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    Structural mechanism for amino acid-dependent Rag GTPase nucleotide state switching by SLC38A9. Fromm Simon A,Lawrence Rosalie E,Hurley James H Nature structural & molecular biology The Rag GTPases (Rags) recruit mTORC1 to the lysosomal membrane in response to nutrients, where it is then activated in response to energy and growth factor availability. The lysosomal folliculin (FLCN) complex (LFC) consists of the inactive Rag dimer, the pentameric scaffold Ragulator, and the FLCN:FNIP2 (FLCN-interacting protein 2) GTPase activating protein (GAP) complex, and prevents Rag dimer activation during amino acid starvation. How the LFC is disassembled upon amino acid refeeding is an outstanding question. Here we show that the cytoplasmic tail of the human lysosomal solute carrier family 38 member 9 (SLC38A9) destabilizes the LFC and thereby triggers GAP activity of FLCN:FNIP2 toward RagC. We present the cryo-EM structures of Rags in complex with their lysosomal anchor complex Ragulator and the cytoplasmic tail of SLC38A9 in the pre- and post-GTP hydrolysis state of RagC, which explain how SLC38A9 destabilizes the LFC and so promotes Rag dimer activation. 10.1038/s41594-020-0490-9
    GATOR1-dependent recruitment of FLCN-FNIP to lysosomes coordinates Rag GTPase heterodimer nucleotide status in response to amino acids. Meng Jin,Ferguson Shawn M The Journal of cell biology Folliculin (FLCN) is a tumor suppressor that coordinates cellular responses to changes in amino acid availability via regulation of the Rag guanosine triphosphatases. FLCN is recruited to lysosomes during amino acid starvation, where it interacts with RagA/B as a heterodimeric complex with FLCN-interacting proteins (FNIPs). The FLCN-FNIP heterodimer also has GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity toward RagC/D. These properties raised two important questions. First, how is amino acid availability sensed to regulate lysosomal abundance of FLCN? Second, what is the relationship between FLCN lysosome localization, RagA/B interactions, and RagC/D GAP activity? In this study, we show that RagA/B nucleotide status determines the FLCN-FNIP1 recruitment to lysosomes. Starvation-induced FLCN-FNIP lysosome localization requires GAP activity toward Rags 1 (GATOR1), the GAP that converts RagA/B to the guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound state. This places FLCN-FNIP recruitment to lysosomes under the control of amino acid sensors that act upstream of GATOR1. By binding to RagA/B and acting on RagC/D, FLCN-FNIP can coordinate nucleotide status between Rag heterodimer subunits in response to changes in amino acid availability. 10.1083/jcb.201712177
    Structural basis for the docking of mTORC1 on the lysosomal surface. Rogala Kacper B,Gu Xin,Kedir Jibril F,Abu-Remaileh Monther,Bianchi Laura F,Bottino Alexia M S,Dueholm Rikke,Niehaus Anna,Overwijn Daan,Fils Ange-Célia Priso,Zhou Sherry X,Leary Daniel,Laqtom Nouf N,Brignole Edward J,Sabatini David M Science (New York, N.Y.) The mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) protein kinase regulates growth in response to nutrients and growth factors. Nutrients promote its translocation to the lysosomal surface, where its Raptor subunit interacts with the Rag guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-Ragulator complex. Nutrients switch the heterodimeric Rag GTPases among four different nucleotide-binding states, only one of which (RagA/B•GTP-RagC/D•GDP) permits mTORC1 association. We used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structure of the supercomplex of Raptor with Rag-Ragulator at a resolution of 3.2 angstroms. Our findings indicate that the Raptor α-solenoid directly detects the nucleotide state of RagA while the Raptor "claw" threads between the GTPase domains to detect that of RagC. Mutations that disrupted Rag-Raptor binding inhibited mTORC1 lysosomal localization and signaling. By comparison with a structure of mTORC1 bound to its activator Rheb, we developed a model of active mTORC1 docked on the lysosome. 10.1126/science.aay0166
    Ragulator and SLC38A9 activate the Rag GTPases through noncanonical GEF mechanisms. Shen Kuang,Sabatini David M Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) growth pathway detects nutrients through a variety of sensors and regulators that converge on the Rag GTPases, which form heterodimers consisting of RagA or RagB tightly bound to RagC or RagD and control the subcellular localization of mTORC1. The Rag heterodimer uses a unique "locking" mechanism to stabilize its active (RagA-RagC) or inactive (RagA-RagC) nucleotide states. The Ragulator complex tethers the Rag heterodimer to the lysosomal surface, and the SLC38A9 transmembrane protein is a lysosomal arginine sensor that upon activation stimulates mTORC1 activity through the Rag GTPases. How Ragulator and SLC38A9 control the nucleotide loading state of the Rag GTPases remains incompletely understood. Here we find that Ragulator and SLC38A9 are each unique guanine exchange factors (GEFs) that collectively push the Rag GTPases toward the active state. Ragulator triggers GTP release from RagC, thus resolving the locked inactivated state of the Rag GTPases. Upon arginine binding, SLC38A9 converts RagA from the GDP- to the GTP-loaded state, and therefore activates the Rag GTPase heterodimer. Altogether, Ragulator and SLC38A9 act on the Rag GTPases to activate the mTORC1 pathway in response to nutrient sufficiency. 10.1073/pnas.1811727115
