep quality is an important factor in the pathogenesis and prognosis of youth IS. 10.1155/2014/246841
    Effect of acupuncture on insomnia following stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Cao Yan,Yin Xuan,Soto-Aguilar Francisca,Liu Yiping,Yin Ping,Wu Junyi,Zhu Bochang,Li Wentao,Lao Lixing,Xu Shifen Trials BACKGROUND:The incidence, mortality, and prevalence of stroke are high in China. Stroke is commonly associated with insomnia; both insomnia and stroke have been effectively treated with acupuncture for a long time. The aim of this proposed trial is to assess the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on insomnia following stroke. METHODS:This proposed study is a single-center, single-blinded (patient-assessor-blinded), parallel-group randomized controlled trial. We will randomly assign 60 participants with insomnia following stroke into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group will undergo traditional acupuncture that achieves the De-qi sensation, and the control group will receive sham acupuncture without needle insertion. The same acupoints (DU20, DU24, EX-HN3, EX-HN22, HT7, and SP6) will be used in both groups. Treatments will be given to all participants three times a week for the subsequent 4 weeks. The primary outcome will be the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The secondary outcomes will be: the Insomnia Severity Index; sleep efficacy, sleep awakenings, and total sleep time recorded via actigraphy; the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life score; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The use of estazolam will be permitted and regulated under certain conditions. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment commencement, 4 weeks after treatment commencement, and at the 8-week follow-up. DISCUSSION:This proposed study will contribute to expanding knowledge about acupuncture treatment for insomnia following stroke. This will be a high-quality randomized controlled trial with strict methodology and few design deficits. It will investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture as an alternative treatment for insomnia following stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry identifier: ChiCTR-IIC-16008382 . Registered on 28 April 2016. 10.1186/s13063-016-1670-0