The Role of Estrogen Receptors in Cardiovascular Disease.
Aryan Laila,Younessi David,Zargari Michael,Banerjee Somanshu,Agopian Jacqueline,Rahman Shadie,Borna Reza,Ruffenach Gregoire,Umar Soban,Eghbali Mansoureh
International journal of molecular sciences
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally. More than 17 million people die worldwide from CVD per year. There is considerable evidence suggesting that estrogen modulates cardiovascular physiology and function in both health and disease, and that it could potentially serve as a cardioprotective agent. The effects of estrogen on cardiovascular function are mediated by nuclear and membrane estrogen receptors (ERs), including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), and G-protein-coupled ER (GPR30 or GPER). Receptor binding in turn confers pleiotropic effects through both genomic and non-genomic signaling to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis. Each ER has been implicated in multiple pre-clinical cardiovascular disease models. This review will discuss current reports on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the ERs in regulating vascular pathology, with a special emphasis on hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and atherosclerosis, as well as in regulating cardiac pathology, with a particular emphasis on ischemia/reperfusion injury, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Sex Differences in Diabetic Kidney Disease.
Mayo Clinic proceedings
While the global prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is similar in men and women, the consequences of diabetes on associated end-organ complications, including diabetic kidney disease appear to be more sex-specific. Particularly, women with diabetes have higher mortality rates for diabetes-related deaths, and higher prevalence of diabetic kidney disease risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and dyslipidemia. However, the evidence for the impact of sex on diabetic kidney disease prevalence and disease progression is limited and inconsistent. Although most studies agree that the protective effect of the female sex against the development of kidney disease is diminished in the setting of diabetes, the reasons for this observation are unclear. Whether or not sex differences exist in the risk of diabetic kidney disease is also unclear, with studies reporting either higher risk in men, women, or no sex differences. Despite the remaining controversies, some of the factors that associate with sex differences in the risk of diabetic kidney disease are age at onset, and type and duration of diabetes. There is growing appreciation of the importance of sex hormones in the regulation of renal function, with estrogens generally considered to be renoprotective. Although some progress has been made towards better understanding of the mechanisms by which sex hormones play a role in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease, the translational potential of this knowledge is still underappreciated. A better understanding of sex differences in diabetic kidney disease may provide basis for personalized and sex-specific treatment of diabetic kidney disease.