Leucine regulates autophagy via acetylation of the mTORC1 component raptor.
Son Sung Min,Park So Jung,Stamatakou Eleanna,Vicinanza Mariella,Menzies Fiona M,Rubinsztein David C
Macroautophagy ("autophagy") is the main lysosomal catabolic process that becomes activated under nutrient-depleted conditions, like amino acid (AA) starvation. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a well-conserved negative regulator of autophagy. While leucine (Leu) is a critical mTORC1 regulator under AA-starved conditions, how Leu regulates autophagy is poorly understood. Here, we describe that in most cell types, including neurons, Leu negatively regulates autophagosome biogenesis via its metabolite, acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA). AcCoA inhibits autophagy by enhancing EP300-dependent acetylation of the mTORC1 component raptor, with consequent activation of mTORC1. Interestingly, in Leu deprivation conditions, the dominant effects on autophagy are mediated by decreased raptor acetylation causing mTORC1 inhibition, rather than by altered acetylation of other autophagy regulators. Thus, in most cell types we examined, Leu regulates autophagy via the impact of its metabolite AcCoA on mTORC1, suggesting that AcCoA and EP300 play pivotal roles in cell anabolism and catabolism.
Acetylation-regulated interaction between p53 and SET reveals a widespread regulatory mode.
Wang Donglai,Kon Ning,Lasso Gorka,Jiang Le,Leng Wenchuan,Zhu Wei-Guo,Qin Jun,Honig Barry,Gu Wei
Although lysine acetylation is now recognized as a general protein modification for both histones and non-histone proteins, the mechanisms of acetylation-mediated actions are not completely understood. Acetylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of p53 (also known as TP53) was an early example of non-histone protein acetylation and its precise role remains unclear. Lysine acetylation often creates binding sites for bromodomain-containing 'reader' proteins. Here we use a proteomic screen to identify the oncoprotein SET as a major cellular factor whose binding with p53 is dependent on CTD acetylation status. SET profoundly inhibits p53 transcriptional activity in unstressed cells, but SET-mediated repression is abolished by stress-induced acetylation of p53 CTD. Moreover, loss of the interaction with SET activates p53, resulting in tumour regression in mouse xenograft models. Notably, the acidic domain of SET acts as a 'reader' for the unacetylated CTD of p53 and this mechanism of acetylation-dependent regulation is widespread in nature. For example, acetylation of p53 also modulates its interactions with similar acidic domains found in other p53 regulators including VPRBP (also known as DCAF1), DAXX and PELP1 (refs. 7, 8, 9), and computational analysis of the proteome has identified numerous proteins with the potential to serve as acidic domain readers and lysine-rich ligands. Unlike bromodomain readers, which preferentially bind the acetylated forms of their cognate ligands, the acidic domain readers specifically recognize the unacetylated forms of their ligands. Finally, the acetylation-dependent regulation of p53 was further validated in vivo by using a knock-in mouse model expressing an acetylation-mimicking form of p53. These results reveal that acidic-domain-containing factors act as a class of acetylation-dependent regulators by targeting p53 and, potentially, other proteins.
Requirement for p62 acetylation in the aggregation of ubiquitylated proteins under nutrient stress.
You Zhiyuan,Jiang Wen-Xue,Qin Ling-Yun,Gong Zhou,Wan Wei,Li Jin,Wang Yusha,Zhang Hongtao,Peng Chao,Zhou Tianhua,Tang Chun,Liu Wei
Autophagy receptor p62/SQSTM1 promotes the assembly and removal of ubiquitylated proteins by forming p62 bodies and mediating their encapsulation in autophagosomes. Here we show that under nutrient-deficient conditions, cellular p62 specifically undergoes acetylation, which is required for the formation and subsequent autophagic clearance of p62 bodies. We identify K420 and K435 in the UBA domain as the main acetylation sites, and TIP60 and HDAC6 as the acetyltransferase and deacetylase. Mechanically, acetylation at both K420 and K435 sites enhances p62 binding to ubiquitin by disrupting UBA dimerization, while K435 acetylation also directly increases the UBA-ubiquitin affinity. Furthermore, we show that acetylation of p62 facilitates polyubiquitin chain-induced p62 phase separation. Our results suggest an essential role of p62 acetylation in the selective degradation of ubiquitylated proteins in cells under nutrient stress, by specifically regulating the assembly of p62 bodies.
p53 Acetylation: Regulation and Consequences.
Reed Sara M,Quelle Dawn E
Post-translational modifications of p53 are critical in modulating its tumor suppressive functions. Ubiquitylation, for example, plays a major role in dictating p53 stability, subcellular localization and transcriptional vs. non-transcriptional activities. Less is known about p53 acetylation. It has been shown to govern p53 transcriptional activity, selection of growth inhibitory vs. apoptotic gene targets, and biological outcomes in response to diverse cellular insults. Yet recent in vivo evidence from mouse models questions the importance of p53 acetylation (at least at certain sites) as well as canonical p53 functions (cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis) to tumor suppression. This review discusses the cumulative findings regarding p53 acetylation, with a focus on the acetyltransferases that modify p53 and the mechanisms regulating their activity. We also evaluate what is known regarding the influence of other post-translational modifications of p53 on its acetylation, and conclude with the current outlook on how p53 acetylation affects tumor suppression. Due to redundancies in p53 control and growing understanding that individual modifications largely fine-tune p53 activity rather than switch it on or off, many questions still remain about the physiological importance of p53 acetylation to its role in preventing cancer.
Acetylation of HDAC1 and degradation of SIRT1 form a positive feedback loop to regulate p53 acetylation during heat-shock stress.