    Amino Acids Stimulate TORC1 through Lst4-Lst7, a GTPase-Activating Protein Complex for the Rag Family GTPase Gtr2. Péli-Gulli Marie-Pierre,Sardu Alessandro,Panchaud Nicolas,Raucci Serena,De Virgilio Claudio Cell reports Rag GTPases assemble into heterodimeric complexes consisting of RagA or RagB and RagC or RagD in higher eukaryotes, or Gtr1 and Gtr2 in yeast, to relay amino acid signals toward the growth-regulating target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). The TORC1-stimulating state of Rag GTPase heterodimers, containing GTP- and GDP-loaded RagA/B/Gtr1 and RagC/D/Gtr2, respectively, is maintained in part by the FNIP-Folliculin RagC/D GAP complex in mammalian cells. Here, we report the existence of a similar Lst4-Lst7 complex in yeast that functions as a GAP for Gtr2 and that clusters at the vacuolar membrane in amino acid-starved cells. Refeeding of amino acids, such as glutamine, stimulated the Lst4-Lst7 complex to transiently bind and act on Gtr2, thereby entailing TORC1 activation and Lst4-Lst7 dispersal from the vacuolar membrane. Given the remarkable functional conservation of the RagC/D/Gtr2 GAP complexes, our findings could be relevant for understanding the glutamine addiction of mTORC1-dependent cancers. 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.08.059
    Architecture of human Rag GTPase heterodimers and their complex with mTORC1. Anandapadamanaban Madhanagopal,Masson Glenn R,Perisic Olga,Berndt Alex,Kaufman Jonathan,Johnson Chris M,Santhanam Balaji,Rogala Kacper B,Sabatini David M,Williams Roger L Science (New York, N.Y.) The Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) recruit the master kinase mTORC1 to lysosomes to regulate cell growth and proliferation in response to amino acid availability. The nucleotide state of Rag heterodimers is critical for their association with mTORC1. Our cryo-electron microscopy structure of RagA/RagC in complex with mTORC1 shows the details of RagA/RagC binding to the RAPTOR subunit of mTORC1 and explains why only the RagA/RagC nucleotide state binds mTORC1. Previous kinetic studies suggested that GTP binding to one Rag locks the heterodimer to prevent GTP binding to the other. Our crystal structures and dynamics of RagA/RagC show the mechanism for this locking and explain how oncogenic hotspot mutations disrupt this process. In contrast to allosteric activation by RHEB, Rag heterodimer binding does not change mTORC1 conformation and activates mTORC1 by targeting it to lysosomes. 10.1126/science.aax3939
    The folliculin tumor suppressor is a GAP for the RagC/D GTPases that signal amino acid levels to mTORC1. Tsun Zhi-Yang,Bar-Peled Liron,Chantranupong Lynne,Zoncu Roberto,Wang Tim,Kim Choah,Spooner Eric,Sabatini David M Molecular cell The mTORC1 kinase is a master growth regulator that senses numerous environmental cues, including amino acids. The Rag GTPases interact with mTORC1 and signal amino acid sufficiency by promoting the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface, its site of activation. The Rags are unusual GTPases in that they function as obligate heterodimers, which consist of RagA or B bound to RagC or D. While the loading of RagA/B with GTP initiates amino acid signaling to mTORC1, the role of RagC/D is unknown. Here, we show that RagC/D is a key regulator of the interaction of mTORC1 with the Rag heterodimer and that, unexpectedly, RagC/D must be GDP bound for the interaction to occur. We identify FLCN and its binding partners, FNIP1/2, as Rag-interacting proteins with GAP activity for RagC/D, but not RagA/B. Thus, we reveal a role for RagC/D in mTORC1 activation and a molecular function for the FLCN tumor suppressor. 10.1016/j.molcel.2013.09.016
    RagC phosphorylation autoregulates mTOR complex 1. Yang Guang,Humphrey Sean J,Murashige Danielle S,Francis Deanne,Wang Qiao-Ping,Cooke Kristen C,Neely G Gregory,James David E The EMBO journal The mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism in response to diverse stimuli. Two major parallel pathways are implicated in mTORC1 regulation including a growth factor-responsive pathway mediated via TSC2/Rheb and an amino acid-responsive pathway mediated via the Rag GTPases. Here, we identify and characterize three highly conserved growth factor-responsive phosphorylation sites on RagC, a component of the Rag heterodimer, implicating cross talk between amino acid and growth factor-mediated regulation of mTORC1. We find that RagC phosphorylation is associated with destabilization of mTORC1 and is essential for both growth factor and amino acid-induced mTORC1 activation. Functionally, RagC phosphorylation suppresses starvation-induced autophagy, and genetic studies in reveal that RagC phosphorylation plays an essential role in regulation of cell growth. Finally, we identify mTORC1 as the upstream kinase of RagC on S21. Our data highlight the importance of RagC phosphorylation in its function and identify a previously unappreciated auto-regulatory mechanism of mTORC1 activity. 10.15252/embj.201899548