Yang H,Yan B,Liao D,Huang S,Qiu Y
Cell death & disease
The tumor suppressor p53 is an essential transcription factor that sensitively regulates cellular responses to various stresses. Acetylation, a critically important posttranslational modification of p53, is induced in response to cellular stresses. P53 acetylation level strongly correlates with protein stability and activity. The steady-state level of p53 acetylation is balanced by dynamic acetylation and deacetylation. Despite the function of p53 acetylation being well studied, how the steady state of p53 acetylation level is regulated in response to cellular stresses remains unclear. In particular, the dynamic regulation of the deacetylase activities responsible for p53 deacetylation during cellular stress is unknown. In the current study, we investigated the dynamic regulation of HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1) and SIRT1 (sirtuin 1), two major enzymes for p53 deacetylation, during cell stress. We found that various cell stress events induce HDAC1 acetylation. The increased level of HDAC1 acetylation correlates with the level of p53 acetylation. Acetylated HDAC1 loses the ability to deacetylate p53. Cellular stresses also promote the decline of the SIRT1 protein in a proteasome-dependent pathway, which also results in the increase of p53 acetylation. Importantly, the decreased level of SIRT1 also contributes to the accumulation of HDAC1 acetylation as SIRT1 deacetylates HDAC1. Therefore, the increase of HDAC1 acetylation and reduced level of SIRT1 protein during cellular stress directly link to the induction of p53 acetylation. These results unveil the mechanism underlying the dynamic regulation of p53 acetylation during cell stress.
Functions and mechanisms of non-histone protein acetylation.
Narita Takeo,Weinert Brian T,Choudhary Chunaram
Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology
Nε-lysine acetylation was discovered more than half a century ago as a post-translational modification of histones and has been extensively studied in the context of transcription regulation. In the past decade, proteomic analyses have revealed that non-histone proteins are frequently acetylated and constitute a major portion of the acetylome in mammalian cells. Indeed, non-histone protein acetylation is involved in key cellular processes relevant to physiology and disease, such as gene transcription, DNA damage repair, cell division, signal transduction, protein folding, autophagy and metabolism. Acetylation affects protein functions through diverse mechanisms, including by regulating protein stability, enzymatic activity, subcellular localization and crosstalk with other post-translational modifications and by controlling protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. In this Review, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the scope, functional diversity and mechanisms of non-histone protein acetylation.
Acetylation-dependent regulation of Skp2 function.
Inuzuka Hiroyuki,Gao Daming,Finley Lydia W S,Yang Wen,Wan Lixin,Fukushima Hidefumi,Chin Y Rebecca,Zhai Bo,Shaik Shavali,Lau Alan W,Wang Zhiwei,Gygi Steven P,Nakayama Keiko,Teruya-Feldstein Julie,Toker Alex,Haigis Marcia C,Pandolfi Pier Paolo,Wei Wenyi
Aberrant Skp2 signaling has been implicated as a driving event in tumorigenesis. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive, cytoplasmic Skp2 correlates with more aggressive forms of breast and prostate cancers. Here, we report that Skp2 is acetylated by p300 at K68 and K71, which is a process that can be antagonized by the SIRT3 deacetylase. Inactivation of SIRT3 leads to elevated Skp2 acetylation, which leads to increased Skp2 stability through impairment of the Cdh1-mediated proteolysis pathway. As a result, Skp2 oncogenic function is increased, whereby cells expressing an acetylation-mimetic mutant display enhanced cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis in vivo. Moreover, acetylation of Skp2 in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) promotes its cytoplasmic retention, and cytoplasmic Skp2 enhances cellular migration through ubiquitination and destruction of E-cadherin. Thus, our study identifies an acetylation-dependent regulatory mechanism governing Skp2 oncogenic function and provides insight into how cytoplasmic Skp2 controls cellular migration.
Protein acetylation in metabolism - metabolites and cofactors.
Menzies Keir J,Zhang Hongbo,Katsyuba Elena,Auwerx Johan
Nature reviews. Endocrinology
Reversible acetylation was initially described as an epigenetic mechanism regulating DNA accessibility. Since then, this process has emerged as a controller of histone and nonhistone acetylation that integrates key physiological processes such as metabolism, circadian rhythm and cell cycle, along with gene regulation in various organisms. The widespread and reversible nature of acetylation also revitalized interest in the mechanisms that regulate lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and deacetylases (KDACs) in health and disease. Changes in protein or histone acetylation are especially relevant for many common diseases including obesity, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, as well as for some rare diseases such as mitochondrial diseases and lipodystrophies. In this Review, we examine the role of reversible acetylation in metabolic control and how changes in levels of metabolites or cofactors, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide, coenzyme A, acetyl coenzyme A, zinc and butyrate and/or β-hydroxybutyrate, directly alter KAT or KDAC activity to link energy status to adaptive cellular and organismal homeostasis.
Histone acetylation regulates intracellular pH.
McBrian Matthew A,Behbahan Iman Saramipoor,Ferrari Roberto,Su Trent,Huang Ta-Wei,Li Kunwu,Hong Candice S,Christofk Heather R,Vogelauer Maria,Seligson David B,Kurdistani Siavash K
Differences in global levels of histone acetylation occur in normal and cancer cells, although the reason why cells regulate these levels has been unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for histone acetylation in regulating intracellular pH (pH(i)). As pH(i) decreases, histones are globally deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and the released acetate anions are coexported with protons out of the cell by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), preventing further reductions in pH(i). Conversely, global histone acetylation increases as pH(i) rises, such as when resting cells are induced to proliferate. Inhibition of HDACs or MCTs decreases acetate export and lowers pH(i), particularly compromising pH(i) maintenance in acidic environments. Global deacetylation at low pH is reflected at a genomic level by decreased abundance and extensive redistribution of acetylation throughout the genome. Thus, acetylation of chromatin functions as a rheostat to regulate pH(i) with important implications for mechanism of action and therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors.